A university should become an important factor in the process of forming a new value system, that is why in university's educational process it is necessary to update the value of a family within such courses as "Psychology of Family and Family Relationships", "Family Pedagogy". The family component of professional psychological and pedagogical competence determines the direction of future educational psychologists' training based on a family values priority, priority of children upbringing and family-oriented lifestyle. To actualize the value of these disciplines means that a teacher transfers significant valuable knowledge, which helps the formation of student's value consciousness, value attitude, value behavior. This approach helps to ensure personal choice and appropriation of values and leading ideological ideas by students. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of changes of future educational psychologists' family-orientated competence development. The article presents the results of the research conducted in 2004-2005 and in 2015-2017 at Kazan Federal University (KFU). The article presents a substantial characteristics of future educational psychologists' family-orientated competence; reveals components and levels of family-orientated competence; represents the development of intellectual and psychological components of future educational psychologists' family-orientated competence.
Keywords: Familyeducational psychologistsfamily-orientatedfamily-orientated competencepsychological and pedagogical activity
Actualizing the problem
The core role of a family determines its profound influence on the entire complex of growing person's physical and spiritual life. Family can be both a powerful developmental factor and a source of person's emotional and psychological support as well as a source of a person's trauma which can lead to various personality disorders and behavioral abnormalities (Minullina, 2014). A human is very sensitive to a family atmosphere, its condition, its prospects throughout the whole life. A child's attitude to himself/herself and people around is being formed in a family. The primary person's socialization, social roles mastering, basic values of life are laid in a family. Parents naturally influence their children through the mechanisms of imitation, identification and interiorization of parental behavior patterns. Family education has a unique catalyst – tribal feelings (Biktagirova, Burganova, 2012). Family education is unique, its absence or shortcomings are hard to compensate for at later life stages.
Explore Importance of the Problem
If family has such a strong influence on processes and results of personality development, then society and government should primarily focus on a family as a source of organization of correct educational impact. Strong, healthy, spiritual families are the basis for a powerful state. Nowadays the task of educational institutions and families is to revive person's sense of responsibility and pride for his/her origins and family, the desire to preserve and respect his/her family traditions. The actualization of the value of such disciplines as "Psychology of Family and Family Relationships", "Family Pedagogy" involves teachers transferring promoting knowledge which helps form students value systems, their attitude and behavior. This approach helps ensure personal choice and appropriation of values and leads to the formation of ideological ideas in students (Murtazina, Minullina, 2013, 2014; Sapopova, 2013). Family-based component of professional psychological and pedagogical competence determines the direction of future educational psychologists' training based on a family values priority, priority of children upbringing and family-oriented lifestyle.
Nowadays there are a lot of studies devoted to the problems of family relations, history of family development as a social institution, its functions and types (Azarov, 2015; Andreeva, 2004; Golod, 1998; Semenov, 1974; Schneider, 2000).
Within the training process of future educational psychologists it is important to form positive attitude to a family, family values and parenthood. These questions were investigated in the studies of Biktagirova (2013) and Biktagirova & Valeeva, (2015), Gasparyan (2009), Gurko (2003), Kharchev (2003), and others.
The issues of preparing students for the work with a family are described in the studies of Biktagirova, Valeeva, Minulina, Murtazina (Biktagirova & Valleva, 2015; Biktagirova, 2016, 2017; Murtazina, Minullina & Frolova, 2014).
Questions of family-orientated culture and competence development were investigated in the studies of Isakayeva (2008), Parfilova (2010), Plavinsky (2001).
The problem statement is connected with exacerbation of contradiction between society objective needs in development of family-orientated competence of future educational psychologists and the absence of adequate technological concept for this problem solution in university environment. This general contradiction is expressed in the form of a scientific problem at a theoretical and methodological level in the following way: what is the future educational psychologists' family-orientated competence dynamics? The topicality and immaturity of this problem served as a basis for a research topic determination.
Theoretical analysis of the problem allowed us to determine educational psychologist's family-orientated competence as a personal comprehensive development of an educational psychologist integrating family-orientated knowledge, needs and ability to implement knowledge within psychological and educational work with family related problems, and family upbringing. It also includes professional competence which allows to perform tasks of psychological and educational work at a high professional level, aspiration for self-education and self-development.
As a result of the research, we have identified intellectual, value, psychological and activity components.
Besides that, we have determined high, sufficient and elementary levels of future educational psychologists’ family-orientated competence development.
The dynamics of changes of the family-orientated competenceе of students was investigated in 2004-2005 and 2015-2017.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the development of future pedagogical psychologists family-orientated competence.
While investigation the following
We assessed the future educational psychologists family-orientated competence through the personal characteristics evaluation as well as through a system of criteria that externalize in integrative quality indicators of self-standing activity and success of mastering professional knowledge.
We used the results of students’ final control and the following methods:
1. Test by. Schneider,
2. Value survey by Rokich,
3. The Questionnaire of Terminal Values by Senin,
4. "Personal growth measurement survey".
Basis and investigation sampling
The study involved 300 educational psychology department students including 150 4-5-year students of Psychology Department of Kazan State Pedagogical University in 2004-2005 (Kazan State University later became a part of the Kazan (Volga region) Federal University), and 150 2-4-year educational psychology students of the of the Kazan (Volga region) Federal University. The work was carried out in 2015-2017.
Description of the experiment
At the beginning of the research, the concept of educational psychologist's family-orientated competence was defined and its main components were revealed:
Intellectual component – includes knowledge on modern researches about a family, a structure and functions of a family; a family relations concept; ideas about parenting, essentials of family education; peculiar aspects of diagnostic and corrective work with a family.
Value -based component includes commitment to family values in professional activities.
The psychological component includes needs, motivation and interest in family-orientated competence; it also includes personal attitudes toward the target goal realization and transformations.
Activity component is represented by availability and skills for the implementation of practical family-orientated activities.
Hence, we identified a high, sufficient and elementary levels of family-orientated competence for future educational psychologists.
During the preliminary experiment, we diagnosed future educational psychologist’s knowledge in matters of family upbringing and family relations (table
To determine the level of these courses knowledge that students possess we used a test by Schneider (2000), before and after the experiment. The test content covers the entire program of basic psychology and family pedagogy. This test is made especially for students of psychological and pedagogical departments. There are 6 tasks for each topic in the test. It uses algorithm of partially random selection of tasks limited by block frames (1 - fill in the blanks, 2 - right or wrong, 3 - choose the correct answer). The test includes several variations of tasks, being chosen randomly every time. The test is built on the basis of the gradual tasks complication. Such scheme allows to correct the probability of random responses.
The level of students’ knowledge before and after the experiment is given in table
As we can observe, the amount of students with elementary knowledge level before the experiment is 69.3% in 2004-2005. This fact creates additional motivation to improve students’ knowledge about psychological and pedagogical methods of work with a family. Re-conducting the survey after the experiment reveals significant changes, students’ knowledge improved to high and sufficient levels. Only 8% of students had an elementary level.
In 2015-2017 the number of students with elementary knowledge level before the experiment is 61.5%. It indicates that bigger amount of future pedagogical psychologists improved knowledge about psychology and family pedagogy. Re-conducting the survey after the experiment shows the growth of amount of students with a high and sufficient level of knowledge. Only 5% of students had an elementary level.
To prove the results of a positive dynamics of students’ knowledge we consider the performance levels of “Psychology of Family and Family Relationships” and “Family Pedagogy” courses based on exam results. Courses performance levels are shown in Tables
The exam results confirm that students’ academic progress in "Psychology of Family and Family Relationships", "Family Pedagogy" courses in 2004-2005 and 2015-2017 after the experiment is quite high. It allows to speak about the students’ knowledge positive dynamics and the development of family-orientated competence.
While learning these courses, students were exploring theoretical experience of psychological and pedagogical work with a family, systematization of psychological knowledge in matters of family upbringing, and family relations. All mentioned above was the basis for the family value orientation formation in professional activity. In the context of our study, it was found necessary to identify the formation process of family value orientation in a professional activity. We examined a group of terminal values using "Value Survey" by Rokich (2000), which included a "happy family life" value. The common basis point of the study was the necessity to realize which personal meaning is imported into each value. The main value meaning peculiarity is a high level of its abstraction and generality degree for the socio-cultural environment where a life of a person takes place. It means that despite all the differences in personal meanings, denoted by the same words, the generality is in this value relation to other values. We determined the values of student groups (before and after the experiment) in 2004-2005 and 2015-2017 to identify the family values orientation of these groups; to determine how students’ values hierarchy influences their professional activities, especially family-orientated competence.
In the 2004-2005 groups, before the experiment the following orientations were dominant: good and faithful friends, self-confidence, love, interesting work, happy family life. After the experiment the following values became dominant: love – this fact is typical for a given age, a happy family life, self-confidence, health, fulfilling work. Thus, during the experiment, differences in the value orientations of future educational psychologists with different levels of family-orientated competence were revealed.
In the 2015-2017 groups, before the experiment the following orientations were dominant: love, happy family life, interesting work, good and faithful friends, self-confidence. After the experiment, the following dominant values were revealed: love (typical for this age), a happy family life, health, and interesting work. As a result, it was found out that students’ family values orientation increased after the formative experiment in 2004-2005 groups. As for 2015-2017 groups, it held the leading position already after the experiment.
During the study, the educational process on the courses "Psychology of a Family and Family Relationships" and "Family Pedagogy" was focused on the value of a family in professional activities. Assessment of the effectiveness of changes is possible through diagnostic procedures. Thus, “The Questionnaire of Terminal Values by Senin” was used. (2000).
This questionnaire assumes that life spheres, which are represented in each person life to some extent, have different degrees of significance for different people. On this stage of the experiment we were interested in the following question: which life sphere is the most significant for future educational psychologists. All the groups were tasted two times: before and after obtaining the following courses: "Psychology of Family and Family Relationships" and “Family Pedagogy". The results are presented in Table
As a result, we can see the difference in the life spheres significance for students before and after the experiment. In 2004-2005, the sphere of a family life took the first place for future educational psychologists. This fact indicates the high importance of everything that relates to the life of one’s family. These people pay a lot of attention, time and energy to solve their family's problems, believing that the main thing in life is their family well-being.
The sphere of study and education remained unchanged, which reflects the desire of a person to improve the relationships with other people. All aspects of human relationships are usually very important for these people. They are often convinced that the most valuable thing is the opportunity to communicate and interact with other people. After the formative experiment the sphere of professional life took the third place. This fact indicates the high importance of professional activity for a person. These people spend a lot of time working, they are involved in all operational issues. Professional activity is the main content of their private lives. The importance of hobbies and interests sphere is low for such people. The importance of social life sphere (which reflects the high importance of society's life problems) decreased insignificantly. For 2015-2017 students a family life sphere took the first place before the experiment, professional life took the second place, study and education took the third one. After the experiment the significance of these spheres increased percentagewise.
The next step was "Personal growth measurement" test (Stepanov, Grigoriev & Kuleshova, 2003). A person reveals his/her personality through his/her attitude towards different life spheres. The attitude (according to this test) can be valuable (positive), non-valuable (indifferent) and anti-valuable (negative). The value attitude is the attitude of a subject to an object as a value. The interest of this study was dynamics of changes of future educational psychologists’ family value orientations; in this regard, the survey was conducted twice – before and after the formative experiment. This allowed to see not only the nature of the students' attitude to a family, but also the changes in this attitude during the following courses learning: "Psychology of Family and Family Relationships" and "Family Pedagogy" and it’s influence the family-orientated competence development. The results are presented in Table
The dynamics of students’ attitude and family values significance in 2004-2005 and 2015-2017 are similar. Comparing the 2004-2005 group’s tests results before and after the experiment, we observe a steady increase of family value of future educational psychologists.
We got the following results: just 12% of students in 2004-2005 and 13% in 2015-2017 believed the family had a high importance for future educational psychologists. They cherished family traditions and beliefs, they remembered about various trifles, pleasant for family members. Family holidays were always held with their participation and assistance. They wanted to create a happy family in the future. 42% of students in 2004-2005 and 43.2% of students in 2015-2017, considered the family as something valuable. The fact of having a family, and family traditions were perceived as natural by them ("how else could it be?"). These students take part in family celebrations, but without a reminder the one would unlikely remember grandmother's birthday. Parental care is taken for granted. The future family is perceived not to be like the one the student is living in. 36.7% of students in 2004-2005 and 35.6% of students in 2015-2017, had situational and consumer attitude to a family. Their families are to give money and forgive naughtiness. But if they want something serious from their parents, they will achieve it by any means – flattery, lies, temporary obedience. They believe that no one and nothing is obligated. 9.3% of students in 2004-2005, 8.2% of students in 2015-2017 didn’t see any value of the family. This attitude related to the shame on their family, and conscious rejection of any norms, ideas about life, presented in their own families. These could have negatively reflection on their ability and desire to create their own families.
Tests results after the experiment indicated the increase of family value significance to 42.7% in 2004-2005 and 44% in 2015-2017.
1. The essence-content characteristic of future educational psychologists family-orientated competence was revealed.
2. We observed the dynamics of changes of intellectual and value components of the family-orientated competence before and after the formative experiment.
3. Experimental verification of results on positive dynamics of family-orientated competence development took place in real conditions. This allowed to prove the sufficient effectiveness of the designed methodic. This pedagogical innovation system could be brought into mass practice.
The theoretical analysis of the problem allowed us to determine educational psychologist's family-orientated competence as a personal comprehensive development of an educational psychologist integrating family-orientated within psychological and educational work with family related problems and family upbringing. It also includes professional competence which allows to perform tasks of psychological and educational work at a high professional level, aspiration to self-education and self-development.
We have identified components (intellectual, value, psychological and activity) and levels (high, sufficient and elementary) of future educational psychologists’ family-orientated competence.
The carried out experimental work proved the hypothesis and conceptual provisions validity on dynamics of changes of future educational psychologists’ family-orientated competence.
The research results can be successfully used in courses, lectures and seminars development for students of psychology and pedagogy specialties in higher education institutions. It can also be used for university and college teacher’s development. The study revealed family-orientated competence essence and content, it described organizational and pedagogical conditions for family-orientated competence development. The theoretical and practical material presented in the study can also be used to enrich the courses "Psychology of Family and Family Relationships" and "Family Pedagogy" or for special courses for professional development of educators.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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31 August 2017
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Murtazina, E. I., & Biktagirova, G. F. (2017). Dynamics Of Familistic Competence Changes Of Future Educational Psychologists. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2017, vol 29. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 585-594). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.68