Approaches To The Relationship Between Theacher And Parent With “Pronunced Personalities”


There seems to be a strong link between the parent’s personality type and the relationship he or she develops with the teaching staff; a much needed relationship in ensuring the academic achievement of the child. As a result, the teacher must develop psychological understanding of his or hers pupil’s parents, actually performing – to some degree – an analysis of their personality. The purpose of this understanding is to ensure personalized approaches to parents manifesting characteristics of a pronounced personality type in order to avoid, prevent or even settle various conflicts that may arise. The investigation aims at identifying approaches that would prevent and/or settle conflicts between sanestructured personalities – the teachers – and paranoid personalities – the parents. Data obtained from statistical analysis demonstrates that when we encounter a conflict, whether between teacher and parent or between other individuals, reaction must depend on the accented type of our personality, for this is dictates the style of resolving conflict that we naturally adopt. We express and react according to what we are, we feel, live, life events can change our way of thinking but we cannot change our personality, which will continuously be an object of study for specialists.

Keywords: Pronounced personality; conflict resolution strategiesteacher-parent relationship


Educational conflict constitutes an ingredient of both school and everyday life and is frequently

met as a teacher-parent relationship. Conflict is a theme of the past, present and future, easily aroused and

difficult to prevent, and at its base lies not merely human personality (Boulding, 1962).

We chose to address the conflict between teachers and their students' parents not for being a

topical issue, but because it frequently occurs in different forms and is strongly influenced by the socio-

economic, political and educational default.

Theoretical Foundation

Conflict has been defined in psychological terms as " fighting tendencies and interests, situation

where an individual is subjected to opposing forces and of almost equal power ". Freud was talking about

a fundamental conflict, universal, which in his view were not solvable. This conflict arises between

instinctual impulses of the individual and the prohibitive environment: family and society. It was believed

that a compromise or censorship is the only viable solution (Horney, 1998).

Most often the conflict between parents and teachers begins with school failure due to

contradictory discussions of the student or parent’s suspicion about the impartiality of the teacher in

assessing the pupil. Conflict can be powered by the personality of the parent increased by discrepancies in

the level of training, ideology, differences in culture, religion, but can be mitigated by the teacher through

conflict management strategies tailored according to the personality of the parent. Also, the teacher can

use contradictions started in constructive ways (eg parent mobilization and involvement in various

extracurricular activities) or destructive ways by extending their conflict and its inevitable escalation.

(Caluschi, 2001)

Analyzing conflict, Cornelius & Faire (2000) identifies three phases:

It turns out that the onset of the conflict is due to the disagreement between the different ways of

perceiving a situation and clearly highlights the way of being and thinking of each individual.

Disagreement can be stopped in time and can be classified as a misunderstanding or a minor dispute

which does not degenerate into conflict, and ultimately may even be constructive (Cornelius & Faire,


Feeding disagreement is the second phase of the conflict and is characterized by seeking to impose

one’s point of view in an exaggerated manner and by emphasizing errors of the other side, so

communication becomes cumbersome, flawed, which causes frustration and creates tensions (Ciubotaru

& Pasat, 2005).

The third stage represents the conflict resolution strategy. After the onset of a conflict, being aware

of the situation and implementing strategies to settle the conflict is ideal. A correct application with the

purpose of conflict settlement can lead to a constructive conflict having a positive effect, while

mismanagement, pursuing one’s own interests leads to destruction

Conflict involves a behavior-based exaggerated competition which intensifies disagreements,

possibly resulting in physical and/or verbal aggression (Frunjină & Teşileanu, 2002).

Potential causes for the appearance of conflicts between teachers and parents of students:

- Faulty communication between parent and teacher either in one or both sides due to the small

number of meetings, and disagreement (Pânişoară, 2004; Tran, & Stangiucelu, 2003);

- Needs and human interests (eg linking the teacher to a parent who manifests paranoid-oriented

behavior – sustaining the need to be in conflict, and in order to satisfy them, enters or arises conflict);(

Marinescu, 2003).

- Self-esteem can influence conflict. Both over-increased self-esteem, low self-esteem, born of

frustration and/or inferiority complex, can easily lead to individual conflict (Cornelius & Faire, 2000);

- Differences in the value system of the individuals – every individual has a value system that

includes principles leading their life, beliefs about what is important, therefore it is value that ultimately

guides individual behavior and feelings. This value is implemented by family, religion, political and

social environment in which the individual belongs. An attack on these values degenerates clearly into a

conflict; the individual perceives the conflict as being personal, feeling his/hers’ self-esteem affected,

therefore a compromise that could resolve the conflict would involve compromising the image and

integrity of the individual from the respective point of view (Juncan, 2016).

- Aggression, inadequate behavior, self-imposed prestige, glory or power, drive the individual,

which can’t take into account the cost, and even possible collateral damage they could inflict trying to

fulfill their goal (Donțu, 2016).

As mentioned above, one of the causes of conflict between teacher and parent is the parent

accentuated personality type. Karl Leonhard (1972) argues that the most striking features are features of

temper; they are the ones who shape the character. It underscores that these tempers are deep, innate, can

be observed since an early age of childhood. Thus, he identified twelve personality traits: demonstration,

hyper-exact, hyper-perseverant, unrestrained, hyperthimic, dysthymic, labile, excited, anxious, emotional,

extroverted and introverted. Hyper-perseverant trait (paranoid) manifests through exaggerated ambition in

achieving their goals, making those belonging in this category to be selfish, jealous and display a certain

degree of paranoia which is increased precisely by susceptibility and ambition, which favors and sustains

a sense of injury, changing their attitude into a hostile one. People falling in this category are dominated

by pride and social imposition is achieved with a somewhat greater cost than usual (Salanta, 2012).

Anxious trait, is represented by fear. It usually starts in childhood through fear of the dark or

loneliness. In adulthood, the trait is manifested by shyness and inability to support one’s point of view in

a dispute (Moscovici, 1998).


The research objective is to find prevention means, helpful for teachers or solutions to the conflicts

in the relationship with parents who exhibit strong personality traits, with an emphasis on paranoid

personality type.

As noted in the theoretical section of the paper, there seems to be a close link between personality

type and the ways to manage conflicts (Grant, 1998). A solid knowledge of parent personality is required

for the teacher to be able to predict how the parent responds to conflict and to identify the most effective

way of solving it accordingly. (Iosifescu, 2006).

Starting from the idea that personality dictates the way we approach conflict, we formulated the

following hypotheses more research:

1.There is a proportional correlation between pronounced paranoid personality (hyper-persistent)

and the style of resolving competitive conflicts and inverse-proportional to the abandonment and

adaptability style.

2.There is a proportional correlation between anxious personality type and abandonment conflict

resolution style and inverse-proportional to compromise solving style.

3.There is a proportional correlation between demonstrative personality type (hysterical) and

competitive conflict resolution style and inverse-proportional to adaptability solving style.

Our research aimed to identify the personality types of parents as well as the approaches they

convey when attempting to settle conflicts. The investigation was conducted on a sample of 40

participants, aged 30 to 47, of which 27 were female and 14 male; all parents of 1st graders. For

identifying “pronounced personalities” the H. Schmieschek Questionnaire was used and for identifying

conflict settling approaches the Conflict Resolution Style Questionnaire was applied. The application of

two questionnaires aims to determine the style of conflict resolution in relation to the type of personality


Based on the idea that personality dictates the way conflict is approached, we suspected that

paranoid personality types would have a competitive approach, strongly supporting own arguments and

generating tension which will in turn have an impact on the teacher-parent relationship as well as the

overall socio-emotional climate of the classroom.

Results and Discussions

The analysis of descriptive statistics on subjects' responses to two questionnaires revealed the

following: In terms of age, the youngest participant is 30 years old, the oldest is 47, the average m=34.4,

with a standard deviation sd=9 29.

If we refer to cyclothymia, average m=11.10. The obtained average reveals that the people

surveyed have cyclothymia average, according to the standard, which means that the alternation from one

state to another is occurs with reduced regularity, ie prevalence of depressive and euphoric states do not

have an accentuated pronouncement.

For excitement, average m=8. This is the third reported standard and hence deduces that

excitement has a low relative frequency among participants, so exaggerated states of euphoria and

despair, are not so common among this group. Anxiety has an average m=8, which shows, as in the case

of exaltation, that anxiety level is relatively low, so people surveyed have reduced fear.

For demonstrative type, average m=12.53. At given benchmark, the average has a share of about

50%, which shows that surveyed respondents with tendencies to hysteria seek to assert.

For hyperarousal, the average is m=13.33. The average has a share of around 55%, which shows

clear trends toward exaggeration in work, hysteria, excitement and doubt.

Hyper-perseverance captures am average m= 17.00. Average weight is about 70% relative to the

standard and sample. This large average score highlights predominantly paranoid personality.

Figure 1: Table 1. Descriptive statistics
Table 1. Descriptive statistics
See Full Size >

When it comes to the unrestrained, average m=10.47. The average is below 50%, loss of control is

not so pronounced, participants do not tend to be impulsive, aggressive or unstable.

Emotivism reveals, an average of m=12.00. An average of 12.00, if sensibility, trends represent

50%, an average of representative aspects of the self.

For hyperthimia, the average is m=10.00. Averaging below 50% in the sample, we can’t deem

people hyperthimic, only some aspects of this category are found in completing a personality type.

Dysthymia drew an average of m=13.00. It brings a rate of over 50%, which means that there are

dysthymic tendencies within the questioned group.

Abandonment, according to the table below brings us an average m=0.37. Adaptability has an

average m=1.33. For competitiveness style of resolving conflict, average m=2.10.

Compromise, based on the benchmark, has averaged m=2.20.

Beneficial conflict, targets those individuals or groups which are satisfied with a condition or

situation in which they can be made to react, to recognize and solve a problem only when the pressure of

opposition is perceived (Le Bon, G., 1990).

Beneficial conflict sparks creativity and productivity at both the individual level and

organization-wide. This type of conflict reduces tensions and encourages the evolution of the individual,

the organization and hence one’s personal development.

In order to test the mentioned hypotheses, we conducted a correlational study, which appears in

the table "Correlations":

First Hypothesis - as observed between increased paranoid personality (hyper-persistent) and style

of competitive conflict resolving type there is a significant correlation r = .530 (**) which means that

with increased paranoid personality type, style of conflict resolution increases the competitive type.

Equally, it obtained a coefficient r = -.626 (**) between adaptive and increasingly paranoid style negative

between paranoid and resolution through abandonment, obtaining a coefficient of r = -.468 (**), here

reveals that paranoid style will not address any adaptability, nor abandonment, and with increasingly

accented paranoid personality indicators or hyper-persistent trait, according to Schmieschek's

questionnaire, minus styles of solving conflicts by abandonment and adaptability.

Second Hypothesis - we observe that between stressed and anxious personality type and

abandonment style of resolving conflicts there is a significant correlation r = .547 (**), which means that

the anxious personality type increases style of conflict resolution by forfeit. Also obtained a coefficient r = -.641 (**) between anxious and compromise style of resolving conflict, such as personality type

indicator values to grow anxious, decreases the number of conflict resolutions through compromise.

Third Hypothesis – it is observable that accentuated demonstrative personality type (hysterical

personality) is directly proportional to the competitive type conflict resolution, with a significant

correlation r = .554 (**), which means that demonstrative types increases the competitive resolution style,

while achieving an inverse correlation between trait and adaptive style of resolution with a coefficient r =

-.574 (**), with increased demonstrative trait, decreasing the number of conflict resolution through


Table 1 -
See Full Size >

Additionally, in order to have an overview of the variables we will discuss other significant

correlations obtained:

As noted, increased between Cyclothymia personality type and compromise resolution, there is a

significant inverse relationship r = -.678 (**), implying that cyclothymia personality type decreases

compromise resolution, this is absolutely normal because of the description of this trait which shows

alternation from one state to another and is not going to accept a compromise-type settlement to the


Regarding exaltation we can interpret that it is directly proportional to the abandon style of

resolving conflict, having a significant correlation r = .547 (**), which means that emphasizing the

exalted trait, there is an increment in abandonment conflict resolution type. We obtained an inverse

correlation between the exalted trait and adaptive solution with a coefficient r = -641 (**), with an

intensification of traits decreasing the number of conflict resolutions through compromise. This aspect

may be relevant given the specific nature of the exalted.

Also, a pronounced personality type is directly proportional to the unrestrained style of

competitive conflict resolution, with a significant correlation r = .610 (**), which means that emphasizing uncontrollable trait increases of competitive conflict resolution style. We obtained an inverse ratio

between rampant traits and adaptive styles of solving conflict with a coefficient r = -.567 (**), this means

that this thread does not accept as a variant resolution the permissive-adaptive conflict resolution style.

It is noted that emotional types adopt the adaptive style of resolving conflict, in direct proportion

to this style, with a significant correlation r = .472 (**), which means that a with the emphasis on this

type of personality increases the adaptive , style of conflict resolution.


After statistical processing of the data, assumptions were confirmed. Paranoid parents react in a

specific way when it comes to conflict with the teacher. Always suspicious, questioning every sentence

spoken by the teacher, which easily can turn the latter into an opponent if the paranoid "feels that …", ie

if the expression used is not an open, clear, and punctual one and leaves room for interpretations that stir

multiple questions in the minds of people employed in this type of personality.

The response is not overdue, the style adopted is competitive because it retains consistency in

ideas, does not abandon them, always being defensive, making all sorts of minor and unimportant

accusations. Always on guard, with the impression of danger, because the world is constantly opposing

him/her, so a blank stare can awaken suspicion of a lie. A paranoid parent does not address the permissive

style, does not give up ideas which multiply in the mind, as well as combinations of n taken by k, are

neither flexible nor tolerant. Abandonment is not a solution; conflicts are felt at a high-enough level that

withdrawal is out of the question. Paranoid types tend to make complaints, or exculpate before accusing

those around

And if paranoid does not abandon, there is the anxious at the other end. The anxious will abandon

immediately, out of fear. Always fearful by nature, anxious parents tend to give up as a first impulse and

usually beat in retreat. They do not show up for meetings with other parents for fear of being criticized for

their child’s outcomes or behavior. They lack the courage to express their views or to explain school

failure of their child because fear and panic guides their movements, words, feelings, limiting their

existence, depriving them of the joy of living relaxed and peaceful. Physical effects of anxiety aren’t

helping them either: sweating, hot flashes and lump in the throat, all can induce a state of irritability on

top of all the discomfort, thus fulfilling all the prerequisites of a failure when it comes to conflict, his

experiences as inner conflict eating them on the inside. However if they decide to tackle a different style,

certainly will not make a compromise. This would amplify anxiety, ultimately, compromise is often the

one that leads to anxiety in the first place, fearing that the decision was not the correct one, doubting the

given resolve.

Demonstrative natures, hysterical types, adopt victory-defeat as a way of solving the conflict,

sustained by the presented research. Parents belonging to this category are the self-chosen chiefs of the

parent’s committee. Aggressive behavior, volcanic eruptions in both tense and less tense situations,

theatrical by nature and always in the spotlight, they shall adopt the competitive style, as mentioned

above, and will adopt compromise or abandon styles, but a permissive style in any case, because none of

the styles are intertwined with what they characterize.

We are so different socially, culturally, religiously, but when it comes to reaction there are a

number of similarities demonstrated by studies, eventually, no matter where in the world you are, if

you're paranoid, you are likely to react similarly to any paranoid in the opposite corner ( Milcu, 2005).

Human interrelatedness constantly evolves, therefore, by default, so does the teacher-parent

relationship, and with it the ways of solving conflicts must keep pace, therefore the conflict management

techniques and knowledge base must be updated to match the times in which we live.


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Cite this article as:

Vancu, G., & Egerău, A. (2017). Approaches To The Relationship Between Theacher And Parent With “Pronunced Personalities”. In E. Soare, & C. Langa (Eds.), Education Facing Contemporary World Issues, vol 23. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1274-1281). Future Academy.