Humanitarian Education In Post-Industrial Society: Experience Of Competence-Based Approach Realization In University
The objective of this article is to research problems of implementation of the competence-based approach in the process of integration of learning and extracurricular educational activity of the modern higher school. The submitted article shows necessity of development of system of educational establishment work in formation of social and cultural competence of future professionals. The basis of the submitted work is investigational studies made in Togliatti State University. The theoretical approaches to articulate the concept of “social and cultural competence” as well as the results of working approbation in the course of pedagogical experiment are given in the article. The authors consider that social and cultural competence is the conjunction of social and cultural competences of the person. Consequently, they logically identify its essence with professional competences given in the national educational standards. The basis for the content of formation of students’ social and cultural competence was the idea of across evolutionary development of components of social and cultural competence with maximum use of potential opportunities of all disciplines of the high school curriculum and active extracurricular educational activity of the students themselves. In conclusion it is stated that the developed system can be transferred to other parts of lifelong learning system and also to technical and technological professional training programs of the youth. This article is intended for teachers, researchers, executives of educational institutions dealing with educational issues at high school.
Keywords: Higher educationcompetency-based approacheducational activitysocial and cultural competenceprofessional competences
The relevance of the topic is determined by the need of competence-based approach implementation in modernized system of higher education. The pedagogical process of establishment of higher education is built taking into account integrity of processes of training and education. The environment of becoming of modern specialist, citizen-individuality is obviously underestimated in a theory and practice of higher education on the modern stage specific potential of education. It prevents greatly to increase of effective activity of educational establishments, making difficult the productive search of decision of sharp problems of professional training of young people. Scientific, pedagogical and socially important is the consideration of education as a social and pedagogical phenomenon from the standpoint of modern scientific data about the implementation of the competence approach in a higher education institution as "educational process", social and pedagogical reality integrating and implementing the specific potential of education in cooperation with educational and extracurricular activities. The urgency of the problem of the study is necessary to justify the competence of the scientific approach to the study of the process of professional, social and cultural education of youth in the modern system of higher and secondary professional education. The qualitative indicator will be the professional competence of a specialist who is able to provide effective individual personal and professional development of the student.
The essence of the competence-based approach to education declared in the Bologna Declaration (1999) was analyzed in researches of many scientists. They are Bolotov, & Serikov (2003), Zeer (2013), Zimnyaya (2006), Hutorskoy (2013) and other researchers. Each of them gives his own definition about the essence of competence and integrity. But most of them tend to believe that competence-based approach deals with urgent need of educational advance to the further professional and public activity of the learners. Zimnyaya, determinates the essence of competence as “general ability of a specialist to master his knowledge, skills and also general ways of performing operations” (Zimnyaya, 2006).
Five key competences which are given priority meaning in professional education are social, communicative, cognitive, social informative and special ones. In this context the researchers addressed to the projecting of system of forming future specialists’ specific competences among enumerated ones in the initial period of problem solving approach development (Koenen, Dochy, Berghmans, 2015; Daniels, 2012; Higson, Liu, 2013; Shavelson, 2013; Reid, Spencer-Oatey, 2013), associating with the competence approach the improvement of the quality of higher education (Land, Gordon, 2013). Traditions of Russian education make it necessary to pay attention to the specifics of the organization of educational activities in the aspect of implementing the competence approach. The special place in raising the educational process at the institution of higher education among the students’ competences is given to the problem of forming social and cultural competence among the future bachelors. Muravieva gives such kind of definition to the essence of social and cultural competence. “It is an integrative characteristic of the personality intending existence of knowledge about social and cultural fields including ability and readiness to cooperate with other people in different spheres of life based on his semantic experience providing ability to use information resources for semantic creative activity in information space” (Muravieva, 2011). Consequently, social and cultural competence is the conjunction of social and cultural competences of the personality. Whereas professional activity of the person is also devoted to social, cultural spheres as well as to semantic creative activity, it will be logical to include his professional competences into the structure of social and cultural professional integrity. Such kind of complex integrative pattern of social and cultural professional integrity emphasizes it among separate competences formed among students.
Purpose of the Study
A learning process as a space attached to the values of the developing profession, the creative professional dialogue between student and teacher becomes the main factor in the education of specialists. Personal training work activity becomes a means of education-self-education, formation of professional competencies. However, special attention is paid to organization of educational environment at higher institution during the accreditation of the higher institution. That is arrangement of conditions for demonstration of students’ activeness. They are availability of the advising institutes, availability of students’ autonomous bodies and students’ public organizations, organization of students’ research work, approval of personal and professional development of students. Thus, educational system on the competence-based approach of the higher institution should consider integration of learning and extracurricular activity of the higher institution. We will consider the content of this work using the example of social and cultural competence formation among students of Togliatti State University.
We defined the following research objectives. The first one is to justify and work out the system of learning and extracurricular educational activity at modern higher institution which is aimed at formation of social and cultural professional integrity. The second one is to implement the developed system into educational process of a higher institution. The third one is to test effectiveness of the developed system in professional education of higher institutions’ humanitarian students.
Theoretical and empirical methods
Theoretical methods such as analysis of literature and of activity experience, empirical methods such as expert methods, methods of mathematical statistics, Internet monitoring and analysis of the content were used in the research.
The Stages of the research
The research has been conducted in three stages.
The implementers of the main educational programs completed task of establishing relationships between the competences and disciplines
The teachers of a higher institution were offered to analyze work programs of the disciplines which were taught to the students in order to find out their educational opportunities. They were offered to design the content of the taught discipline based on succession of pedagogical actions, meeting requirements and rules of principle of unity of training and education and taking into consideration the statement that training always educates and education always teaches.
The system of social and cultural competence formation of the future History bachelors was developed
The system of formation of social and cultural competence of students is a number of successive course stages following one after another of joint activity of teachers and students designed on the following algorithm. Firstly, the component of social and cultural competence formed on this or that course is defined. Secondly, the pedagogical purpose of the stage is formulated. Thirdly, priority forms and kinds of activity of teachers are revealed. Fourthly, the forms and priority types of learning and extracurricular activities of students promoting development of the corresponding component of maintenance of system are reflected. Fifthly, the characteristic of the expected result of formation of the corresponding component of social and cultural competence is given in conclusion of each stage.
Monitoring of efficiency of the conducted work was carried out
The basis of the research
Pilot and experimental work had been held since 2009 to 2016 on the basis of Togliatti State University
Proceedings and description of the experiment
In the course of the researches on design and pilot and experimental approbation of systems conducted by us on formation of social and cultural competence of students of a bachelor degree course, the structure and content of this process were found. When determining structure of social and cultural competence we were guided by structure of the social competence developed by Pervutinskiy. Pervutinskiy represents structure of social competence of the personality in the form of the following four priority components:
social intelligence is individual and personal characteristic of the person which is shown in ability to form the attitude towards himself, to predict results of his activity, to understand a social situation, to react to this situation flexibly. It is an ability to active social and cultural adaptation.
spiritual maturity- value system;
social and professional maturity. These are perceptional, empathic, communicative, reflexive, self-representative skills, purposefulness, management skills, mastering information processing technology.
social and moral maturity. It is responsibility, purposefulness, persistence, self-confidence, organized nature, self-discipline, mental outlook, motivation.
According to Pervutinskiy’s opinion on social and cultural competence there is widespread opinion of researchers on communication of the concepts "socialization" and “inculturation " about legitimacy of such transfer of structure of social competence (Pervutinskiy, 2016). According to this approach, it is possible to represent structure of social and cultural competence by means of four priority components as a whole. They are social and cultural intelligence, spiritual and cultural development, social and moral good breeding, social and moral maturity. Taking into account component structure the content of continuous stage-by-stage formation of social and cultural competence of future bachelors of history of the "historical and cultural tourism" profile was developed. For development of content in the course of the research characteristics of essence of these components laying the foundation of social and cultural competence of students of the "historical and cultural tourism" profile were used (Livshits, 2015).
The component which is called
The component which is called
The component which is called
The component which is called
Components of social and cultural competence were correlated to professional competences of students of the educational program specialization "historical and cultural tourism». The idea that formation should be carried out together in a through way, during all the years of teaching students in higher education institution by means of all disciplines of the curriculum, by all teachers at active creative extracurricular activity of students was suggested.
The following step in development of through system of stage-by-stage formation of social and cultural competence of bachelor students was the definition of disciplines on each course of the curriculum which means it is necessary to develop this competence, and also it is necessary to develop forms and methods of inclusion of students into extracurricular educational activities. The author's course "Creative Self-development of Social and cultural Competence of Future Historians-local Historians" which is created along with the course "Introduction to Specialty" to attract special attention of first-year students to need of creative self-development in the field of socialization and an inculturation became starting "mechanism" of this process. Besides, it was important to choose discipline of the curriculum on each course which would become the social and cultural competence of student’s formation (Anuzienė. 2015). All other disciplines of this course are designed to supplement and develop the ideas of the elected leading discipline in the field of social and cultural competence (Table
As researches showed, it was appropriate to give preference to formation of students’ one of the components of social and cultural competence on this or that course. As a result all components of this competence will be formed step by step among students from a course to a course of their higher learning. Scientifically based priority of formation of components appeared to be as follows: 1 course – social and cultural intelligence, the 2nd course – spiritual and cultural development, the 3rd course – social and moral good breeding, the 4th course – social and cultural maturity. Priority of formation of this or that component of integrative social and cultural competence is defined by a number of conditions (Bolotov, Serikov, 2003). They are the level of formation of the previous component, the software, readiness of students to participate actively in process of creative self-development of social and cultural competence.
The condition of formation of motivation of second year students to improvement of quality of the profession received by them at the first stage of pilot studies was discovered by the researcher Livshits, Yu. Also their formation level of professionally significant personal qualities and the general culture was defined. It turned out that only 48% of the interviewed students strongly intended to work by the received profession after graduating. The GPA of level of formation of the "social and cultural intelligence" component of social and cultural competence made 6,37.The "spiritual and cultural development" component made 6,23 of 10 that corresponds to a quality indicator. It is "slightly higher than an average” (Livshits, 2015).
The analysis of the obtained data let us note that most of students do not possess necessary knowledge and abilities in the field of creative self-development of social and cultural competence. The competences provided by FSES on various disciplines of the curriculum of higher education institution do not provide formation of complete social cultural competence of future bachelors in total. The second stage of pilot studies showed that the self-assessment of levels of formation of components of social and cultural competence of students of various training programs of traditional conditions of training was approximately identical. It makes 6,45 points for future historians-local historians, 6,7 points for elementary school teachers, 6,8 points are for sociologists. Tutors of preschool educational institutions have 7 points of the maximum 10 points.
The subsequent experimental review was carried out after the forming stage (Anuzienė, 2015). So, the level of formation of ten indicators varied in the range: 0% – 58,5% of 100% before the forming influence on the first and second component. After the forming training the level of these indicators began to be in an interval: 5,4% – 95%. That is the increase in figures made 34,5%. Similar increase in figures is observed on the third and fourth component of social and cultural competence of students. The increase in figures of the third and fourth components made 14,5%. The lower threshold of formation of students’ social and cultural competence components rose at the same time. The first and second components raised by 54%, and the third and fourth components raised by 68,2%.
In general the received experimental results testify to high efficiency of realization of the pedagogical system of formation of social and cultural competence of students of the "historical and cultural tourism” training program developed in research of condition of integration of educational and extracurricular activities, reliability of the obtained data on the chosen criteria and indicators: the building of the educational institution should provide opportunities for communication, exchange of opinions, creativity, joint practice, experiments, games; for work in large and small groups; have freely transformable zones (Rudenko, Fedorova, Muskhanova, 2015; Alieva, 2015).
The idea of stage-by-stage development of components of social and cultural competence with the maximum use of potential opportunities of all disciplines of the curriculum of higher education institution and active extracurricular activities of students was the basis for content of formation of social and cultural competence of students.
Solving performance targets, we developed new approach to transformation (fine tuning) of structural components of the existing pedagogical system of training of future bachelors of the "historical and cultural tourism" profile (the purposes, content, forms and methods of teachers’ and students’ activity, curators of students’ groups) according to requirements of a systemically important element (formation of social and cultural competence of students).
The important condition of effectiveness of implementation of the designed system is ensuring unity and continuity of pedagogical actions of teachers of higher education institution.
As the research showed, to effective ways of the solution of this task are:
mobilization of people on long-term strategic and inclusive development;
increase in corporate culture of staff of educational institutions, creation of the social and cultural associations which are the form and the means of development tool of personal, cultural and professional qualities of pupils, students and teachers;
organization and holding the traditional activities increasing corporate culture and covering not only teaching and educational process, but also all the diversified activity of the staff in educational space of the city (Pervutinskiy, 2016).
The system of formation of social and cultural competence of students developed in the research and its implementation in students teaching of the educational organization makes it possible to increase the level of competences of students in public, cultural and professional activity. The forms and methods of development of social and cultural competence of students of the "historical and cultural tourism" profile approved in a research make it possible to optimize process of educational and learning activity in higher education institution directed to formation of competences. The developed system of joint activity of teachers and students of through stage-by-stage formation of social and cultural competence of future bachelors of history can be transferred to other links of system of continuous education, the technical and technological directions of professional training of youth.
The research has been conducted with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 15-06-10308-a "Theoretical bases of formation of general professional competences of students in educational activity of the educational organization"; project No 17-06-00117 “Teacher as social educator in the context of changes in modern education”.
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21 August 2017
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Ahmetzhanova, G. V., Aliyeva, L. V., Livshits, Y. A., & Rudenko, I. V. (2017). Humanitarian Education In Post-Industrial Society: Experience Of Competence-Based Approach Realization In University. In S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 28. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 17-25). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.3