|The traditional manual
||The modern manual
|- the selection of contents is rigid, from which it follows a set of fixed information and an academic treatment of subjects
||- the selection of contents is permissive, from which it follows a set of variable information, in which the teacher and the pupil have free space of creation
|- the information is presented as an standardized interpretation, closed, universal and self-sufficient;- the information constitutes a purpose in itself.
||- the information is presented so that to stimulate alternative interpretations;- information is a means for the training of skills, values and attitudes.
|- provides a way of learning that involves memorization and reproduction.
||- offers a way of learning which involves understanding and explanation.
|- represents a mechanism for the formation of an ideological knowledge-type
||- represents a mechanism which stimulates the critical thinking.