The aim of this paper is to define how folklore peculiarities affect the formation of human safety behavior culture. The relevance of the problem under study stems from the fact that human safety behavior culture has always been in the focus of any ethnic group’s attention, which was reflected in their mythology, fairy-tales, proverbs and sayings. The people, the genius creators of the language and teachers all in one, brought into being the greatest works of artistic expression that are intended to lead children forward at all stages of their emotional and moral development. Folklore contains the richest material for the development of moral qualities. Folklore is diverse and rich in various types and genres. The aim of the article is thus to determine the characteristics of folklore essential for the formation of human safety behavior culture. The main approach in studying the present problem is the following: sociometric method which allows to define the competence level of second year students from different faculties in the sphere of ethno-pedagogics and security culture. This method made it possible to study how students perceive psychological difficulties they are faced with. As a result of the study the students found the use of oral folklore (like fairy tales, proverbs, sayings, epics and games) pedagogically practical for developing pupils’ security culture. The future teachers noted that the task of adults is to teach children to choose the right ways of psychological defence, depending on life circumstances, rather than to protect children from adverse surroundings.
Keywords: Folklorefairy-talesproverbshealth and safetylife securityeducation
Since their birth human beings have an inherent right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Throughout life a person exercises the rights to life, leisure, health, satisfactory and healthy environment, labour in conditions meeting safety standards and hygiene requirements. In the course of a life a person is inextricably linked with the surrounding environment, while being dependent on that environment at all times. The person satisfies his or her needs for food, air, water, material resources, and recreation using that environment.
Health and Safety as a science emerged in Russia in the late 1980-s of the 20th century and now is at the stage of its formation. The establishment and development of the science is based on scientific and practical achievements in the field of safety regulations, labor protection, environmental protection, fire protection, civil defense, emergency response, preventive medicine, biology, and ecology.
Human life has lost its significance around the globe. The pursuit of money has devalued human life. The twenty-first century witnesses the devaluation of spiritual values, the decline of the spirituality, morality and creativity of the population, moral degradation; spiritual aggression, ethnoegotism; decrease in educational levels, discrepancy between the quality of vocational training and the current educational standards, reduction in the capacity to acquire the knowledge of the world civilization, loss of the meaning in life (Andreev, 2015, p. 42).
Human life is exposed to numerous risks due to the migration crisis, anthropogenic disasters, and wars. The philosophical foundations of the previous generations have been globally destructed for many years. Affected by the deculturalization process most peoples of the world lost their national roots. Under such circumstances Kerimsheeva and Iglina (2011, p. 39) highlight the importance of turning to the origins of folk educational traditions. They reveal their essence, specific features and practical value, the tools and methods of ethnopedagogics aimed at promoting a healthy and safe lifestyles.
Environmental issues form an essential aspect of folk pedagogy. The attitude to nature is the most expressive, meaningful and eloquent manifestation of the moral basics of the folk pedagogy. Folk mind approaches nature as an ideal of harmony, beauty, and intelligence. As for both material and spiritual meanings a man is seen as an integral part of nature. Mukhutdinova (2012) and Khrapal (2011) dedicated a number of research works to the issue of environmental safety. Kofanova studied the didactic foundations of students’ health-sustaining activity management in the educational environment of a school (2015, p. 3).
Across its diverse spectrum of numerous forms and genres (fairy tales, sagas, rhymes, nursery rhymes, riddles, proverbs and sayings) folklore has a great educational and formative potential to address the issues of mental, moral, labor, aesthetic, and physical education. Proverbs and sayings contain innermost thoughts of people about the culture of human’s safety behavior, they contain the very essence of the norms and rules of conduct in public, warnings about the surrounding environment and its natural phenomena: "Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you", "As soon as there is life, there is a danger", "Better safe than sorry", "Save Mother Nature, Don't Mess with It", "Correcting wrongs double your efforts". Any proverb has edification and a warning: "You reap what you sow".
Educational impact of fairy tales is one of the most important features of tales of all nations of the world. The plot for the folk tales has always been taken from people’s life, it revealed their struggle for happiness, their beliefs and traditions. Many folk tales inspire confidence in the triumph of truth, the victory of good over evil. The role of fairy tales in the formation of the security of human life is obvious.
Purpose of the Study
Life security issues have been studied in the works of many Russian scientists (life security –Volkov (1999, p. 115), Alekseenko and Matasova, (2001, p. 320); the educational ideas of ethnos in folk art –Maksyutova (2004, p. 486); the traditional pedagogical culture of family –Okholina, Gabdulhakov and Galeeva (2004, p. 116), and others.). A huge contribution to the solution of scientific problems of survival, self-preservation and human security was made by foreign scholars Adler (1993, p. 175); Maslow (2011, p. 304) – the security and safety are attributed to the primary needs; Freud (1989, p. 10) examined the nature of human anxiety. The main problem for the mind is handling the anxiety. Anxiety is caused by the expected gain or predictive state of stress or irritation; it can develop in any situation (real or imaginary), when physical or mental threat is too great to ignore it, deal with it, or avoid it.
National sports around the world are losing their value, despite the fact that the people's physical education has been formed by many generations. Action (or outdoor) folk games appeared in ancient times on the basis of religious rites, necessary to prepare younger generations for adulthood, contributed to the development of agility, body flexibility, endurance, intuition, ingenuity, courage. Games had a prominent place in people's lives, they taught children self-preservation, and the ability to survive and avoid life-threatening situations. Folk games had a different character, forms and functions. They are elements of traditional folk festivals and rituals: round dancing, game dancing, skits, outdoor games. Many modern sports games have folk ritual roots. For example, Spanish bullfighting comes from the ancient rituals associated with the cult of the bull on the island of Crete. Most Olympic sports competitions are rituals dedicated to the ancient gods of Olympus. In the games there can be traced similarities of some people. It was in the game that a child learned the moral and ethical standards, acquired labor skills needed in adult life.
Folk games, contests, exercises in each age period of personal development have their psychological and pedagogical direction and meaning. They do not only focus on the development of physical skills and motor skills, but also contribute to the education of determination, courage, inventiveness in extreme conditions, morality. Therefore, it is crucial to teach students the ability to organize outdoor games of children of different age groups.
In our research we used the sociometric method. The study involved 60 second year students of pre-school education faculty (1 group) and 50 second year students of the faculty of History and the English language (2 group).
The students were offered to answer the following questions:
How much time do you spend a day on reading literature (scientific, fiction)?
How much time do you spend seated in front of a computer?
How much time a day do you spend doing sports?
Do you think that the study of folklore promotes education of security culture behavior in children?
Name your national games.
We have also carried out the progress test of oral folklore knowledge.
In the course of research we have obtained the following results:
Students of preschool education faculty had the course of "Ethnopedagogics" in their first year of studies, while students of the Faculty of History and the English language didn’t study the mentioned discipline. The students were given the task for the set time to give examples of fairy tales, proverbs, games about the safety of human life. Students performed tasks in teams. Team members were representatives of different groups.
The written survey results showed that the students devote little time a day to sports – from 15 minutes to 1 hour; they spend from 4 to 8 hours over computer; from 1 to 2 hours reading literature; 60% of students found it difficult to name their national sport games. However, all respondents indicated that through tales wisdom of the people is passed on, including the right, safe behavior in nature, at home, in dangerous situations (storm, flood, fire, etc.).
The results of the analysis led to the conclusion that in the group where Ethnopedagogics was taught students’ knowledge was higher. They were able to quickly provide examples of fairy tales, epics, proverbs, sayings, nursery rhymes, songs, folk sayings connected with security of human life. It also showed their ability to work in a team and a high level of interaction with each other.
Thus, the use of folklore in the modern educational practice is an important means of educating the security of human life. It is therefore necessary to teach high school students the culture, traditions and wisdom of folk pedagogy not only of their country but also other countries and peoples. Ethnic, or religious conflicts, migration lead to the loss of culture, identity and traditions of peoples (Mukhutdinova, Yachina and Khazieva, 2013, p. 348). These phenomena have affected many countries of the world. The study of national culture, literature, music contributes to the formation of spiritual health of students, which is an essential component in the professional training of teachers. The task of the teacher is to prepare the student to properly use the mehods of social adaptation in an uncertain environment and to teach choosing the right methods of psychological defense, depending on the circumstances of life. Future teachers must remember that the main thing is that in the society with certain rules, traditions, laws and culture there can be developed a free and bright personality, with one’s own special views on life, the world, oneself.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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31 August 2017
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Yachina, N. P., & Khuziakhmetov, A. N. (2017). Folklore As An Integral Part Of The Human Safety Culture Education. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2017, vol 29. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 865-870). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.99