Modern Technologies Of Professional Training Of Students In The Conditions Of Multiculturalism
Relevance of the studied problem is urged by the requirement of society for the multicultural development prospect of modern education and insufficient degree of development of its theoretical and scientific methodological bases, and also by strengthening of influence of migrants’ transnational and regional adaptation on a modern society, that dictates new requirements to professional training of future teachers. The purpose of the article is to work out multifunctional pedagogical model of development of students’ professional multicultural competence in the context of cultural and historical, system and communicative-activity approaches and to approbate it. The leading technologies of a research are: technology of modeling, multicultural activity, communicative differentiation, self-activation, etc. Theoretically proved and practice-oriented multifunctional pedagogical model, including backbone competence components of multicultural contents, a perspective and adequacy of speech, is presented in the article. Their features and the substantial-procedural means focused on mastering of professional multicultural competence are presented there. The complex of multicultural problems of different level is defined, and orientational requirements to development of students’ professional training in the conditions of transnational and regional adaptation of migrant children, developed. The presented model is designed for teachers to master the main components of professional multicultural activity and its improvement in the context of creative use of various educational technologies.
Keywords: Pedagogical modeltransnational adaptationcoping-technologiesself-activationintegration
The attention to culturological problems of education has increased in pedagogics recently. Proceeding from this, the problem of new interpretation of educational activity, search of purposes in the context of modern times become actual (Lenkov, Rubtseva, 2015). Now special requirements to professional standard of pedagogical shots are imposed (Lenkov, 2015,). It is established that professional training of students has to meet the requirements of time, consider the changes happening in the world, be able to show readiness for constructive activities for development of society and creation of conditions for vital wellbeing for all his members (Asmolov, 2008). According to this the question of finding of the means and approaches meeting the requirements of transnational communicativeness and cross-cultural dialogue (Bondyreva, 2012) became actual. Content of education in dynamic and nonlinear conditions of transition to the person’s new concept opens a way to creation of cultural congruence education system (Danilyuk, Kandikov, Tminov, 2009; Lenkov, 2015). In these conditions the problem of professional multicultural training of the modern teacher occupies one of the priority places in modern society. Inclusion of a multicultural education paradigm into the educational sphere has caused a need of conceptual reconsideration of many cultural and educational provisions, inclusion of the components increasing research and personal activity of students into development of professional multicultural competence (Larionova, 2011). Therefore need to rely on the new ideas of education which are implemented in open, innovative, free educational models (Rubtseva, Lenkov, 2015) and lead to gradual overcoming a narrow view of many educational processes and to expansion of ideas about forms of motion of society increases, that is connected with emergence of more difficult concepts of change [Asmolov, 2008, Verbitsky, 2010]. In the idea of a multiculturationthe sufficient positivityis noted because this approach provides closer interaction of ethnocultural communities with the dominating culture on the basis of a social, cultural, religious and educational commonality (Afanasyeva, 2009). On this basis various theoretical and practical models of multicultural education are developed. Such approach will allow to predict and project innovative development of educational system of a multicultural orientation.
In the course of the research the following methods have been used: theoretical (analysis; synthesis; specification; activation; dipping method; emotional and semantic method; method of analogies, modeling); diagnostic (questioning; interviewing; testing, etc.); empirical (studying of experience; standard and educational-methodical literature and documentation, pedagogical observation); mathematical statistical data processing and interpretation of results.
Tested and experimental base of a research was Federal state autonomous educational institution of the higher education "The Kazan (Volga region) Federal University".
The research was pursued in three stages. At the first stage the theoretical analysis of scientific and scientific-methodical literature was carried out. The problem, the purpose and the methods of the research were allocated, the plan of experimental study was made. At the second stage the theoretical studies, designing of multifunctional pedagogical model of development of future teachers’ professional competence of a multicultural orientation was conducted. At the third stage the scientific experiment, for the analysis and generalization of results of theoretical-experimental work on professional training of students in the conditions of a multiculturation was performed.
In article the multifunctional pedagogical model of development of students’ professional multicultural competence is developed, including backbone components of multicultural contents, a multicultural perspective, components of special speech composition of professional types of multicultural activity. During the research sociological survey has been conducted among students of the Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, teachers of the high RT educational schools, parents of initial classes pupils and children. It has allowed to reveal typological features of migrants and their families which became a basis for the choice of optimum ways and forms of work with children in the course of their integration into new society. Development of the system of technological means is directed to identification of efficiency potential in each competence component.
It has been established that efficiency of use of pedagogical model of professional multicultural competence development in many respects depends on use of specially chosen technological means of a diversified orientation. Development of the system of technological means is directed to identify efficiency potential in each competence component. For the foregoing reasons in the research all competence components were considered through a prism of technological vectors. Components of multicultural contents were developed taking into account the technologies providing effectiveness of mastering poly-aspectual theoretical material of a multicultural orientation. The culturological technology promotes mastering necessary and sufficient educational material of culture of the modern multinational world in the context of a multi-vector motivational purpose (Danilyuk, Kandikov, Tminov, 2009; Lenkov, 2015). The comparative-ratio technology provides understanding the reasons of interaction and interpenetration of various processes of national, ethnocultural, civil identity when developing concrete types of professional activity with innovative approaches of a multicultural orientation (Gukalenko, 2015; Pine, 2011; Rattansy, 2015). The technology of self-organization, self-development and self-education serves as the uniting beginning on the basis of self-activation of personal qualities of students in the course of their participation in different types of multicultural activity (Andreyev, 2012). Such technologists of a multicultural perspective as technologies of migratory adaptation promotes finding fundamental principles of orientation in polyaspect processes (Danilyuk, Kandikov, Tminov, 2009). The technology of reflectivity and empathy is directed to getting into positive rapport with the different ethnos contingent on the basis of the corresponding choice of substantial and procedural tutorials of training and education (Afanasyeva, 2009; Pine, 2011). Influence of the developed technological means on competence components of specialized speech activity play out in providing high degree of effectiveness of professional speech activity use in aspect of its adequacy and situational conditionality. The communicative and creative technology promotes efficiency of finding non-standard substantial and procedural speech means; communicative and evaluative technology regulates the choice of special speech means of a multicultural orientation (Lenkov, Rubtseva, 2015). The developed technologies are considered in a research as significant components of development of professional multicultural competence (Lenkov, Rubtseva, 2015). Inclusion of multicultural contents components in process of professional training will allow students to focus attention on the difficult cultural-exchange processes happening in the world in the context of axiological and humanness essence of culture, etc. (Popkov, Kostiuk, 2014; Etuyev, 2013). Components of multicultural contents include: presentation provisions of a scientific-theoretical orientation; set of procedural means of efficiency of the educational material presentation in a monological and dialogical form; associative questions to reflection (Verbitsky, 2012); communicative tasks of a controlling-evaluative orientation, etc. On the basis of these components the following competences of a multicultural orientation are formed: presentation, informational and conceptual, motivational and target, educational and orientation, the competence of the choice of multicultural-educational provisions, of intellectual and creative interaction, contact making, communicative and integration, etc. Components of a multicultural perspective have the specifics (Pine, 2011; Popkov, Kostiuk, 2014). They demand special conceptual and analytical consideration within a psychological and pedagogical professional orientation. The professional focused components of a multicultural perspective include: information material of creation constructive dialogue; information and problem material of modern realities; material of multicultural, psychological and pedagogical interaction of a problem orientation, etc. On the basis of the deduced components of a multicultural perspective the following competences are developed: problem-analytical multicultural, organizational focused, correctional and methodical, communicative and regulatory, problem and compression, problem and predictive, problem and categorial, competence of forecasting problem situations and their prevention, competence of timely assistance in the aspect of social protection of the migratory contingent. Components of specialized speech composition include structural and substantial parameters of a multicultural orientation; analytical material of contents with inflectional specifics of conceptual meanings of a multicultural orientation; analytical material of concrete meaning with unambiguous interpretation without narrative semantic admissions; communicative parameters of use of standard cultural knowledge; tasks of a figurative and situational orientation, etc.
On the basis of these components multicultural competence of successful contact with various audience, competence of appropriate speech composition of different professional multicultural orientation, and competence of the logical argumentation of the used actual material with finding only correct for each case communicative and speech composition develop. In the research the teaching and educational material based on the most attractive and informative pictures of society livelihood in the host country, capable to draw attention of migrant children in the course of acquaintance, is developed. Expediency of development of special educational material is caused by the aspiration to provide positive perception of surrounding reality, to reformat the difficulties arisen in children’s consciousness. According to this requirements to development of professional training of students in the conditions of transnational and regional adaptation of migrant children have been worked out in the research. The main requirements in the article are the following: it is reasonable in these conditions to present a multicultural training material not only from a position of its interest, but also from a position of its positivity, perspectivity and expediency for successful adaptation in new environment; it is important to pay more attention to development of competence of forecasting problem situations for prevention of various negative manifestations; to development of ways of timely rendering social protection and the help to migrant children in making friends among peers of other ethnoculture; development of professional training of students in modern conditions has to rely on such indicators as attention to migrant children, their will, expression of the attitude towards the addressee and a situation. Such work allows to avoid concrete conflict situations and manifestation of children's aggression. In these conditions the professional focused work is premised on coping-technologies, reflexive, empathic, psychological, emotional and initiative technologies that promotes development in children feeling of participation in what occurs around, feelings of friendliness and interest in peaceful co-existence, understanding of that they are not strangers.
Stages of introduction of a model
Introduction of this model included the following stages of experimental work: development of technology, identification of students’ knowledge and degree of their readiness for implementation of professional activity of a multicultural orientation with use of such methods as testing, questioning, pedagogical observation, introspection of students, statistical processing of research results.
The stating stage
In total research has involved 102 students, 52 students became direct participants of an experiment. The analysis of diagnostic inspection results has allowed drawing a conclusion, that most of students on average have initial (69%) and average (20%) level of professional competence formation of a multicultural orientation of future teachers (Fig. 1).
The main objectives of this stage were: to implement the worked out special pedagogical model of development of students’ professional multicultural competence in educational process; to form students’ professionally significant multicultural competences based on the offered technologies; to observe experimental and control groups for comparison of the obtained data. For carrying out this experiment, the parts of the specially developed educational material that were most fully corresponding the purposes and problems of experimental training were chosen.
At this stage of experiment, we diagnosed cross-sections in groups of experimental and control selection, statistical processed the obtained empirical data, carried out high-quality comparative and benchmarking interpretation of experimental training results, wrote scientific articles, generalized and formulated conclusions by results of the research carried out. Data from a control cross-section have shown that significant changes of knowledge on the structural and substantial essence of the model developed in this research were found only in the experimental group where there was a shift in number of students with an average (57%) and high (34%) levels of formation of professional modeling. Essential changes in the level of formation of these abilities did not occurred in the control group. Results of the controlled cross-section are presented in fig.
The analysis of results of experimental and control groups has shown that the level of proficiency in multicultural competence of students in experimental group is higher. Students of control group showed quite weak orientations in indicators of multicultural competence.
Researches on problematics of prospects for further development of modern education reflect variety of scientific views, but allow noting lack of the special in-depth studies devoted to a problem of professional training of future teachers in aspect of a multiculturation. Inculturation phenomenon is analyzed in the context of modern processes of socialization and education of the studying youth (Asmolov, 2008; Erikson, 1963), conceptual basics of ethnocultural identity formation (Afanasyeva, 2009; Aboud, 1987) are covered, problems of tolerance and ethnotolerance are investigated (Boldina, Semenov, 2012; Bondyreva, 2012; WCAR. - 1978, 1983, 2001 and 2009). However, a consensus about problematics of professional training of future teachers in the context of requirements of a multiculturation isn't developed so far. The prospects of multicultural education are not defined, its backbone indicators in aspect of development of special multicultural competence of students are not deduced, the condition of the international relations in various regions in the context of psychological and pedagogical factors of education is insufficiently analyzed, etc. The cornerstone of this article is the aspect of the analysis of features of students’ professional multicultural training in the context of wide use of substantial and procedural training and educational tutorials which hasn't received due consideration. In the research pride of place goes to the professional focused, multicultural, ethnocultural, reflexive, empathic, research and selfactivation technologies. The research has shown efficiency of the choice of these approaches, which have apositive impact on increase of professional training of a multicultural orientation. Thus, results of the done work on mastering priority competence components on the basis of the practice focused training have found reflection in the article. Materials of article can be used in the course of practical professional activity of teachers of higher education institutions and teachers of comprehensive schools.
It is established that development of professional multicultural competence of students will be successful if this process is carried out on the basis of specially developed multifunctional pedagogical model of development of the professional multicultural competence consisting from interdependent and interacting complex backbone competence components. The system approach to the development of professional multicultural competence was carried out, efficiency indicators of the competence components application were deduced in the research. Expediency of the choice of students’ professional training educational technologies as principal in achievement efficiency and effectiveness of professional multicultural activity of the teacher were analyzed. The research has shown that the choice of the approaches and methods promoting professional multicultural training of students is effective. In the course of this work, a rather high level of mastering multicultural significant competence components, modeling of various types of professional activity on the basis of the practice focused training has been noted.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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