Revealing the Main Determinants of Employee Job Satisfaction in Jordanian Hospitals. An Empirical Analysis based on McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale
The paper aims to reveal the main determinants of job satisfaction based on McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale (MMSS) using exploratory factor analysis and for a sample of 325 employees from six hospitals at the level of the year 2015. The empirical results revealed the existence of a four factor structure, highlighting the main factors of job satisfaction from the perspective of Jordanian employees as -“satisfaction with praise/recognition”, “satisfaction with extrinsic rewards and satisfaction with the balance of family”, “satisfaction with interaction opportunities”, and “satisfaction with professional opportunities”. The findings revealed that the financial incentives are very important but also non-financial incentives are fundamental in enhancing motivation among health employees.
Keywords: Job satisfactionsurveyhospitalsJordanMcCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale
Health worker motivation can be defined “as the willingness to exert and maintain an effort toward
organizational goals” (Franco, Bennett and Kanfer, 2002). Low motivation has a negative impact on
the performance of individual health workers, facilities, and the health system as a whole (Mathauer &
The shortage of work motivation represents the major concern of health system performance in
middle-income countries, taking into account the fact that it could have a large impact on health
systems performance and for this reason it is very important to know more about the key factors that
influence motivation in a country like Jordan.
McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale (MMSS) using exploratory factor analysis and for a sample of
325 employees from six hospitals at the level of the year 2015.
The present study was conducted on the hospital employees as they are one of the most important
stakeholders in hospitals to probe the factors influencing their job satisfaction. The study sample is
composed by doctors, nurses, helpers, support staff, administrative staff and other health related staff.
The investigation of job satisfaction of the employees especially for healthcare institutions like
hospitals can make a significant contribution to better understanding of the complex phenomena of
2. Literature review
Although the general theme of worker motivation was intensively approached and investigated in
the literature, there is a relative few studies that examines health worker motivation in a country like
Jordan and even a smaller number of studies approaching the overall health employee motivation not
only the satisfaction of nurses.
Amarneh and Al-Rub (2009) analysed the effect of social support from co-workers on job
performance using a convenience sample of 365 Jordanian hospital nurses, revealing a positive effect
of co-workers support on job performance.
Empirical studies concerning job satisfaction and job performance of Jordanian nurses are provided
by Mrayyan (2007, 2008, 2009), Mrayyan and AlFaouri (2008), AbuAlRub, Omari, and Al-Zaru
Mrayyan (2007) surveyed a convenience sample of 433 nurses from both teaching and non-teaching
Jordanian hospitals, pointing out that nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied and the level of
nurses’ job satisfaction was higher in non-teaching hospital than teaching hospitals.
Mrayyan and AlFaouri (2008) surveyed a sample of 640 of Jordanian nurses, highlighting that there
are no differences of nurses’ career commitment in governmental hospitals, teaching hospitals, and
AbuAlRub, Omari and Al-Zaru (2009) compared the levels of nurses’ job satisfaction in both public
and private hospitals using a sample of 483 Jordanian nurses, revealing that the level of nurses’ job
satisfaction was higher in private hospitals than public hospitals.
It is important to mention that despite the fact that health employees are almost satisfied with their
financial rewards, non-financial instruments of motivation could be very important and could be even
more effective in the process of improving employee motivation and retention.
3.Methodology and data
In 1990, Mueller and McCloskey revised McCloskey's satisfaction scale had three dimensions of
incentives hypothesized to promote job satisfaction: safety, social, and psychological dimensions
(Mueller & McCloskey, 1990). The safety dimension included satisfaction with salary and benefits,
balance of family and work, and opportunities to work straight days. The social dimension included
satisfaction with supervisor support, relationships with peers, and opportunities to socialize with
colleagues. The psychological dimension included satisfaction with praise and recognition, control over
work activities, and professional opportunities (Mueller & McCloskey, 1974).
The MMSS was used to measure six components of job satisfaction- satisfaction with extrinsic
rewards, balance of family and work, interaction opportunities, professional opportunities, praise and
recognition, and control and responsibility (McCloskey & McCain, 1987; Mueller & McCloskey,
The studies of Jaiswal et al. (2015), Tourangeau et al. (2006), Kožuchová et al. (2015), and Lambrou
et al. (2010) have used the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale (MMSS) in order to analyse the
According to the short-form of the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale (MMSS), the score of job
satisfaction is represented by the mean of the 16 items rated on a five point Likert scale (5 = very
satisfied, 4 = moderately satisfied, 3 = neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 2 = dissatisfied, 1 = very
dissatisfied) arranged into 6 dimensions:
Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards (3 items: salary, vacation, benefits package);
satisfaction with the balance of family (2 items: child care facilities, maternity/parental leave
time); satisfaction with interaction opportunities (3 items: opportunities to interact professionally with other disciplines, social contact with colleagues at work and after work); satisfaction with professional opportunities (3 items: opportunities to write and publish, to participate in research, to belong to department and institutional committees); satisfaction with praise/recognition (3 items: recognition from superiors, recognition from peers, amount of positive feedback ); satisfaction with control and responsibility (1 item: career advancement).
According to Jaiswal et al. (2015), job satisfaction score for each respondent was worked out with the formula mentioned below and were classified into five groups according to the level of job satisfaction. A higher score indicated greater job satisfaction.
job_(satisf_score )=(total obtained score for a respondent)/(5*total number of questions) (1) The research was carried out among 325 health workers in six hospitals of Jordan: King Abdullah Hospital public hospital, Amman Specialist Hospital private hospital, Irbid Specialist Hospital private
hospital, Ibn Al-Nafees private hospital, Al-Shona public hospital and Princess Basma hospital the
biggest public hospital.
These six hospitals were chosen because they represented the range of public/private hospital
settings and circumstances. It was never intended for the results from these hospitals to be
representative of all other hospitals in Jordan. The data was collected in the period July-September
In order to analyse the responses of items were used descriptive statistics (mean and standard
deviation). For the revealing of the main determinants of job satisfaction, exploratory factor analysis
using principal component technique with Varimax rotation was used. The Statistical Package for
Social Sciences version 22.0 (SPSS) was used to perform the analysis.
This research aimed to answer the following research questions: (1) How satisfied are with their
jobs the employees in Jordanian hospitals? (2) What are the main determinants of job satisfaction in
Jordanian hospitals? (3) Are they financial incentives or not? (4) Can the non-financial incentives
improve the Jordanian employees’ satisfaction?
4.1. Sample profile
From the total of 325 respondents, 66.5% of them are from public hospitals, while only 33.5% of
respondents work in private hospitals. Therefore, we can mention that about 33% of the respondents
work in Princess Basma Hospital, while almost 22% of them are working in Irbid hospital and King
Abdullah hospital. At the opposite side only 4.3% of the respondents are from IBN Al-Nafes hospital.
The majority of the respondents have ages lying between 25 and 35 years (51.4%) and most of the
respondents are male (52.9% male respondents), 43.3% of respondents have bachelor degree in science
as level of graduation. More than one-fourth of the employees were single (28.3%). The majority of
respondents (40.3%) claimed to have more than 10 years’ experience in the hospital. 33.5% of the
employees declared to have more than 10 years’ experience in the same position, only 38.8% of the
respondents declared their intention to stay. The majority of the respondents (51.7%) work in
In terms of the job, nursing staff represents 36.2% of the total staff while medical doctor take up
about 19%. Regarding the unit’s average daily census, 62.5% of the respondents declared that they
have more than 20 patients per day. The majority of the respondents consider that heavy workload and
health care financing issues are the changes that affect the hospitals in Jordan.
4.2. Key factors of employee job satisfaction in Jordanian hospitals
The mean level of job satisfaction for the 325 employees is 3.44 with a standard deviation of 0.75.
Most of the employees are satisfied and very satisfied (49.2%) while 41.5% are somewhat satisfied.
Only 17.3% of the respondents are dissatisfied. Analysing the main dimensions of job satisfaction
according to MMSS, we can mention that the highest rank motivator factor was interaction
opportunities, followed by recognition and career advancement. At the opposite side, the most
demotivating factor is the extrinsic rewards (salary, vacation and benefits package).
In order to identify the most important factors of employee job satisfaction, an exploratory factor
analysis based on principal component analysis was applied.
In order to validate inclusion of items loading on a factor, the items must have a factor loading of at
least .50 to be included in a factor. The minimum factor loading was set as .50. If an item cross-loads
on two factors with a loading greater than .30 on the second factor, it must be eliminated from both
factors. The Cronbach Alpha c=0.84, revealed an acceptable reliability rate on the present sample.
The value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure indicated an acceptable sampling adequacy for the
analysis, takin into account the fact that its value KMO=0.876 is greater than the limit 0.5 according to
The empirical results of PCA analysis revealed the existence a four factor structure for eigenvalues
greater than 1.0 who recovers a total of 65.6% of the original variables variance (Table
All sixteen items had loadings greater than .50 on at least one of four factors. Examination of all
item loadings showed that six additional items loaded on two factors and also should be eliminated
from (items 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 12). The first component who explains 30.14% of total variance can be
interpreted in terms of “satisfaction with praise/recognition”. The second one who recovers an
additional 12.12% of the total variance can be interpreted in terms of “satisfaction with extrinsic
rewards and satisfaction with the balance of family”. The third one who recovers another 8.32% of
total variance cane be named “satisfaction with interaction opportunities” The last one, who recovers
6% of total variance, can be interpreted in terms of “satisfaction with professional opportunities”.
5.Conclusions and discussions
The main purpose of the analysis was to highlight the main determinants of job satisfaction among
Jordanian hospital employees, using McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale on the basis of PCA
analysis using a sample of 325 employees at the level of 2015.
The empirical results pointed out that the majority of employees in Jordanian hospitals was
somewhat satisfied or satisfied with their jobs however there is scope for further enhancement within a
Analysing the respondent responses, the highest rank motivator factor was interaction opportunities,
followed by recognition and career advancement. At the opposite side, the most demotivating factor is
the extrinsic rewards (salary, vacation and benefits package).
The empirical results of PCA revealed the existence of a four factor structure, which recover almost
65% of the variance of original variable, highlighting the main factors of job satisfaction from the
perspective of Jordanian employees as -“satisfaction with praise/recognition”, “satisfaction with
extrinsic rewards and satisfaction with the balance of family”, “satisfaction with interaction
opportunities”, and “satisfaction with professional opportunities”.
The findings revealed that the financial incentives are very important but also non-financial
incentives are fundamental in enhancing motivation among hospital employees. People need to have
accomplished the needs related with balance of family, interaction and professional opportunities and
recognition in order to be more motivated and to increase the retention level among the hospital
employees. It is important to create a balance between financial/non-financial incentives and the
hospital managers need to be very focus on the main element of financial motivation-the salary-having
in mind the fact that a low level of wages will deeply demotivated employees and thus will decrease
the level of retention and for some of them could increase the propensity of going into the informal
sector to supplement their earnings (Davidescu, 2013; 2014a; 2014b).
- AbuAlRub, R.F., Omari, F.H., & Al‐ Zaru, I.M. (2009). Support, satisfaction and retention among Jordanian nurses in private and public hospitals. International nursing review, 56(3), 326-332.
- Amarneh, B.H., Al-Rub, R.F.A., & Al-Rub, N.F.A. (2009). Co-workers’ support and job performance among nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Journal of Research in Nursing.
- Davidescu, A.A. (2013). Estimating the size of Romanian shadow economy using Guttmann’s simple currency ratio approach. Theoretical and Applied economics, ECTAP, XX, 10(587), 33-48. ISSN 1844-0029.
- Davidescu, A.A. (2014a). Estimating the size of Romanian shadow economy. A labour approach. Journal of Social and Economic Statistics, 3(3/2014), 25-37. ISSN 2285-388X.
- Davidescu, A.A. (2014b). Evaluating the relationship between official economy and shadow economy in Romania.
- A Structural Vector Autoregressive approach. Journal of Social and Economic Statistics, 3(2), winter 2014, 57-65. ISSN 2285-388X.
- Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (and Sex and Drugs and Rock 'N' Roll). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
- Franco, L, S., Bennett, S., & Kanfer, R. (2002). Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework. Social Science a Medicine, 54(2002), 1255–1266.
- Jaiswal, P., Gadpayle, A.K., Singhal, A.K., Sachdeva, S., Modi, R.K., Padaria, R., & Ravi, V. (2015). Job satisfaction among hospital staff working in a Government teaching hospital of India. Medical Journal of Dr. DY Patil University, 8(2), 131.
- Mathauer, I., & Imhoff, I. (2006). Health worker motivation in Africa: the role of non-financial incentives and human resource management tools. Human resources for health, 4(1), 24.
- McCloskey, J. (1974). Influence of rewards and incentives on staff nurse turnover rate. Nursing Research, 23(3), 239Y247.
- McCloskey, J.C., McCain, B.E. (1987). Satisfaction, commitment and professionalism of newly employed nurses. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 19(1), 20Y24.
- Mrayyan, M.T. (2007). Nurse job satisfaction and retention: comparing public to private hospitals in Jordan. Journal of nursing management, 13(1), 40-50.
- Mrayyan, M., & Al-Faouri, I. (2008). Nurses’ career commitment and job performance: Differences across hospitals. Nursing Leadership, 21(2), 101-117.
- Mrayyan, M.T. (2008). Predictors of hospitals' organizational climates and nurses' intent to stay in Jordanian hospitals. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(3), 220-233.
- Mrayyan, M.T. (2009). Differences of hospitals’ organisational climates and nurses’ intent to stay: Nurses’ perspectives. Journal of Research in Nursing, 14(5), 465-477.
- Mueller, C.W., & McCloskey, J.C. (1990). Nurses’ job satisfaction: A proposed measure. Nursing Research, 39, 113Y117.
- Kožuchová, M., Magerčiaková, M.M., & Vargová, A. (2015). Analysis of selected demographic factors of nurses’ job satisfaction in Slovakia. Medical and Biological Sciences, 29(2), 57-61.
- Lambrou, P., Kontodimopoulos, N., Niakas, D. (2010). Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Hum Resour Health 2010(8), 26.
- Tourangeau, A. E., McGillis Hall, L., Doran, D., & Petch, T. (2006). Measurement of nurse job satisfaction using the McClosky/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Nursing Research, 53(3), 182Y189.
- *** SPSS software version 22
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this paper as:
Click here to view the available options for cite this article.
VolumeEpSBS / Volume 15 - WLC 2016