Communicative Characteristics Of Prognostic Competence In Primary Schoolchildren With Dysontogenesis Deficiency
The relevance of the problem of studying the formation of the communicative aspect of prognostic competence in primary schoolchildren with deficiency development is determined by the need to identify and explain the content of communicative difficulties they have. This reduces the possibility for the successful adaptation of children in various types of activities in the context of general education as one of the institutions of child socialization in society and predetermines the risks of various forms of deviant behavior emergence. The aim of the research is to study communicative features of the prognostic competence in younger schoolchildren with deficiency dysontogenesis in standard development and learning situations, through the process of comparative analysis of speech behavior and speech activity. The basic method of the research is an experiment based on the results of a constructive and comparative analysis of psychological and pedagogical studies, on the diagnostics of the specific features of communicative aspects and prognostic competence of junior schoolchildren with a deficiency and standard development. The data obtained in the study prove that the problem of studying the communicative abilities of junior schoolchildren with a deficiency type of mental dysontogenesis in the structure of prognostic competence is not sufficiently detailed. The essence of the communicative aspect of the prognostic competence of primary school children with deficiency dysontogenesis is not fully revealed. The method for diagnosing communicative abilities formed in socially significant spheres of relations as an instrument for identifying the risks of the deviations emergence in interpersonal relationships is not formulated.
Keywords: Communicationprognostic competencejunior schoolchildrendeficiency dysontogenesis
In a modern ever-changing society, one of the most significant problems is the unsuccessful socialization of people with disabilities, which implies social disadaptation for the disabled, and the lack of ability to resist unfavorable social and life situations that interfere with their self-realization, self-development, self-esteem. It is important to note that the problems of socialization are especially acute in younger school age, because at this stage there is a change in both the leading activity and in socially significant spheres of life, which leads to significant changes in the child's mental processes and changes of the principles of interaction with others. Moreover, junior school age is a sensitive period when schoolchildren develop their prognostic competence as one of the fundamental conditions for the successful socialization. This suggests the development of the ability to anticipate the course of events with high probability, to forecast the development of situations and children’s own reactions to them, and to act with a temporary and spatial anticipation.
This is confirmed by the results of the studies of Akhmetzyanova (2016), Zimnyaya (1976, 2001), Lomov & Surkov (1980), Mendelevich & Solov'yeva (2002), Sergiyenko (2006) and others, where it is noted that one of the factors of the psychologically healthy, is the ability to overcome life difficulties, and personally form abilities for prognostic activity. Violation of the forecasting ability predetermines social maladjustment.
The carried-out analysis of the problem showed that the formation of prognostic competence in junior school age is impossible without the development of communicative abilities, including the ability to forecast communicative conditions, determine the strategy, means and ways of mastering the norms of communication and the rules of behavior adopted in society. However, in recent years, one of the priority areas of research, both in scientific and applied aspects, is the problem associated with the decreasing communicative activity of primary schoolchildren, formalization, stereotyping of interpersonal contacts, the substitution of direct communication by virtual means of interaction, which increases the risk of their inadaptation to social environments. In this regard, the study of the specific communicative abilities of primary school children with visual, hearing and speech impairments without intellectual incapacity will make it possible to disclose the features of their prognostic competence formation in various types of activity in the conditions of general educational establishment and predetermine the risks of the emergence of socialization disorders. The theoretical analysis showed that the problem of studying the communicative abilities of junior schoolchildren with deficiency dysontogenesis (speech, hearing, vision, loco-motor impairment) in the structure of predictive competence is not sufficiently detailed. This statement is true concerning revealing the essential characteristics of the communicative aspect of the prognostic competence of primary school children with deficiency dysontogenesis. Its structure is not defined, the methodology for diagnosing communicative abilities, as an instrument for identifying the risks of the deviations emergence in socially significant age-specific spheres of life activity of this category of children is not formulated. The carried-out constructive and comparative analysis of contemporary works on the research problem showed that the deficient communicative abilities of primary school children with health limitations determines the specifics of failure in the child's mastering of norms, rules, behavior models. It also determines their realization in interpersonal relationships, i.e. in the formation of the ability to anticipate the future in socially significant situations for standard behavior and successful socialization.
An important socially conditioned ability of the personality is the ability to anticipate events in one's life, relying on the experience gained previously. This ability of a person is called anticipatory consistency or prognostic competence. The study of this problem was carried out by such researchers as Lomov, Mendelevich, Nichiporenko, Sergienko, Surkov and others.
Lomov & Surkov (1980) believe, that the basis of any activity is anticipation. It is anticipation as a psychological phenomenon in its various forms that has universal significance for all aspects of human activity, since it is typical of a person not only to reflect the present, to store events of the past, but also to master the prospect of the future.
Sergiyenko (2006) considers anticipation as an important component in the structure of mental reflection. Mental reflection operates with subjective images that represent anticipatory schemes that must be accompanied by anticipatory behavior, which manifests itself in the effects of space-time anticipation, direction, selectivity, planning and goal-setting. She writes that the anticipation cannot be regarded only as a spatial-and-temporal forestalling, it also includes such characteristics as accuracy and completeness of prediction.
Mendelevich (2002) under anticipatory consistency (prognostic competence) considers the ability of an individual to anticipate the course of events with a high probability, to predict the development of situations and one’s own reactions to them, to act with temporal and spatial anticipation. Based on this definition, Nichiporenko draws the conclusion that anticipatory consistency, characterizing a certain level of anticipatory abilities in the personality system is closely related to "competence" and, in several cases, to - "anticipatory consistency" and "prognostic competence".
At present, there are various approaches to the study of anticipatory consistency/prognostic competence in various activities and at different age stages. Within the frames of psycho-physiological approach, researchers focus their attention on the natural prerequisites and neurophysiological mechanisms of the ability to anticipate. The cognitive-behavioral approach use the concepts of "scheme", "probabilistic expectation" and "hypothesis" to describe anticipation. In the genetic approach, various types of prognostic activity, as well as forestalling behavior at different stages of human development are studied.
The situational approach involves studying the problem of predicting social reality by people in everyday life. In the framework of the activity approach, the authors use the theory of activity as explanatory schemes and categorical apparatus. Within the framework of clinical approach, the features of the formation of anticipatory consistency in norm and pathology are studied. The authors study the relationship between anticipatory consistency and personality traits. Structural-level approach allows us to consider anticipation as a form of anticipatory reflection of reality, which covers a wide range of manifestations of the regulatory, communicative and cognitive functions of the psyche. The cognitive function implies that anticipation is always foresight, forestalling and expectation of events. Regulatory function manifests itself in the person's readiness for situations, anticipating them in their behavior, and planning their actions. Communicative function consists in communication, interaction with other people, recognition of the emotional state of an interlocutor, and subordination to social norms.
Lomov & Surkov (1980) single out several levels of anticipation as the forestalling process becomes more complicated. These are sub-sensory, sensorimotor, perceptual level, that of representation, verbal and cogitative (verbal-logical). Such a division by levels is relative and is conditioned by the typology of tasks that determine specific actions and criteria that a person uses when solving them. The sub-sensory level is characterized by the presence of unconscious neuromuscular prospective adaptations and movements that provide a variety of tonic and postural effects, associated with the performance of forthcoming actions. The sensorimotor level observes an anticipation in time. The actualization of this level is noted when solving motor problems, different in content. The processes of anticipation at this level have a universal character, since they participate in the regulation of all types of activities. The effectiveness of anticipation at the sensorimotor level is eventually determined by the parameters of the external source of information, the adequacy of their perception, and also by the leading criterion of the motor task. In accordance with them, the optimization of anticipatory effects can be carried out according to the criteria of accuracy, timeliness, speed, and preference. On the perceptual level, the integration of mental processes occurs, the result of which is the individual's attitude to the final effect and the synthesis of the previous experience. In contrast to the sensorimotor level, the perceptual level provides an anticipation not only in time, but also in space. The level of representations is characterized using "structural" schemes stored in the short-term, as well as in the long-term memory, which allows to achieve the effect of panoramic anticipation. At the verbal and cogitative level, there is an even more expressed complexity in the integration of mental processes, which contributes to the emergence of qualitatively new forms of anticipation. For this level, it is characteristic not only to operate with primary and secondary images of objects, but also to use the signs and sign systems. At this level of anticipation, an individual is able to classify situations in connection with the increased influence of the semantic factor when using external and internal speech. This new formation allows forestalling actions before the occurrence of the events themselves.
Thus, prognostic competence can be characterized as a personality property, their stable characteristic, which fixes the level of development of anticipatory abilities and represents a certain state of the system of individual internal resources, can ensure the success of prognostic activity. Nichiporenko & Mendelevich (2006) refer constitutionally conditioned properties (features of temperament and nervous system), cognitive resources (formal-logical and social intelligence, cognitive processes), volitional, affective and behavioral potentials of an individual to such resources.
Prognostic competence reflects the best ideas about the cognitive, affective and behavioral components of an individual, the content of which includes several aspects. First, the cognitive aspect, reflecting the skills and abilities of forecasting at stages of the educational trajectory and on levels of personality abilities. Second, the behavioral aspect, presupposing the quality of cognitive and educational activity, which allows foreseeing and adequately assessing one's own educational trajectory, result in activities that ensure the needs of an individual and society in a given situation. Third, emotional-value experience, includes flexibility of thinking, purposefulness, volitional sphere, tolerance, sociability. It also includes the aspect of self-determination, reflecting the level of goal-setting that is optimal for the given conditions, the ability to plan, design one's own activity, the level of search and creative activity regulating the process of self-realization, the ability to evaluate the results of activity, that provide an adequate self-assessment.
Regush (2003) relying on the results of the study carried out by Lomov & Surkov, identifies three functions (characteristics) of prognostic competence: regulative, cognitive and communicative. The cognitive function is to know the future in various ways. Regulatory function refers to the willingness to encounter various events, anticipate them in one’s behavior, and plan actions. Communicative function implies planning and anticipating various situations of communication.
According to Regush (2003) a person in the course of gaining communication experience in various situations acquires information, which serves as a basis for anticipation. When a speech construct is perceived, a person correlates it with speech standards that exist in a long-term memory and extrapolates them to the development of interaction in time and space, thus, speech prediction takes place.
When considering the communicative function of prognostic competence, we paid special attention to Frumkina’s concept (1971), in which the speech mechanisms have a certain hierarchical organization of speech elements, corresponding to the frequency of their occurrence in the speech activity of an individual. Each word stored in an individual’s memory has its own "frequency index". This index corresponds to the frequency of a certain word occurrence in the past speech experience of an individual. The probabilistic organization of an individual’s vocabulary changes, reflects the changes in the current speech experience.
An important thesis in the study of communicative characteristics of prognostic competence is the idea of a two-level forecasting (levels of semantic and verbal hypotheses), detailed in the works of Zimnyaya (1976) In her opinion, at the first level, forecasting is realized at the level of anticipating the development of the speaker's course of thought, the development of semantic connections; it is defined as the level of semantic hypotheses. The second level is the level of verbal hypotheses at which the realization of the semantic connections of the previous level takes place. Semantic hypotheses correspond to the notion of a deep structure (the structure of speech development), and the concept of a verbal hypothesis corresponds to the surface structures that imply the realization and lexical filling of a deep structure. The concept of the semantic hypothesis is complex, multifaceted and combines the syntactic, semantic and formal aspects (Zimnyaya, 2001).
The study of Cherkasova & Morgacheva (2016) notes that the structure of speech prediction considers different opinions and positions in the construction of one’s own speech utterance. It also includes mastering various communicative means and ways of interaction with the help of speech in society; organization of cooperation through speech communication; active use of communicative-speech strategies and tactics of oral-speech communication, depending on the situation of communication.
Thus, the basis of the communicative characteristic of prognostic competence is mastering the knowledge of the language system and linguistic material, and the observance of the norms of communication, rules of speech behavior, as well as the experience of their application.
The components of the communicative function of prognostic competence according to (Cherkasova & Morgacheva, 2016) are as follows: the ability of a person to predict a communicative situation, to feel confident in it; the ability to find a communicative structure, adequate to the topic of communication and to implement a communicative plan; the ability to understand one’s own psychological potential and that of a partner.
In modern studies devoted to the study of the communicative function of prognostic competence, special importance is given to the primary school age (Nichiporenko, 2007). However, the carried-out analysis of modern studies has shown that the characteristics of the speech-communicative sphere of forecasting in children of primary school age have not been studied enough. Moreover, this problem is not adequately formulated in relation to primary schoolchildren with disabilities.
As Panaeva notes, the immature speech functions negatively affect the formation of educational activity, since the learning of educational material, basic knowledge, especially in the field of language, presupposes a rather high level of mature speech communication (cited by Pkhanayeva & Khamukova, 2016). Primary schoolchildren with health limitations in the course of speech negativity, experience reduced need for communication; their ways of communication are not formed. They are not interested in contacts; they do not align themselves with situations of communication (Filicheva et al., 2014) Immature speech communication affects success of their socialization. Solntseva & Belova (2012) identify several factors that can lead to unsuccessful socialization of children. Primary schoolchildren with health limitations spend a lot of time at the computer, replacing real relationships by virtual ones. This category of children is often characterized by instability, an understated level of motivation and difficulties in planning their actions. From the emotional-volitional sphere, they observe an increased excitability, irritability or, conversely, general retardation and restraint.
Primary schoolchildren with health limitations due to physical, mental and speech development, and also due to violations of social interaction, are not always able to adequately assess and predict their statements and statements of an interlocutor, to analyze the feelings and emotions of their partners in communication. They are not able to enrich their life experience, and the narrowed circle of communication cannot fully develop the potential of a child. Mental deficiencies (thinking, attention and memory disorders) also affect the analysis, remembering the gained experience. Children do not extrapolate the experience and results of one event in predicting the outcome of another event. Speech violations also lead to the narrowing of the circle of communication, many children communicate with others only with the help of parents; accordingly, the children themselves are not involved in the planning and forecasting of statements.
Thus, the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature suggests that insufficient maturity in communication function detains the formation of prognostic competence, which is directly related to the process of socialization, especially important in cases when a child has certain limitations in development. However, to date, the problem of studying the communicative function of prognostic competence in primary school children with deficiency development can be regarded as insufficiently studied. Meanwhile, the importance of this problem is extreme, especially if we take into account the specificity of the social growth of primary schoolchildren with health limitations and the difficulties they face in communicating, interacting and adapting in a new and different social situation.
Purpose of the Study
The theoretical analysis of the research questions made it possible to determine the aim of the research: to study communication features of primary schoolchildren with dysontogenesis deficiency, and in standard development in the learning situation, carrying out comparative analysis of speech behavior and speech activity. This will reveal the characteristics of the communicative aspect of prognostic competence as a structural-level education consisting of three interrelated links: motivational, operational and reflexive.
The basic method of the study is an experiment based on the results of a constructive and comparative analysis of sociological, psychological and pedagogical studies, the diagnostic features of the mature communicative function of the prognostic competence of primary schoolchildren with visual, hearing, speech and locomotor impairments without intellectual insufficiency and in standard development.
To identify the features of the communicative function of prognostic competence in school children from the ages of 8-11, with severe speech disorders we used Cherkasova & Morgacheva’s method – "Identification of mature communicative skills". According to the authors, the tasks and tests correspond to the young adolescents, they are formulated with account of curriculum at the basic education level and can be used "both in complex and separately, depending on the goal" (Cherkasova & Morgacheva, 2016). Within the framework of this study, we selected the tasks that allowed studying the communicative function of prognostic competence in various activities, namely, to study communication as interaction with peers, as cooperation with peers and directly the state of speech communication in children of primary school age. The tasks proposed in the methodology allowed us to take into account the following: stages of developing the communicative act (communicative core, primary communication skills, complex communication skills); the structure of the communicative act -initiation, communicative strategy (goal), communicative situation, communicative tactics (speech actions); organizational forms of communication (establishing relationships, planning joint actions, discussing the results of activities); communication at different levels (in pairs, in groups, in class); type of communication (verbal monological, dialogical; oral verbal, non-verbal).
According to this methodology, the formation of the communicative function can correspond to high (29-36 points), basic (average) (21-28 points) or low (12-20 points) levels. A high level reflects a child's mature attitude to himself as a schoolchild, the ability to organize academic cooperation and joint activities with a teacher and peers. It also shows the ability to work individually and in a group: to find a common solution and resolve conflicts based on agreement of positions and consideration of interests; to formulate, argue and defend one’s own opinion; to use consciously speech tools in accordance with the task of communication in order to express one’s feelings, thoughts and needs; to carry out verbal and written speech, as well as monological contextual speech.
The average level demonstrates an incomplete mature attitude towards oneself as a schoolchild, a child’s wish to attend school, the attractiveness of which is conditioned, largely, by extracurricular activities. The child is ready to listen to an interlocutor and conduct a dialogue; to recognize the possibility of the existence of different points of view and the right of everyone to have one's own; to express one’s own views, argue one’s own point of view and assess the events; to identify common goals and ways to achieve them. A child also shows the ability to negotiate on the allocation of functions and roles in joint activities, to carry out mutual control in the joint activity, to assess adequately one’s own behavior and the behavior of others; to be ready to resolve conflicts constructively by considering the interests of the sides and cooperation; to use actively the speech means in solving communicative and cognitive tasks.
The low level indicates an immature attitude towards oneself as a schoolchild, the unwillingness of a child to attend school, to learn. A child does not wish to communicate, he limits his acquaintances, has difficulties in establishing contacts with people and in speaking before the class, he is unable to find ways in the unknown situation, does not defend his opinion, find it hard to bear grievances, rarely shows initiative in communication.
The study was organized on the basis of the state educational institutions of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation. The study involved 208 8-11 year old pupils from the second to the fourth grade. The samples of respondents were formed: children at the age of 8-9 years, 9-10 years, 10-11 years.
The analysis of the obtained results allowed us to reveal the regularity of communicative characteristics development of prognostic competence in children with standard development and in children with disabilities. Junior schoolchildren with severe speech impairment have predominantly average levels of the communicative function of prognostic competence (33-39% of testees), 18 of them (21%) are junior schoolchildren with severe speech impairment and 15 (18%) with standard development. A low level was detected only in 24 respondents with severe speech disorders, which was 29%, and 27 respondents in norm (32%) showed a high level. For the second-year students with severe impairments the most prominent characteristic (8 pupils - 80%) was a low level of communication, two students (20%) showed an average level of communication formation, a high level of formation was not revealed. Second-year students with severe speech disorders could not fully hold a dialogue, lost track of events, did not realize the possibility of the existence of different points of view, they were inadequate in stating their opinion according to the situation, and did not give reasons. The tasks in which it is required to restore the order of replicas of a dialogue or to continue a dialogue or a story caused difficulty. Students found it difficult to anticipate the outcome of events, they operated only with the information they had read. Joint activities for the second-year children were not available; the control over the situation in joint activities did not take place.
For the third-year students with severe speech impairment, the lowest level of communication was mostly characterized (11 students - 65%). Average levels were found in six pupils (35%). High levels were not observed. Respondents perceived speech situations with distortions, paying attention to minor facts and details; they did not realize the possibility of the existence of different points of view, responded briefly, without giving reasons for their statements. They found it difficult to predict the outcome of situations, or to continue dialogues. Working in a team without stimulating and motivating assistance from a teacher was not available. When asked to talk about their activities in the team, the students responded briefly, without giving reasons for their answers.
For fourth-year students with severe speech impairment mostly characterized was an average level of the communication formation (10 students - 67%). Low levels were detected in five students (33%). High levels of verbal communication formation were not observed in the students. The respondents in this age group were able to perceive speech situation adequately, they fully argue their answers, make fewer mistakes in the use of speech. However, the task aimed at predicting the outcome of the speech situation, caused utmost difficulties.
The respondents with hearing impairments were characterized by a low level of speech communication, especially in the process of forecasting the situation.
Hearing-impaired primary schoolchildren experienced difficulties in verbal communication; they did not understand the situation of communication. Their anticipatory abilities of communication were formed at a low level: children could not create a continuation of a dialogue or a text; they found it difficult to understand speech, and speech communication was replaced by gestures. Hearing-impaired second year schoolchildren did not use expressive means, and did not express or argue their own point of view. When presented instructions children revealed difficulties: they did not understand the essence of tasks. Younger third year schoolchildren with hearing impairment also demonstrated a low level of communicative functions. They showed serious difficulties in understanding instructions. Forecasting in communication was beyond their understanding. Children did not distinguish between situations of communication; they did not understand the concept of "question", "speculation", "reason", emotional response to a communicative situation is not perceivable to them. Communication in the team was carried out mainly with the help of gestures, though they did not reflect the necessary completeness of communication; communication was limited only to household issues. Children could not predict the results of their own communication; they did not analyze the situation of communication. Among the third-year respondents with standard development, the percentage of those who completed the assignment at a high level increased.
For fourth-year students with hearing impairment, a low level of development of speech communication was characterized. Only one respondent of the experimental group completed the tasks at an average level. However, the quality of performing assignments for the fourth-year students with hearing impairment was higher. Children coped with tasks in pairs most successfully. However, they rarely formulated their activities in a verbal form, differentiated situations of communication, or selected adequate language means. These dynamics are conditioned by the increased speech activity of children, the development of speech understanding, the development of children psyche in general.
Children with hearing impairment did not understand the majority of instructions; they did not distinguish between the concept of "question", "reason", "speculation". They did not possess a dialogue form of communication, did not an attempt to analyze their own speech, did not distinguish between communication situations, and could not choose adequate means of communication, especially verbal and expressive means of speech.
Younger schoolchildren with visual impairments showed relatively high results, however, younger schoolchildren without developmental pathologies coped with the task more qualitatively and faster.
Second-year children with visual impairments showed a highly-developed ability to predict and analyze situations; they had a developed ability to fantasize. However, ignorance of certain concepts such as "speculation", "reason" was characteristic for hearing-impaired younger schoolchildren. They showed difficulties in the fulfillment of tasks aimed at constructing sentences. These difficulties can be explained by the fragmented nature of knowledge of the world and less developed vocabulary.
78% of the third-year schoolchildren with visual impairments had a high level of communication skills, 11% had an average level and 11% of students had a low level. This discrepancy may be conditioned by the difference in the severity of visual impairment in children, as well as by the social conditions of education and upbringing. However, the primary role in the occurrence of difficulties in the performance of tasks rests on primary and secondary development disorders. Secondary disorders are represented by the peculiarity of the psyche and thinking development, which in turn negatively affects forecasting in the process of communication.
Fourth year students with visual impairments showed a high level of development of communicative characteristics of prognostic competence. This is conditioned by increased disorder compensation in children with visual impairments, as well as by individual and age characteristics of children.
Comparing younger schoolchildren with visual impairments and younger schoolchildren without this developmental pathology, we can conclude that the task performance indicators of younger students with visual impairments are lower than indicators of those with standard development. However, these indicators do not differ significantly and are within the same level. Majority of the children showed a relatively high result, which can indicate the formation of the communicative function of prognostic activity in children with visual impairment. Single indicators of an average result testify of individual mental characteristics of children.
The study was aimed at revealing the communicative characteristics of the prognostic competence of younger schoolchildren with dysontogenesis deficiency and standard development in learning situations in the process of comparative analysis of speech behavior and speech activity. The carried-out analysis of modern works on the research problem along with the analysis of the experiment results showed that the deficient communicative opportunities of children with health limitations prevents a child from fully understanding the norms, rules, and behavior models. Children cannot implement them in interpersonal relationships, i.e. in forming the ability to anticipate the future in socially significant spheres with the aim of their successful socialization. The obtained results are consistent with the studies of Al-Yagon (2015), Tsivilskaya (2016), Samuelsson & Plejert (2015) in which it is emphasized that the readiness for speech forecasting in primary schoolchildren with standard development is formed by the age of 10-11, and in children with deficiency development, it is formed in a more prolonged period and has specific features caused by speech disorders. This is manifested in the inabilities to predict socio-psychological situations, to program upcoming communication; to manage this process in the socio-psychological aspect due to the inability to plan a communicative situation and predict its outcome; and to implement the communicative plan in accordance with social norms by finding appropriate methods of communication relating to the topic of conversation and forms of interaction between people.
The carried out theoretical and qualitative-quantitative analysis of the results obtained in the course of this study suggests that speech impairment negatively affects the formation of forecasting, which in the future may lead to the formation of deviant behavior in this category of children, as evidenced by the works of Abitov et al. (2016) Casillas & Frank (2017), Dupere et al. (2015), Fuentes
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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