The Effect Of Work Family Conflict Toward Work Family Enrichment


New education system has been created by government to replace the old system that known as School-Based Assessment in place of exam-oriented education system. With this system, it is believed that each student will receive a balanced education in physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual. High quality and performance of labor force in the organization are depending on Human Resource Management (HRM) practices. Thus, it is crucial for an organization to ensure that working environment of employees are balance. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of work family conflict (WFC) on work family enrichment (WFE). Unit of analysis for this study is focusing on the teachers among cluster school in state of Pahang. The study adopted the stratified sampling technique. The finding of this study demonstrated that the factor loading of each item is more than 0.60, average variance extracted (AVE) is above 0.50, composite reliability (CR) is above 0.70 and Cronbach’s Alpha is above 0.60. Based on the results, the effect of behaviour on work family enrichment is negatively significant with t-value 2.581. However, the other two dimensions which is strain and time are not significant with t-value 0.631 and 0.383 respectively. Hence, it showed that, employee behaviour affected the enrichment in the organization.

Keywords: Work family conflictwork family enrichmentpartial least square


Education system in Malaysia is constantly change and innovate since 1957. In order to improve the strengths and weaknesses of the present system, the education system need to be reformed. The Malaysian government had assured that 15 years to come, Malaysia will rank in the top of one third category in the world’s best education (Najib, 2013). In meeting up this inspiration, the government has launched numbers of educational reforms and innovations. National Development Policy is one of the main influencer for immediate and long term education strategies and reforms in Malaysia. The development of new National Education Blueprint in 2011, an inclusive analysis of Malaysia education system had been launched by the ministry of education (The Star, 2012). Among of the initiatives are; the allocation of RM54.6 billion or 21% of the total allocation in 2014 for education (Najib, 2013); introduction of Vision 2020 (Mahathir, 1991); implementation of National Higher Education Strategic Plan 2020 (Sirat, 2010), and initiation of The Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 (Najib, 2013). Hence, as a preparation for 21st century, it is important to increase the education level and policy among public and parental to align with the international standard.

Problem Statement

This study attempted to survey teacher’s feedback in the process of adapting to a new system in the field of education as a whole. A transformation from exam-oriented system to a system of school-based assessment. As the application of this system is new, there are some changes that need to be addressed by teacher in balancing and maintaining school performance and work family enrichment at the same time. To get along with the system, teachers all over Malaysia are facing a culture shock because they are getting a lot of workloads. Since teachers are receiving lack of support and it is thus indirectly affects the quality of daily life and their work outcomes (Darling-Hammond, 1997).

After the implementation of new education system, many incidents of violence and stress appear among teachers. The incidents of violence and stress among teacher or employee will increase the level of conflict that associated to the working environment, household and employee enhancement in the organization. The painful fact with teachers is that, Penilaian Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS) or School-Based Assessment (SBA) evaluation wrapped with a massive administrative and clerical responsibilities in the method of reporting students’ progress (Kulasagaran, 2014) and still posturing major problems for teachers even though this system is implemented for three years now (Yue-Yi, 2016).

Among the issues associated with this system are a composite file management includes student development (FPM), Transit Records and recording student achievement through PBS Management System (SPPBS). Other than that, the implementation of online system is actual tough in term of admission and consuming of time and the performance of Standards Document (DSP) that cause teachers tied to the number of descriptors statement (Karen & Jeannette, 2014). Based on the issues, the problem identified in this study is how the issues will influence the teacher to change from normal situation and shift to heavy situation because of the implementation of new system. From that problem, it is important to study the linked between conflict on enhancement of employee within the organization. Examines the evolving effect faced by teachers in terms of time, strain and behaviour of a teacher in their daily work as well as changes to the work family enrichment.

Research Questions

  • What is the effect of time based conflict on work family enrichment among school teacher?

  • What is the effect of strain based conflict on work family enrichment among school teacher?

  • What is the effect of behaviour conflict on work family enrichment among school teacher?

Purpose of the Study

Based on observation and reading, is it seen that with the implementation of the new system, many teachers experience with a very heavy workload and their burden should be supported, so that they will have a balance life. Therefore, the relationships between these factors become a key policy to see how teachers will adapt on the implementation of the new system. Undoubtedly, teachers play fundamental role in education and their contribution is valuable in the community (Pour, Rahmani, & Qureshi, 2014). Teacher working structure and conditions are currently changing significantly (Ballet & Kelchtermans, 2009).

Research Methods

This study was conducted in Pahang which is east region of Malaysia and the involvement of 163 respondents from five different cluster school. Cluster school was a selected as a excellent school based on their achievement in academic. Stratified random sampling was adopted in the process of selection of samples for this study. Through this technique, the population is divided into strata, and in each stratum, to select the respondent, simple random sampling was used. The questionnaire design for this study was separated into three different segments (A, B, and C). First part of this study, the question were asked about their demographic information. Meanwhile, questions in the second section are focusing on work family conflict and third section dependent variable which is work family enrichment.


Through this study, the result demonstrate to answer a research question and also attempted to answer the research objective as well as proving the research hypothesis. Partial least square- structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) software was employed for data analysis.

Construct validity.

Through construct validity, it is important to affirm that the measures for this study fit the theories through the result obtained by the analysis designed (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010). There are two major criteria to analyses the construct validity which is convergent and discriminants validity. For convergent validity, it is important to look at the representative loading to evaluate if there are issues with a specific item. Firstly, it important to measure loadings and cross loadings value. Based on Table 01 , it utilized a cut-off loading value at 0.5 as a significan (Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2010). Questions with higher loading value more than 0.5 will be respected to be having huge cross loadings. Based on Table 01 , each items measuring a specific construct are highly loading value compared to other construct.

Table 1 -
See Full Size >

Convergent validity.

Table 02 represent a convergent validity that measure the important criteria which is factor loading, (CR) and (AVE) as endorsed by (Hair et al., 2010). Factor Loading for all the items need to exceed 0.5 as endorsed by (Hair et al., 2010). The minimum required cut-off level of 0.50, and for this study, all the items was exceeded the requirement (Hair, Hult, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2014). The recommended value for CR must exceed 0.70 (Hair et al., 2010). CR for behaviour, strain, time and enrichment value is 0.866 to 0.957. The recommended value of AVE for each construct must exceed 0.50 to be valid (Barclay, Thompson, & Higgins, 1995). The AVE for behaviour, strain, time and work family enrichment was 0.638, 0.531, 0.605, and 0.554 respectively. Therefore, all AVE value are accepted in this study.

Table 2 -
See Full Size >

Discriminant validity.

In discriminant validity, all the construct was assess by analyses the correlation between construct of possibly overlapping construct. It is important for each construct to load more strongly on their own construct (Compeau, Higgins, & Huff, 1999). Table 03 demonstrated that, the bold value representing the square root of the AVEs. Therefore, the bold value all the construct are greater compared with other value in their respective row and column, and its representing discriminant validity has been achieved (Johnston, Probst & Wolfe, 2013).

Table 3 -
See Full Size >

Cronbach’s alpha.

For reliability, the recommended value for the (CR) and Cronbach Alpha must more than advised value of 0.70 (Hair et al., 2010; Nunnally, 1978). The finding of this study represent the composite reliability of 0.866 to 0.957 and it exceed the threshold. Hence, the measurement of this study are acceptable.

Path coefficient.

Table 04 below shows the path coefficient of each variables. Based on the result, recruitment and selection are the factor that effect the corruption risk with the beta value of 0.454, internal control policy and corruption risk 0.194 and training and development 0.149. When the path coefficient is positive, indicating a positive influence; when is a negative value indicating the negative influence (Huang, Wang, Wu, & Wang, 2013).

Table 4 -
See Full Size >

Hypothesis testing.

Next, this study conducts the bootstrapping analysis to test the three hypotheses generated. Figure 01 and Table 05 present the results. The R2 value was 0.111 suggesting that 11.1% of the variance. A close look shows that behaviour was negatively related to work family enrichment (b = -0.299, p<0.01). However, based on the bootstrapping testing, the variable of strain and time are nor significant. Thus, the results indicated that the variable of behaviour were supported and the variables of strain and time was not supported.

Table 5 -
See Full Size >

Results indicated that conflict is negatively related to enrichment (Michel, & Michel 2012), but in the same direction of domains: from work to family and from family to work. Based on the previous research, Greenhaus and Powell (2006) concluded that work family enrichment and work family conflict are negatively related in some instances, for example, when a resource gained in a family role is applied unsuccessfully to work and the relationship will become not related in other instances when a resource gained in family is not applied to work.

Figure 1: Structural model
Structural model
See Full Size >


Finding indicated that behaviour have a negative significant effect on work family enrichment. Negative relationship means, when one variable increase, the other variables will decrease. For example, in this study, when family conflict increase, it will influence the process of enrichment in term of family or work itself. Generally, this study showed the negative relationship between both variables, but two dimension of work family conflict, which is strain and time, based conflict showed that, there is no relationship between both variables. Therefore, it can be concluded that time and strain will have no impact to enrichment of teacher.


  1. Ballet, K., & Kelchtermans, G. (2009). Struggling with workload: Primary teachers’ experience of intensification. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(8), 1150–1157.
  2. Barclay, D., Thompson, R., & Higgins, C. (1995). The partial least squares (pls) approach to causal modeling: Personal computer adoption and use an illustration, Technology Studies, 2(2), 285–309.
  3. Compeau, D., Higgins, C. A., & Huff, S. (1999). Social cognitive theory and individual reactions to computing technology: A longitudinal study. MIS Quarterly, 23(2), 145–158.
  4. Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that work. Jossey-Bass Education Series.
  5. Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 72-92.
  6. Hair, J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson Education Inc.
  7. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Prentice Hall.
  8. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). SAGE.
  9. Huang, C. C., Wang, Y. M., Wu, T. W., & Wang, P. A. (2013). An empirical analysis of the antecedents and performance consequences of using the moodle platform. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 3(2), 217–221.
  10. Johnston, L., Probst, H. A., & Wolfe, K. (2013). Green technologies and business practices: An it approach. Information science reference, 208–225. 10.4018/978-1-4666-1972-2.ch013
  11. Karen, C., & Jeannette, G. (2014). Problems being resolved.
  12. Kulasagaran. (2014). Kl not among 50 best student cities.
  13. Michel, R. D. J., & Michel, C. E. J. (2012). Faculty satisfaction and work-family enrichment: The moderating effect of human resource flexibility. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 5168-5172.
  14. Najib, R. (2013). Malaysia Education Blue-Print.
  15. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  16. Pour, H. Z., Rahmani, M. N., & Qureshi, A. (2014). The study of relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction of high school teachers in Bandar Abbas. Journal of Life Sciences Research, 2(1), 118–124.
  17. Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (5th ed.). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  18. Sirat, M. Bin. (2010). Strategic planning directions of Malaysia’s higher education: university autonomy in the midst of political uncertainties. Higher Education, 59(4), 461–473.
  19. The Star. (2012). Malaysia launches education blueprint.
  20. Yue-Yi, H. (2016). From drills to skills? Cultivating critical thinking, creativity, communication, and collaboration through Malaysian schools: Executive Summary.

Copyright information

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

About this article

Publication Date

31 July 2018

eBook ISBN



Future Academy



Print ISBN (optional)


Edition Number

1st Edition




Business, innovation, sustainability, environment, green business, environmental issues, industry, industrial studies

Cite this article as:

Mohamad, M., Ishak, M. S., Hanapiyah, Z. M., & Hanafi, W. N. W. (2018). The Effect Of Work Family Conflict Toward Work Family Enrichment. In N. Nadiah Ahmad, N. Raida Abd Rahman, E. Esa, F. Hanim Abdul Rauf, & W. Farhah (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Sustainability Perspectives: Engaging Enviromental, Cultural, Economic and Social Concerns, vol 44. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 952-959). Future Academy.