Education And Quality Of Life: Domestic And International Experience

Abstract

The quality of life is a complicated and many-sided concept, meaning qualitative criteria defined in terms of wealth being and standard of living for an individual, collective or society, experienced at a certain level of the productive forces development. The quality of life can be considered in a narrow and broad sense. In a narrow perspective it implies the quality of labour, the labour conditions, employees’ satisfaction and social significance. In the broad sense it encompasses the concept of education and requires defining and deep understanding of the current state of education, its organization and affordability in the national context of in this or that country. In this paper the focus is on education as one of the major assets that contributes tremendously to increase of human equity, growth of personality, the individual’s professional development, which contributes effectively to an enhanced standard of living and quality of life not only for an individual but for the whole country. It is important to consider education as a system, including various types of educational institutions, levels of education, and their organizational features. In this paper we consider education systems which occur in Russia, Germany, Britain, France, and China with respect to the influence of education on their citizens’ quality of life. The criteria for the comparison are government support, the length of the studying period, the list and number of subjects in primary and secondary schools, the types of educational levels and the intensity of studies.

Keywords: Education systemeducation indexquality-of-life indexnational context

Introduction

One of the major assets that have a significant impact on the quality of life in modern society is education. Education is one of the most important systems of the social sphere of the state, providing systematic knowledge, skills and competences for their effective use in professional activities. In fact, this is an investment in the development of human capital (Vlasuk, 2011).

The quality of life is a complex multi-level socio-economic concept. Its study is legitimate in the narrow and broad sense of the word. At the heart of the quality of life in the narrow sense, in our opinion, are the conditions in which the labour process is accomplished, the staff's satisfaction with work, and its effectiveness. Naturally, the higher the quality of labour and its effectiveness are the better should be the quality of life. However, this legitimate statement from the theoretical point of view, in practice it is not always observed (Obdalova & Logan, 2014).

The quality of life in the broad sense of the word implies the allocation of certain blocks:

  • the cost of living;

  • the level of organization of production and labour, its technical equipment;

  • quality of labour resources and level of employment, education system;

  • the ratio of working and free time, the effectiveness of its use;

  • the health of the nation, both physical and spiritual, life expectancy;

  • living conditions (labour, life and leisure) from the point of view of the economy and the degree of social security, respect for human rights and freedoms, the state of the social environment.

All these blocks are interrelated and interdependent. Although each of them is the subject of a special in-depth study (Dobrusina, 2013).

This article attempts to examine the educational systems in Russia, in three developed countries of Western Europe (Germany, England, France), and in China in the context of the impact of education on the quality of life of the citizens. The indicators for comparison are the duration of education, the list of subjects in primary and secondary schools, types of educational institutions, accessibility, and intensity of employment.

Problem Statement

Education systems are, by nature, utterly complex and multifaceted. Education has distinctive characteristics in different countries of the world. In order to assess the impact of education on the quality of life, we will examine major characteristic features of the education systems in Russia, in the three developed countries of Western Europe (Germany, Britain, France), and in China.

Characteristics of education system in Russia

In accordance with the federal law of the Russian Federation No. 273-FZ "On Education in the Russian Federation" (Federal Law № 273-FL, 2012), general educational programs are aimed at solving the tasks of forming a common culture of the individual, adapting to life in society, creating the basis for conscious choice, and development of professional educational programs. At the moment, the Russian Federation occupies 34th place in the world in terms of education level and 50th place in terms of quality of life (Education Index, 2016 & Quality of Life Index for Country, 2017).

General educational programs include programs of preschool education, primary general education, basic general education, and secondary (complete) general education. General educational programs are implemented in pre-school institutions, primary general, secondary (complete) general educational institutions, including special ones (institutions for orphans and children left without parental care) (Federal Law № 273-FL, 2012).

General educational institutions are represented mainly by state general educational schools, as well as by elite institutions - gymnasiums and lyceums.

The secondary school has three stages:

1st stage - primary school (4 years);

2 stage - the main school (5 years);

3 stage - secondary school (2 years).

For the upbringing of pre-school aged children, the protection and strengthening of their physical and mental health, the development of their individual abilities and necessary positive behavioural interventions to help their families, there operates a network of pre-school educational institutions (kindergarten, day nursery, progymnasium, development centre, etc.).

Primary general education is carried out in primary school (grades 1-4), which is designed to ensure the overall development of the child's personality, the ability and desire of the pupil to learn. Educational subjects in the primary school are of an integrated nature and should form in the younger schoolchildren an initial idea of nature, society, man, and his work.

The basic general education is carried out in the main school (grades 5-9), which should lay a solid foundation for the general educational development necessary for the school leaver to continue education and fully integrate into the society. In addition to the compulsory subjects elective and optional courses, and a system of extracurricular activities are introduced. In the main school level training can be carried out through multilevel programs. The main school is compulsory. Its graduates can continue their education in secondary schools or vocational schools of various types and profiles, as well as in evening and correspondence general secondary schools.

Secondary (complete) general education is provided in the senior classes (10-11 grades) of the general educational school or in the primary and secondary vocational schools. It is provided on the basis of broad and deep differentiation. To this end, the curriculum of this level includes, along with the mandatory subjects, some subjects chosen by the students themselves, and the teaching profiles (humanitarian, science, socioeconomic, technical and technological, etc.) are introduced.

General educational institutions, together with enterprises, can conduct vocational training as additional educational services, provided there is an appropriate permit for the specified type of activity (license). Initial vocational training is conducted only with the consent of the learners and their parents (Belotserkovsky, 2011).

For learners with developmental disabilities special educational institutions (classes, correctional groups) are created, providing their treatment, education and training, social adaptation and integration into the society. Children and adolescents are sent to such educational institutions by educational management bodies only with the consent of their parents (or their substitutes) and on the conclusion of psychological, methodological and pedagogical examination.

Educational institutions in their organizational and legal forms can be state, municipal, and non-state (private or belonging to public and religious organizations). The activities of state, municipal educational institutions are regulated by model provisions on the appropriate types and sort of educational institutions approved by the Government of the Russian Federation and the statutes drawn up on their basis. For non-state educational institutions, the model provisions perform advisory functions.

Levels (or, as they say, stages) of higher education are defined in Russia by the article adopted in 1996 by the Federal Law "On Higher Professional and Post-Graduate Education". In accordance with it, higher education includes three stages:

- the first stage: incomplete higher education with a period of 2 years,

- the second stage: the basic higher (bachelor's) with the term of training of 4 years,

- the third stage - with it the situation is more complicated: it includes the former model - a "graduate with specialist degree" with the training period of 5 years and a new one - "master" with the training period of 2 years.

Assessing the education system in Russia, it should be noted that its gradual reform aimed at joining the Bologna Declaration has yielded tangible benefits. However, its radical restructuring has been complicated, painful, and deeply contradictory. Real achievements in the field of modernization of the education system do not cancel serious recurring problems (Nabokov & Kravtsova, 2015). In particular, the desire to actively use the European experience leads to ignoring the national traditions. We must not forget that the mechanical transfer of the borrowed models leads to negative consequences.

Characteristics of education system in Germany

Germany is among the five best countries in terms of education in the world, ranking seventh. As far as the quality of life it is even higher ranking the country at 3d place (Education Index, 2016, Quality of Life Index for Country, 2017). The education system in Germany consists of primary, secondary, and higher education levels. At all stages of this structure, both public and private educational institutions are represented.

Primary school lasts from ages 6 to 10 (or up to 12 in Berlin and Brandenburg). Children learn to read, count, write, and study natural history. Secondary education comprises ages from 10 to 19. There are several types of secondary schools. Which school is optimal for the student is decided in accordance with the school's recommendation, the parents’ desire, the level of school marks, and the results of admission examinations.

Table 1 -
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Higher education in Germany is free for both Germans and foreign students. One of the basic principles of the organization of higher education in Germany - "academic freedom" - has a variety of consequences and manifestations. Not only German universities themselves are autonomous institutions, but every member of the university community is given freedom and independence. In Germany, there is no rigid system of education. On the contrary, every student of a German university, in general, is left to himself, which gives a certain freedom of choice and action, but also requires high level of responsibility and self-discipline. A student at a German university does not attend classes with his "fellow students" (there is no such thing in Germany at all), but he must, having chosen a certain specialty and the corresponding curriculum, organize his studies and time in accordance with the general requirements for students of the chosen program. You can sign up for lectures and seminars more or less randomly, choose time for internships and practice, find time for part-time work, etc. Most students do not fit into the standard period of study. The average length of study at a German higher education institution is five years (Altbach, 2015).

The academic year begins in the middle of October and consists of two semesters. At the end of each term, the student collects special certificates of those courses and lectures that he listened to. If he received a certain amount, he can apply for the exam.

Enrolments in universities occur twice a year: in spring, before the summer semester, and in autumn, before the winter semester. Before admission to higher educational institutions, in which the recruitment on a competitive basis is accepted, applicants can be trained on paid preparatory courses. The results of the training during the semester are expressed in credits points, which are awarded to the student after each session.

There are several types of universities in Germany:

  • universities;

  • special institutions (medical, pedagogical, etc.);

  • higher schools of art and music;

  • higher Schools of Applied Sciences;

  • professional academies.

The university course is divided into two stages: basic (3-4 semesters), which results in the assignment of a degree of a licentiate, and the main (4-6 semesters), which results in the award of a master's degree (students of technical specialties receive a diploma of a specialist instead of this degree). In addition to completing the basic course at the university, the graduate must defend his diploma paper or thesis. The state diploma issued by universities and other relevant higher educational institutions of Germany entitles them to work in professions requiring higher education. After receiving a state diploma and a master's degree, graduates of German universities can take an exam or defend a thesis for a doctorate. This degree can only be obtained by those students who have had teaching practice and passed preliminary qualification examinations.

Huge popularity among German and foreign students is enjoyed not only by universities, but also by higher schools. Here students undergo training in a shortened time frame (3-4 years) and get knowledge in engineering, economics and management, agriculture, computer specialties. Unlike universities and institutes, these institutions do not have the right to award doctoral degrees. After graduation, the academic degree Diplomgrad (level 2) is awarded, i.е. Diploma of Engineering.

Professional academies provide education at the third level. Here, education is combined with practical training in production companies. At the end of the course, students receive the diploma required for most occupations in business and industry (levels 2 and 3). Students study and simultaneously work in the field of the chosen specialty. They get a degree at the Bachelor's level. Training lasts 3 years, 6 semesters (2 years - basic training + 1 year - advanced training).

Consequently, the education system in Germany is topical and relevant as ever and differs from education systems in other countries by pursuing the principle of "academic freedom" and providing extremely high variability of education.

Characteristics of education system in Britain

The level of education in Britain is quite high - 10th in the world by the index of the level of education, but the standard of living is a bit lower (16th place) (Education Index, 2016, Quality of Life Index for Country, 2017).

In the school system of England, there are the following types of schools:

  • Unified schools, where the training is conducted according to a standard program.

  • Grammar schools - the main goal of education is to prepare for admission to the university.

  • Modern schools - the goal of education is to obtain practical knowledge for professional qualifications.

At the age of 5, the child is enrolled in an elementary school, where he studies up to 11 years. In the process of education, children take an intermediate exam to control the level of acquired knowledge. Until eleven years old, children study three subjects - mother tongue, the basics of mathematics, and one by choice.

With the transition to secondary school, one more course of exact science and additional subjects are added to the existing three disciplines:

  • History.

  • Geography.

  • The fundamentals of religion and art.

  • Music.

  • Additional language (GOV.UK., 2017).

At the end of the secondary school at the age of sixteen, students take a compulsory final examination and receive a diploma of secondary education. However, it does not give the graduate the right to enter higher education institutions. For admission to the universities of the country it is necessary to have a certificate of "A level" (A-Level). In order to obtain this certificate, teenagers are trained in the so-called "sixth form" (sixform). The training lasts two years, during which the selected 4-6 subjects are thoroughly studied. At the end of the course an exam is given, which gives the right to receive further higher education.

The academic year in English schools is divided into terms. On Easter and Christmas there is a two-week vacation. Summer holidays last six weeks. In the middle of each term there is a one-week break.

There are many schools in England for children with mental or physical disabilities. The curriculum in them is much simpler and takes into account the characteristics of the pupils. The learning process includes special physiotherapy and work with a psychologist.

Private schools in England have different levels of education than public schools. According to statistics, the graduate of a private school has more chances to enter the university. This is explained by the large number of subjects studied, the best teaching staff and a stronger material base. The system of school education in the UK is characterized by the strictest discipline - students can be expelled for poor academic performance and skipping classes.

One of the distinguishing characteristics of the system of higher education in Britain is its democratic character. In the country there are many different training courses, among which you can always choose the most suitable or if you want - change the list of the selected subjects (Chicherina & Tolkacheva, 2017; Simpson et al., 2014).

The system of higher education in the UK is represented by universities and colleges. By their structure, universities are divided into:

  • Collegial, whose structure includes colleges (universities of Cambridge and Oxford).

  • Unitary, whose structure includes faculties and departments.

In England, in addition to universities, there are colleges that are divided into:

  • Classical colleges. These schools have been accredited and have the right to issue a bachelor's degree.

  • Technical colleges. The education program here is narrowly focused and provides basic, practical training in the working specialty.

  • Colleges of further education. Here you can get a professional education in any specialty (design, engineering, gardening, etc.).

Higher educational establishments of England issue diplomas of the following categories:

  • Bachelor's degree. Training usually lasts three years. In order to get a bachelor's degree with distinction, a student needs to study for four years.

  • Master's Diploma - the term of study lasts two years.

  • Doctoral Diploma - the duration of the training lasts 3 years.

The process of training in British universities is held in the form of lectures, seminars and practical work in laboratories. There are also so-called tutorials - individual additional lessons with a teacher in a small group (from two to ten people). All students of English universities get access to modern libraries and scientific laboratories. Students are given a very large list of elective classes [8]. Educational programs in England are very flexible and allow at the end of the course to get not one but two academic degrees in different directions.

The British education system widely supports the so-called elite education. High-ranking parents from around the world are eager to get their children enrolled in prestigious British universities or schools, which guarantee not only obtaining in-depth knowledge, but also teaching secular manners or acquiring connections in politics and business.

The practice of distance learning is widespread in Britain. The student is engaged independently, relying on specially developed educational packages and can always receive a consultation from the teacher in online mode or by e-mail.

Higher education in England is quite expensive, but there are various scholarships and grants in the country. However, not everyone can get it. The number of such grants is limited, and they are given only to especially gifted students.

Diplomas of leading British universities are the most prestigious in the world. The modern English education system was fully adopted by such developed countries as Australia and Canada.

So, the English education system is flexible enough. Among a variety of different training courses, you can always find the most suitable, and, if desired, the selected subjects can be changed. The system of elite education is particularly well represented in England. Private and public schools vary greatly in the quality of the education provided.

Characteristics of education system in France

The basic principles of the education system in France have a century-long history, they were laid in the 1880s and 1890s. In terms of the level of education and the level of quality of life, France occupies almost identical places (24 and 19, respectively) (Education Index, 2016, Quality of Life Index for Country, 2017). Education is free, has no religious content and is mandatory for children from 6 to 16 years of age. In France, the private and public education systems coexist. In private educational institutions, about 20 % of all students are enrolled in France. The state approves all school programs for private and public schools, organizes competitions and examinations. Only the state has the right to issue baccalaureate diplomas (baccalaureat).

Table 2 -
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Kindergartens accept children from 2 and up to 6 years of age. Education before primary school is not compulsory. Children are divided into three age groups. The first one is from 2 to 4 years old, where children only play. The second (middle) from 4 to 5 years - are trained in modelling, drawing and other practical skills, as well as oral communication. The third (senior) from 5 to 6 years is preparing to learn reading, writing, and counting Kindergartens work five days a week, six hours a day (three in the morning and three in the afternoon). In large cities, the gardens work from early morning to 18 – 19 o’clock in the evening, and during the holidays.

Primary school is the last stage of compulsory education. After the end of the cycle in primary school, students take examinations for a certificate of primary education (certificate d'etudesprimaire, CEP). Primary education lasts five years, from 6 to 11 years and is divided into:

  • Preparatory course (CP).

  • Initial course 1st year (CE1).

  • Initial course 2-nd year (CE2).

  • The middle course of the 1st year (CM1).

  • The middle course of the 2nd year (CM2).

Secondary education in France consists of two blocks: the first cycle of education (college) and the second cycle of training. 6th and 5th grades - a cycle of observation. All children go to college, undergo the same program of study, and compulsorily study one of the "living" languages. The 4 th and 3 rd grades constitute orientation cycle. Children begin learning the second "live" foreign language and can choose additionally Latin, Greek or other languages. At the end of the 3rd grade, students take exams to obtain a certificate of graduation from college (previously this document was called BEPC). After the 3rd grade, the orientation of further education does not depend on the certificate of graduation from the college. But this direction is important for training, because further students can continue their studies either by a "short" or a "long" cycle of training.

The decision on the further education (orientation) is made the advisory class board after the consultation with the students and their families. Parents can demand a review of the decision if it seems unreasonable to them.

In some colleges special sections are created for teaching children with various kinds of developmental and behavioral deviations (SEGPA).

Professional lyceums LEP (analogue of our vocational schools) prepare students during 2 years, which are completed by getting a professional diploma.

In the system of French education, vocational and general education are more divided than in other countries, and because of this vocational education is of low value in the eyes of society and students.

Higher education is available only with a bachelor's degree. The French system of education has various forms: "short" and "long" cycles, education in higher schools (Grandesecoles), and universities (Coughlan, 2015).

Higher education with a "short" cycle. Training lasts usually two years and is therefore called a "short" cycle of higher education. It is in demand in the society, as it enables real and quick employment.

There are the following types of educational institutions of the "short" cycle:

  • Higher technical education departments in lyceums. They preparing students to receive a BTS (brevetdetechniciensuperieur) - a diploma of higher technical education.

  • University technological institutes (institutuniversitairedetechnologie) exist within universities and lead to the receipt of DUT (diplomeuniversitairedetechnologie) - a university technological diploma.

  • Specialized schools prepare students for 2 or 3 years in the specialties of health and for social services such as midwives, nurses, masseurs-kinesiotherapists, etc.

There is also a higher education of the "long" cycle. Universities are the only institutions that accept all candidates without pre-selection (although there is an unofficial and illegal selection according to the bachelor's degree) and that is why universities often enroll students who simply did not enter other schools. It is possible to enter the university without having a bachelor's degree, by passing a special examination to the university (ESEU), but this is possible only in a limited number of cases and only for experienced professionals with a long record of practical work. Almost all universities are public, with the exception of several confessional ones.

University education has three cycles:

The first cycle within 2 years prepares to receive DEUG (the diploma about the general university education), but this diploma has no practical value in the labor market.

The second cycle prepares for a license (license) for one year after DEUG and maitrise (a year after the license). Recently, the opportunity for vocational education has been also created in the form of MST (maitrisesdessciencesettechniques) and a master's degree (lesmagisteres), in which education lasts three years.

The third cycle is divided into two branches:

DESS (Diploma of Higher Specialized Education), which is a professional diploma, the preparation for which lasts for 1 year after receiving the degree of maitrise and includes training and practice.

DEA (Diploma of Advanced Study) is teaching the research work.

After receiving the DEA (within one year) it is possible to prepare a scientific paper (these), minimally for two years.

Training for a DESS diploma is equated with the third, the last cycle of higher education (an analog of our graduate school and a PhD degree). DESS is received not only by students, but also by employees of companies that have concluded an agreement with their company on upgrading their qualifications. Upon admission, a qualifying interview is held (concoursd'entre). An obligatory condition for admission is higher education (diploma of Maitrise) in any specialty. Of the same importance (and sometimes more) is the experience of management work. In some cases, this experience can be counted as the first four university courses. Such issues are decided by the equivalence commission. For all foreigners there is one more common requirement which is a good command of the French language. As a confirmation of this fact, a document on the successful passing of the DELF exam is accepted.

Thus, the French education system is characterized by the cyclical nature of education. This allows for each individual student to choose the most effective training option.

Characteristics of education system in China

The Chinese education system cannot be called ideal, because in terms of the level of education, China occupies 108th in the world. However, according to the level of quality of life, China’s ranking in the world is significantly higher, particularly 51 place (Education Index, 2016, Quality of Life Index for Country, 2017). The education system in China includes basic education (preschool, general primary and secondary), secondary vocational education, general higher education, and adult education. The school year begins on September 1 and ends in early July. Students have a long winter vacation, which lasts from the end of December until about the beginning of February (Chinese New Year).

Pre-school institutions in China are kindergartens. They accept 3 to 6 year old children. There are about 150 thousand kindergartens in the country. Kindergartens are divided into public and private.

Primary education is provided to children in six-year elementary schools with a full day of education. The curriculum includes subjects such as moral education, the Chinese language, politics, history, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, physical education, music, art, work skills, etc. Children who have completed primary school can enter secondary schools without entrance exams at the place of residence.

General secondary education is offered by general secondary schools. Training is divided into two stages. Secondary schools of the 1 st level give incomplete secondary education. The term of study in them is three years. At this stage, the nine-year compulsory education ends. Obtaining further education - in secondary schools of the 2nd level and higher educational institutions is no longer compulsory for the citizens of the PRC. Secondary schools of the 2nd degree give a complete secondary education, after which graduates can continue their studies in universities. After graduation, students take the final exam, the results of which determine their chances of enrolling in a particular university.

In the sphere of secondary education there are still departmental restrictions on the admission of foreign students. In particular, not all schools in the People's Republic of China have the right to accept foreign students, only leading schools have such a right. There are a number of requirements and restrictions for the foreign students. According to the laws of China, a foreign student (in the absence of parents in China) must have a guardian or trustee.

The Chinese universities are divided into several hierarchical categories according to the degree of prestige. Depending on the number of points received at the final school examination, graduates can apply for admission to the entrance exams only to a university of the appropriate category or lower category. Admission to Chinese universities occurs in a highly competitive environment. In highly selective universities enrolment competition can reach 200-300 people per seat (Daniels et al. 2010).

In China, as well as in the West, there is a standard three-level training program. Undergraduate training has the period of four, rarely five years. After the successful completion of this stage, graduates receive a completed higher education with a Bachelor's degree. Master course duration is for two to three years. After the successful completion of this stage, graduates receive a completed higher education with a Master's degree. Doctoral studies last for a period of two to three years, less often for four years. After the successful completion of this stage, graduates receive a completed higher education with the degree of "Doctor".

An alternative to general education is secondary specialized education. The vocational education system in China includes higher and secondary vocational schools, secondary technical schools, vocational secondary schools, vocational training centres, technical training schools for adults and other similar institutions.

Unlike general education, the main goal of secondary specialized education is the technical training of specialists for future work, the study of theoretical foundations and the development of practical skills related to the chosen profession, much less attention is paid to general education disciplines.

The system of secondary specialized education in China is divided into three levels: primary, secondary, and higher. Professional elementary schools accept graduates from a comprehensive primary school - from 12 years. Training in primary schools takes three to four years. Professional secondary schools enroll individuals with incomplete secondary education (after the general school of the first stage), that is, those who have completed the mandatory nine-year education. Training in schools of this level takes three to four years. Graduates of professional schools are ready to start their professional activities in their specialty (Daniels et al. 2010).

Professional higher education institutions accept persons with full secondary education (after finishing a secondary school). The task of educational institutions of this level is the preparation of comprehensively developed qualified specialists in their field. Training programs take two to three years. Graduates of secondary specialized institutions of the highest category have the right to start professional activities or enter general universities to obtain a bachelor's degree.

Therefore, it can be said that the education system in China is the most important mechanism and carefully controlled strategic branch for the achievement of public order, which adversely affects the quality of the educational services provided. In secondary education, departmental restrictions on admission of foreign students continue to exist.

Research Questions

The complexity of methodology design for studying the phenomenon of "quality of life" in the context of its relationship with the level of education and socio-economic development of the state lies in its interdisciplinary nature. Indeed, being a complex multi-level socio-economic concept, it acquires a strong multifaceted character. Therefore, the methodology for studying this problem rests on the logic of the research, which seeks to find answers to the following research questions within the framework of this article:

  • What are the specific features of education systems within the existing organizational and legal frameworks in Russia, some developed countries of Western Europe, such as Germany, Britain and France, as well as in China at the present stage of their social and economic development?

  • What is the relationship between the level of education in each country under consideration and quality of life index?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis of education systems in Russia and abroad in the context of their impact on improving the quality of life and enhancing the well-being of citizens.

Research Methods

To investigate the research problem, we examine the publications of domestic and foreign scholars, as well as the materials of the Internet information network. We rely on methods of system analysis and scientific classification, generalization of empirical material on the basis of statistical data.

Findings

As we can see, in modern conditions, education plays an important role in solving social and economic tasks of the state, improving the quality of life of its citizens. In fact, it is mobilizing human resources to improve their well-being. It is no accident when calculating integral indicators of the quality of life, such as the index of human development, the index of intellectual potential of society, human capital per capita, etc., the level quality of education takes a worthy place. This is evidenced by the data given for the countries of the world in Table 3 .

Table 3 -
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As can be seen from Table 3 , only one of the five countries under study (France) occupies comparable places in the world rating of the level of education and the quality of life. In two countries out of five (Russia and Britain), the level of education is significantly higher than the quality of life, and only China has the opposite situation. The reason for the absence of a simple relationship between the quality of education and the quality of life lies, in our opinion, in the different models of economic development of these countries, therefore it is not entirely correct to apply the existing methods of assessing the quality of life to countries and regions with different types of economy and levels of economic development (Selyutin et al., 2015 & 2016).

The apparent dependence between the quality of education and the quality of life is traced only for countries with social orientation of economic development in which human capital is the main factor in the development. In countries with a commodity economy, the quality of education does not have a significant impact on the quality of life, and in underdeveloped countries, improving the quality of education can even lead to its deterioration, which is due to the lack of the ability to apply the knowledge gained in professional activities. Obtaining a quality education does not guarantee the realization of the acquired knowledge in practice, and high social status leads to a contradiction between the person's desire to realize his knowledge and the lack of possibility to do so, which can be resolved only by creating appropriate conditions for the development of high-tech industries.

In Russia, a high level of education does not always guarantee a high quality of life due to the weak development of innovative sectors of the economy. In order to address the challenge adequately the development of a highly technological business and its effective use by society are required. The interest of business in the high quality of education will be the driving force for improving its quality in Russia and will ensure a direct relationship between the quality of education and the quality of life characteristic of highly developed countries.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the conducted research showed that education should be considered an important factor determining the level of quality of life. Its role depends on the country, its economic development, and the standard of living of a society. Significant work is needed at all levels of bodies of the state structures, ministries, educational departments, including the society itself to overcome the existing serious difficulties in order to strengthen the potential benefits of education and its impact on the improvement of life.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express gratitude to National Research Tomsk State University that funded the research within the framework of the Programme on Competitiveness Improvement among world top universities.

References

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.14

Online ISSN

2357-1330