Subject Characteristics Of Teachers’ Personality And Work Efficiency

Abstract

Increased attention to the subject characteristics of teachers at the present time is based on the need to identify meaningful patterns of activity in teaching and in life. The subject characteristics are identified through the number of original techniques. It is shown that teachers of secondary educational institutions with subject and object orientations have different approaches to their work and life associated with the productivity of their activities. Highly effective teachers demonstrate predominantly subject characteristics (wide understanding of life, efficient choice of professionally and personally significant behavioral strategies) while ineffective teachers – object characteristics (low life reflection, professionally inefficient strategies, low personal involvement in teaching). Highly effective teachers noted a wide range of meaningful experiences (high "weight" life events), the most meaningful to them are gnostic, design, organizational aspects of pedagogical activity; personal, emotional response to the significant pedagogical situations. Ineffective teachers differ in a narrow range of meaningful experiences, low "weight" of life events. The choice of behavior strategies is characterized by the significance of communicative situations of educational activities; impersonal response to significant pedagogical situations. The results are obtained accordingly to the situational approaches.

Keywords: Subject orientationobject orientationeffectiveness of pedagogical activityteacher personality

Introduction

Currently researchers often focus on the person participation in the creation of his/her own life i.e. as a subject. This is considered the variety of creation's one’s own life story in different situations (Korjova 2015; Sergienko, 2011). In recent times the subjective characteristics becomes more and more popular in the field of education. This is not surprising since the subjectivity serves as a meaningful and effective description of the activity emphasizing the intentionality of the subject (Psychology and psychology of human existence, 2010; Mukhametzyanova et al., 2015). Thus subjective characteristics of a teacher go far beyond his/her professional activities but occur throughout his/her life's journey. Professional activities are included in the professional span as an integral part of the life span (Glukhanyuk, 2005). Professional activity of a teacher and personality can be considered through the understanding of life, its goals and values as a whole.

We can assume that it is advisable to consider subjective characteristics of the teacher in the context of professional activities and life in general. Professional activities are the part of the professional path as an integral part of the life path. Its reflection as reflection of teacher actions must be viewed through the prism of understanding life and understanding of a person purpose.

For understanding of the teacher as the subject of life including professional aspects it is important to consider the following points:

1. A person has the desire to cognize the outside world and inner world.

2. When it occurs the comprehension of the world including a person and a person himself/herself apart from the world.

Problem Statement

During the study of teachers’ psychological characteristics we used: the Technique of teachers’ strategies in professional activities, Psychological autobiography (Korzhova, 2002) and expert assessment of productive activities. The Technique of teachers’ strategies in professional activities allows identifying the situational specificity of teachers’ behavioral strategies. Psychological autobiography was used to identify important life situations.

Research Methods

100 teachers from secondary educational institutions participated in our research study. Among them 67 teachers were highly productive, and 43 were low productive. The expert assessment was carried out by six experts, the heads of educational institutions.

The study was conducted in three stages:

- at the first stage – preparatory stage – current state of the subjectivity in psychology problem of pedagogical activity was analyzed; the research techniques were developed;

- at the second stage – the main stage – the expert assessment of teachers and teachers interviewing was carried out;

- at the third stage – the final stage – the systematization, interpretation and generalization of the research results was carried out; theoretical insights were refined; the processing and clearance of the received results was carried out.

Findings

First, teachers evaluated the typical situations of pedagogical activity as a difficult and situations that bring satisfaction. Further they indicated appropriate behavior strategies of the proposed list. Then a survey of the most significant life events was conducted. Thus, the situational approach to the study of teachers’ psychological characteristics was implemented (The psychology of social situations, 1981; Korzhova, 2015).

First, we refer to the situational aspect of the teachers’ professional capacity. Table 01 presents the cumulative data. Data is based on the total number of difficult and satisfying situations. We can assume that the situations, that bring satisfaction, have some "buffer" impact, mitigating the influence of teachers’ negative life circumstances.

Table 1 -
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According to table 1 , highly productive teachers indicate more difficult pedagogical situations. However, in this case, the differences are unreliable, due to the large scatter of individual data. Significant differences were found when comparing the number of named situations that bring satisfaction. Highly productive teachers indicated more than five times more situations at work that they enjoy (significance of differences at p<0.01). Thus, highly productive teachers are not afraid of difficulties and know how to enjoy work.

Further, these teachers reviewed the types of significant pedagogical situations (table 02 ).

Table 2 -
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This may indicate a significant role of teachers’ individual characteristics in the perception of situations as difficult. In less significant situations, on the contrary, significant differences exist. Referring to the table 02 , it can be linked to the lack of such kind of situations in the responses of low-productive teachers that can characterize them more narrow range of important professional experiences.

More vivid picture is revealed when comparing data about situations that bring satisfaction. There is a clear trend of growth in the number of all types of situations, fulfilling, productive teachers compared to low productivity. The last of them experience satisfaction only in two situations: organizational (leadership style) and gnostic. All the parameters obtained no significant differences, except for organizational situations that bring satisfaction.

Now, we will carry out the analysis of the relevant strategies in teaching situations (table 03 ).

Table 3 -
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According to table 03 , high and low productive teachers entitled approximately equal number of selected strategies in difficult situations. Despite the fact that the differences are not reliable in situations that bring satisfaction, there are almost twice as many strategies of behavior. These data are quite consistent with the data given above about the situations that bring satisfaction. They are expressed more in highly productive teachers. Accordingly, when there are high importance situations, the range of behavioral strategies is expanding.

Consider the experience of high and low productive teacher’s life events. In table 04 there are presented the significant differences between the high and low productive teachers in all three outcome indicators number of these events.

Table 4 -
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The positive events developments outweigh the negative ones both in high and low productive teachers. However, it is noteworthy that highly productive teachers named a significantly greater number of negative events. This may be connected with their overall higher productivity and a wider range of important experiences. The high importance of negative events indicates some threat to adaptive capacity.

The highly productive teachers mentioned a wide range of important experiences, high "weight" of past and future life events. The most important for them were gnostic, design and organizational aspects of pedagogical activity, and attention contributes to its improvement; personal, emotional response to important pedagogical situations. Low teachers differed in a narrow range of important experiences, low "weight" of life events. The choice of strategies was characterized by the importance of communicative situations in teaching activities (mainly difficulties in communication with colleagues) that impede teaching activities; impersonal response to significant pedagogical situations.

Teachers’ psychological characteristics are widely discussed in the scientific literature, however, very fragmentary, while the assessment data from the position of subjectivity allows us to consider them systematically. In general, the subjective characteristics contribute to the professional success of a teacher. Subjective characteristics associated with interest in professional activities and the ability to get satisfaction from the process activities, whereas the object impeding the path. This conclusion cannot be taken as definitive, rather, it characterized the main trend. Thus, overly pronounced subjectivity can lead to the neglect of all that is outside of work, and violation of relationships with people; narrowing the range of interests, the exclusive focus on "me" and self-expression can lead to personal disadaptation. At the same time, a teacher with "object" orientation can successfully work being satisfied with the working conditions, stability, payment. For people such warehouse is a very important relationship that is emerging both at work and outside. Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships positively affects the process of professional activity.

Conclusion

The inconsistency of the psychological characteristic of high and low productive teachers demonstrates the necessity for the search of additional characteristics to ensure their mental health is intact. This indicates the need to consider spiritual and moral characteristics in the study of the life and professional career of teachers. The data obtained can be used to optimize teachers’ work and their personal development.

Acknowledgements

The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

References

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.65

Online ISSN

2357-1330