The Physical Education Determinant of Children Social Integration

Abstract

Through the objectives and functions is performing, Physical Education and Sport brings positive influence on all facets of personality: biomotor, psychomotor and socio-motor. In this regard, Physical Education and Sport is defined as "a complex system of training that simultaneously engages the individual, favouring the improvement of the physical, psychological and socio-cultural skills" ( Dragnea et al ., 2000, p. 58 ). The literature recommends that social skills are taught using specific means of Physical Education and highlights the opportunity to develop personality traits through this discipline Şchiopu ( 1970 ); Orlik ( 1978 ); Underwood and Williams ( 1991 ); Hellison and Georgiadis ( 1992 ); Stiehl ( 1975 ); Sparks ( 1993 ); Shilds and Bredemeier ( 1995 ); Cutforth and Parker (1996 ). The research hypotheses were verified by experimental methods that are specific to the sociometric assessment. In terms of group cohesion as a result of applying the methodology that was focused on games and motor exercises we noted that the values of cohesion index increased in the case of final testing. All matrixes based on the data from sociometric indices were calculated and the results emphasized the preferential status of the subjects. The information extracted from these results entitled us to say that the research hypotheses were confirmed.

Keywords: Educationpersonalitydidactic strategysocial integration

Introduction

Through the objectives and functions is performing, Physical Education and Sport brings positive

influence on all facets of personality: biomotor, psychomotor and socio-motor. In this regard, Physical

Education and Sport is defined as "a complex system of training that simultaneously engages the

individual, favouring the improvement of the physical, psychological and socio-cultural skills" (Dragnea

et al., 2000).

The literature recommends that social skills are taught using specific means of Physical Education

and highlights the opportunity to develop personality traits through this discipline Şchiopu (1970 ); Orlik

(1978 ); Underwood and Williams (1991); Hellison and Georgiadis (1992 ); Stiehl (1975); Sparks (1993

); Shilds and Bredemeier (1995); Cutforth and Parker (1996).

Regarding the influence of Physical Education and Sport on improving team spirit, studies were

conducted by Zamfir (1982); Glover and Midura (1992); Hellion (1996); Feşteu (1998); Derlogea (2006);

Red (2008) etc.

Content, Methodology

Our experimental approach was focused on verifying the contribution of the formal motor

activities orientated on the personality development of the pupils from their social integration perspective.

The research approach was based on the following working hypothesis: I1 The application of educational motor games regarding speed and coordination (5th grade) and

some specific exercises regarding sports games like basketball and football (7th grade) will provide

collaboration and cooperation, will determine the intellectual level of the pupils and increase group

cohesion;

I2 Operating through educational games and speed motor skills as well as team sports exercises specific to basketball and football having cooperation and collaboration character determines the level of

the students; improves interpersonal behaviour by modifying individual psycho-social profile.

During the experimental research achieved in „Vintilă Bratianu” Gymnasium School from Stefanesti, Arges, at the 5th and 7th grade level, the independent variables were the didactic strategy, the

formal motor activities, the methods, means and the organization forms proposed by us, the dependent

variable being the behaviour the pupils in the group.

One of the experimental groups is formed from 18 pupils of 5th grade. The other group is

represented by the 28 pupils of 7th grade. The pupils from 5th grade are very familiarly with each other,

the group being the same since 1st grade. Conversely, the 7th grade was formed by the union of two 6th

former classes which, in the previously classes, they played a lot of activities in common.

In order to have the confidentiality of the data we wrote the initials of the subjects when we did the

sociometric matrix.

Our experiment is a longitudinal, provoked and natural one and it was conducted between

17.09.2014 - 29.01.2015.

By the content of the didactical strategy we wanted to develop the skills of the "Personality

features improvement" category stated in the Physical Education and Sport syllabus regarding those

classes. The methodology that was applied during the experiment was orientated in two directions: •For the 5th grade, we had in mind the fact that the pupils have the age when the best way to learn the knowledge and motor skills is still the game. On this line we had choose the motor games (23 games)

to improve two base motor skills, speed and coordination, skills that are recommended to be intensely

improved at this age (11-12 years);

•For the 7th grade, we used exercises in order to improve the motor skills specific for basketball and football knowing that the pupils are older and they have a better motor background.

Findings

The results of the experiment were analyzed in two ways: the dynamics of the social behaviour

and the members’ status from the experimental groups; the determination of the interpersonal behaviour

and the achievement of the psychosocial individual profile.

The subjects of the two groups had fill in a sociometric questionnaire at the beginning and at the

end of the experimental period that was focused on the interpersonal relationships from the class micro-

group. The results were compared in order to verify the first hypothesis according which, if the motor

activities programme with collaboration tasks has contributed to the improvement of social behaviour by

increasing the group cohesion and of the status of its members.

We also achieved a sociometric matrix that was represented by a table with double approach, each

subject being marked in the matrix based on the established code (the initials of the name and surname).

For each subject we marked the attractions that were expressed, noted with „+” and the rejections market

with „-“. The sociometric matrix expresses the central result of the number and the values of all

preferences and rejections obtained by each subject.

Figure 1: Group cohesion progression class V
Group cohesion progression class V
See Full Size >
Figure 2: Group cohesion progression class VII
Group cohesion progression class VII
See Full Size >

The 5th grade subjects had a progression from a week cohesion group to a medium, moderate

cohesion one (graphic 1). At the end of the experiment we determined the increase of the cohesion index

from 0,1, in the initial testing to 0,45, which demonstrates the improvement of the relations inside the

experimental group and by this the I1 hypothesis is confirmed (graphic 2).

The same positive evolution is observed at the 7th grade too, from a weak cohesion group (0.12)

toward a moderate cohesion group (0.41), results that confirm the I1 hypothesis, demonstrating in the same time an improvement of the group members relations'.

In what concerns the subjects ranking, at the 5th grade we found the following situation: one

subject had the most popular member status, 12 subjects were accepted and 5 of them were marginalized

by the group. At the end of the experiment the distribution on zones shows that the number of the popular

and accepted ones' increased and the number of the marginalized ones' decreased: 4 popular, 12 accepted

and 2 marginalized.

The ranking of the 7th grade subjects shoed the following dynamic: 2subjects are the class's

popular, 14 are accepted, 2 indifferent and 10 marginalized, at the first evaluation; 5 popular subjects, 15

accepted subjects, 5 indifferent and 3 marginalized, at the end of the second evaluation.

So, we found that the positive changes in what concerns the dynamic of the cohesion index as well

as the members status from the experimental groups are determined by the didactic strategy which is

focused on games and motor exercises that are based on collaboration and cooperation, during the 28th

lessons of physical education for the 5th grade and 34 for the 7th grade.

The interpersonal behaviour determination was achieved by completing an individual answer sheet

elaborated by M. Zlate (2008, p.233). The sheet contains nine personality features, considered by Zlate as

being essentials for the individual interpersonal behaviour determination.

Each subject puts a score between 1 and 5 using the Linkert scale to each member of the group.

The sheets were completed at the beginning and at the end of the experimental period by the subjects of

the two groups.

The appreciation in value of the subject's personality was done by computing the average of the

score received from the other members of the group. Based on the obtained values the psychosocial

profile of the subjects was made (fig.1 for 5th grade).

The value interpretation of the data is emphasized by comparing the averages from the initial and

final tests and the graphic interpretation was realised depending on the left or right orientation of the

obtained data (fig.1).

Analysing the psychosocial profiles of the 18th subjects of the 5th grade, we can see that, at the

initial test, they have a main orientation to the right, which demonstrates that the formal activities

programme aimed in a positive way the for collaboration personality features: sociable; positive

interaction facilitator; unselfish, cooperating. So, the working hypothesis I2 according to which, by acting with some games of speed and coordination improvement, having a cooperation and collaboration

character, the interpersonal behaviour of the group can be improved.

For the 7th grade we compared the results of the initial and final test, as well as the psychosocial

profiles in order to verify the I2 working hypothesis. The increased values from answering sheets in final test as well as the right orientation of the psychosocial profiles demonstrates that the collaboration motor

activities program has led to an improvement of the interpersonal behaviour specific to the group,

verifying the I2.

Figure 3: The psychosocial profile of the 5th grade subjects in the initial testing (black line) and final testing (red line).
The psychosocial profile of the 5th grade subjects in the initial testing (black line) and final testing (red line).
See Full Size >

Conclusions

One of the learning content that has been introduced for Physical Education discipline is "The

personality features improvement'". This contributes to the achievement of the key competences set called

"Interpersonal, intercultural, social and civics competences".

The new learning content has received a general competence called "The application of the rules

system that is specific to the organization and practice of the physical education and sport activities and

the adopting of an adequate behaviour in the framework of the interpersonal and group relationships",

having subordinated a set of specific competences/classes level. The learning category that aims the

improvement of the personality features of the pupils demonstrates that the actual Physical Education

doesn't have to be focused only on motor performance, acting exclusively on biomotor side, but also it

has to contribute to the entire personality improvement of the pupils.

The learning units related to "Personality features improvement" content can be activated by using

a didactic strategy that is adequate it to the educational needs of the pupils and the actual social requires,

orientated on contents, methods, means, organization forms that will facilitate cooperation, collaboration,

benevolent, team spirit, fair-play, etc.

The sociometric date recorded at the end of the experiment determines us to say that the working

hypothesis I1 is confirmed in the case of both experimental groups. The practice of the learning contents, by a didactic methodology that is adequate it to the educational needs of the pupils and the actual social needs, has led to the improvement of the cohesion between the experimental groups members', as well as to the improvement of the subject’s status inside the groups.

The individual psychosocial profiles that are emphasizing each personality feature, that were determined at the end of the experiment, give us objective arguments to appreciate that most of the subjects have made an improvement of the personality features indices that are adequate for the social integration. The increased values and the right orientation of the psychosocial profiles demonstrated that the working hypothesis I2 is confirmed for both experimental groups.

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2017.05.02.180

Online ISSN

2357-1330