The Role of Monitoring Raters in Ensuring Accurate and Meaningful Test Scores. Case Study: RFL Examinations


Providing accurate and meaningful test scores is an extremely important issue especially in the case of high-stakes examinations like the one considered here: the RFL examination, level B2, which practically conditions the admission of students to an academic program in Romanian. The paper aims to describe and explain how data regarding the achievement of raters are collected and analysed in order to ensure rating accuracy and rater reliability. Monitoring, co-ordination, standardization measures all aim at dealing with problems of leniency, inconsistency or severity of raters. The paper details the procedures used for calculating rating accuracy, intra-rater reliability, inter-rater agreement in the case of marking both receptive and productive components of the RFL examination.

Keywords: Ratersmonitoringstandardizationreliabilityaccuracyagreement


The examination taken into consideration here is the test of Romanian as a foreign language (RFL),

level B2. This can be regarded as a high-stakes test as it represents the test one has to pass in order to

obtain a linguistic competence certificate in Romanian which usually conditions the admission in any

academic program taught in Romanian in any university in our country. Currently, the two categories

of population taking this test are: the students enrolled in Babeș-Bolyai University, in the preparatory

year (Faculty of Letters, Department of Romanian culture, language and civilization), and the persons

who simply need the certificate in Romanian in order to be able to start studies in Romania (60-130

candidates per year).

Being a high-stakes test, it is only natural that the organization providing it should regard as

important all aspects concerning its quality. Therefore, the Department of Romanian culture, language

and civilization submitted the test to be audited by ALTE (Association of Language Testers in Europe)

and in 2015 obtained the ALTE Q-mark (a quality indicator showing that the exams provided by the

organization “have passed a rigorous audit and meet all 17 of ALTE’s quality standards” and allowing

test users “to be confident that an exam is backed up by appropriate processes, criteria and standards”

( The validity argument presented evidence of validity for all aspects of the assessment

process: test development, item writing, test administration, marking and grading, reporting of results,

etc. (Hughes, 1989).

Validity in testing and assessment is defined as discovering whether a test “measures accurately

what it is intended to measure” (Messik, 1989, p. 22). Messick saw validity not as a property of a test

or assessment, but as the extent to which one is allowed to make inferences to a construct from a test

score and the degree to which any decision one might make on the basis of the score is justifiable

(AERA, APA & NCME, 1985, p. 13). This definition of validity has become the accepted paradigm in

psychological, educational and language testing: “Validity is the most important consideration in test

evaluation. The concept refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of the specific

inferences made from test scores. Test validation is the process of accumulating evidence to support

such inferences. A variety of inferences may be made from scores produced by a given test, and there

are many ways of accumulating evidence to support any particular inference. Validity, however, is a

unitary concept. Although evidence may be accumulated in many ways, validity always refers to the

degree to which that evidence supports the inferences that are made from the score. The inferences

regarding specific uses of a test are validated, not the test itself.” (Fulcher & Davidson, 2007, p. 9).

In what concerns language testing, as we have mentioned above, part of a validity claim is that the

test administration and all the processes used by the testing agency are done according to standardized

procedures and one of the most important aspects of monitoring the quality of those is identifying the

key stages, describing what needs to be done and to what standards and comparing what is actually

done to these standards (Green, 1998, p. 127-128).

The present study focuses on one source of evidence for validity: the grading process. Accuracy of

rating and reliability of test scores are analysed by monitoring raters’ activity.


The participants in the study were 10 professional raters involved in the examination process during

the academic year 2015 (the B2 exam, the Department of Romanian language, culture and civilization,

Faculty of Letters, UBB). The staff involved in the assessment process is carefully selected. The

requirements for markers include: BA or MA in Romanian language, an academic degree in teaching

and assessing Romanian as a foreign language (teacher training module/MA in teaching RFL), at least

2 years of experience in teaching RFL and in preparing students for RFL examinations, familiarization

with the procedures to follow, with the mark scheme and with the answer key (with special focus on

partial credit items, for listening comprehension and for elements of communication construction),

attendance of group training sessions (standardization and training for assessment, in the case of

productive skills).

Each rater assessed a number between 9 and 12 students/papers. Thus, 106 papers assessed by 10

raters were taken into consideration for the study.

Methodology outline

In the study both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. In the case of the RFL

examinations (which have 5 components: Listening, Reading, Elements of Communication

Construction - ECC, Writing and Speaking), the first three components are formed from questions

which allow objective marking. These components are double-marked in order to ensure that the

mistakes are avoided/repaired. After the first marker corrects the three components and inserts the

results in the corresponding boxes, on the second page of the exam paper, the second marker performs

the second correction. If he/she arrives at a different score for any of the three components, he/she

checks his/her own correction as well as the first marker’s in order to discover possible errors of

calculation or mistakes in the application of the mark scheme. If such an error is discovered, then the

marker makes the correction and registers the change. During the marking period, markers can ask for

feedback (as the rating task is performed in the same room, under the supervision of the chief

examiner) but they are also randomly checked by the chief examiner as they carry out their task.

The mark scheme is consistent from one session to the other and the answer key is unambiguous.

For the item types used (multiple choice, true/false, matching, gap-filling) there is either only one

possible correct answer or a very limited and clearly defined number of acceptable answers (partial

credit items). As mentioned above, the assessors are aware of the procedures to follow, they are

familiar with the mark scheme and they get familiarized with the answer key before each session of

examination. As the questions in these three components allow objective marking, in these cases, raters

were only checked for accuracy (how well they apply the marking scheme). Data regarding the number

and the types of errors each rater makes was gathered and processed, as shown in Table 1 :

Table 1 -
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ECC = error when marking the elements of communication construction component L = errors when marking the listening component After this, an error rate [8:79] for each assessor was calculated (Table 2 ): C = errors of calculation total number of errors/rater Error rate = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ total number of papers rated by a rater * total number of items/paper

Table 2 -
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As mentioned before, between 9 and 12 papers were considered in the case of each assessor. If the

error rate was too high (higher than 0.02), the assessor will be carefully observed during the following

sessions of examination.

Also, at this level, types of errors that occur within raters were identified in order for the board of

examination to prepare the following training sessions for raters focusing on the most significant

aspects that need to be improved (e.g. partial credit items).

In what concerns the Writing component, each script is analytically marked by two examiners who

use a detailed grid and assessment forms on which they write their comments justifying the score given

for each criterion. If they give widely varying marks (a difference of more than 2 points in the final

marks), the script is marked a third time by the chief examiner. The number of points he/she grants is

taken into consideration as well when calculating the average which represents the final score. If no

such situation appears, the overall score for the writing component is represented by the average of the

two marks given by the two assessors. One method of monitoring raters adopted in the case of RFL

examination is the use of pre-assessed scripts (Council of Europe, 2001, p. 43). The chief examiner

performs this task himself. He makes copies of the written productions of some of the candidates and

rates them, placing the papers back in the pile of unmarked papers. After the rating is done by the rater

who marks all of the test components, his/her marking is compared to the pre-assessed productions. In

the case of each rater, a set of 4 pre-assessed scripts was used and in this way raters were checked for

leniency and severity.

Rating of the Speaking component is carried out simultaneously by two assessorswho have

previously undergone at least one training process. Their only task during the development of the oral

examination is to assess the oral production of the candidates using a detailed grid and assessment

forms for their own comments regarding the performances. If raters give widely varying marks (a

difference of more than 2 points in the final marks), then a discussion takes place during which the

examiner can express her opinion on the production of the candidate. If the two raters do not agree, the

chief examiner will later grade the oral production as well, as each spoken performance is recorded and

can be reassessed anytime.

Rating accuracy was also checked in the case of Writing and Speaking components through

qualitative analysis. Rater’s comments justifying the points awarded for each criterion in the case of

each candidate written on the blank grids (assessment forms) during the session of examination were

analysed and compared to the descriptors in the Department assessment grids. If the assessors’

comments were not consistent with the descriptors in the Department grids (e.g. the assessor’s

comments reflect a performance that would be ranked on level 5 according to the descriptors for level 5

in the Department grid, but he/she ranked it on level 4), raters will be closely monitored and, if needed,

sent to new training sessions.

Inter- and intra-rater reliability was examined only in the case of the marking of scripts and of

spoken performances. For checking inter-rater reliability (if different raters rate performances

similarly – they do not need to agree completely, but, as they use the same criteria, their ratings should

not be wildly different), a correlation coefficient between the two raters was calculated using the Excel

Pearson function (in the case of the points given by the two assessors for every criterion for every

candidate they both assessed). (see Table 3 below)

Table 3 -
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If the coefficient is higher than 0.8, the assessors do not need special monitoring (Council of

Europe, 2001, p. 79). In case it is lower than 0.8, different measures should be taken, according to the

value of the coefficient.

Intra-rater agreement (or internal consistency, to what extent do the raters agree with themselves)

was checked through both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Raters’ comments from the blank grids

(assessment forms) on one criterion and for one score (e.g. 5 points) were analyzed and checked for

consistency (if the rater uses the same descriptors to judge all the performances he rated with 5 points,

for example), then the same was done with the other criteria. If the comments are consistent, the

assessor does not need special monitoring. If, however, the comments differ or contradict each other, a

range of measures are applicable (feedback sessions, retraining, exclusion from the team, etc.). Also,

the performance of raters was monitored by calculating the standard deviation (Excel, STDEV.S

function). This, again, was calculated for each criterion (See an example below, in Table 4 ).

Table 4 -
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Then, severity and leniency in the case of each criterion were taken into consideration by checking

if there was one criterion where the assessors had the tendency to give more or fewer points (by

comparing the number of candidates who got one score for each criterion – Table 5 ). Those raters who

appeared to be too lenient, too severe or those who show inconsistency in marking or in applying the

criteria will be sent to another training session before rating again.

Table 5 -
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Results, discussion and recommendations

As described above, several aspects were taken into account when illustrating the performance of

raters: the types and frequency of errors they made and the extent to which they agreed with each other

and with themselves. The results demonstrate validity, accuracy and reliability, but they also draw

attention on several issues which should be the core of the following training sessions.

4.1.Listening, Reading, Elements of Communication Construction (ECC)

For the first three components of the test, only accuracy of marking could be calculated as they

include just items that can be objectively marked.

4.1.1.Error rate

No error rate was problematic (= higher than 0.02) and there was one case when the error rate was 0

(= one rater who made no mistakes). However, 9 raters did make several mistakes each, so we consider

having each paper double-marked a good way of ensuring accuracy in the final score.

4.1.2.Types of errors

The error rates are not concerning but this does not mean that the errors the markers made cannot

reveal some relevant issues in the grading process. Very few errors were made when calculating the

final scores for each component or when checking the answers for the true/false, multiple choice or

matching items, so, in these cases, it was most probably a focusing problem that caused the very few

mistakes. Most of the errors were made when assigning points for the partial credit items (Listening

and ECC components). This means that either the marking schemes are not clear enough (= they don’t

cover all the possible situations) and should be adjusted or that markers were not well enough trained

and the following standardization workshops should focus on the process of marking partial credit


4.2.Speaking and Writing

In the case of Speaking and Writing, accuracy, inter- and intra-rater agreement, leniency and

severity were monitored.

4.2.1.Rating accuracy

Generally, raters used the descriptors from the assessment grids (or references to them) in their

comments justifying the points awarded for each criterion. When raters’ comments for one criterion

mention some aspects that one cannot find in the descriptions, they usually don’t seem to have any

effect on the score for that criterion, as they are in all cases complemented by other comments in direct

relation to the descriptors from the assessment grids. However, there seem to be some features from the

descriptors in the Department grids which are preferred by the raters in the case of each criterion. For

example, when describing complexity in both writing and speaking, most raters use references to

complex or simple grammatical structures and vocabulary range is often minimized, although this is

also an important aspect of the criterion. When commenting upon communication efficiency all raters

seem to focus on the extent to which students covered/accomplished the tasks, downplaying other

aspects mentioned in the descriptors: how the communicative functions were expressed, problems

concerning style and register, etc. Regarding fluency and coherence (speaking), most comments refer

to the frequency and complexity of the connecting words students use and to the length and frequency

of pauses they make. In the case of writing, the criterion is called Organization and all raters make

comments on layout, connecting words and special formulaic language students use. Very few

comments regarding cohesive devices are to be found. When judging accuracy all raters seem to stick

to the grids in what concerns both writing and speaking. They refer to the types and frequency of

errors, to the way errors affect the message and almost all raters write down examples of errors

extracted from the students’ performances.

Overall, we can conclude that all raters seem to use the assessment grids correctly. Nevertheless,

there are aspects which are downplayed in the case of each criterion. Therefore, we consider that this

represents an issue that should be discussed during the following standardization workshops which, in

our opinion, should be mandatory before each session of examination.

4.2.2.Inter-rater agreement

The correlation coefficient was calculated for each pair of raters and for each criterion. Only in the

case of rating accuracy in speaking and organization in writing 3 coefficients were lower than 0.8 (for

1 out of 5 pairs in speaking (0.69) and for 2 out of 5 pairs in writing (0.60 and 0.79)). This could

indicate the fact that the descriptors for these two criteria ( accuracy in speaking, organization in

writing) are not concrete enough or one or both raters from each of the pairs in question need more

training. Considering the small number of cases where the coefficient is lower than allowed and the

fact that in all these cases the coefficient is not so far from the limit (0.8), we can conclude that raters

agree with each other to a high extent.

4.2.3.Intra-rater agreement

Each rater was monitored for internal consistency by analyzing and comparing his/her comments

when assigning a number of points for each criterion. In most of the cases the comments were

consistent: the raters used more or less the same words and took into account the same aspects when

assigning one score to various performances. There were some isolated cases when the rater had the

same comments for a script he/she rated with 4 points and for another one he rated with 5 points, for

example, but as these cases were exceptional, they were not considered relevant for the overall

performance of the rater.

4.2.4.Leniency and severity

In order to monitor the raters for leniency and severity in assigning scores for the writing

component, the method of pre-rated scripts was used. Each rater was given 4 pre-rated scripts in the

pile of scripts he was supposed to grade. The correlation coefficient (between the number of points

assigned by the chief examiner during the pre-rating task and that assigned by the first rater during the

rating task) was in all cases higher than 0.78 for the following criteria: complexity and communication

efficiency . Some problems were identified in relation to the other two criteria: accuracy and

organization . One rater seemed to be too severe regarding grammatical accuracy (he assigned lower

scores for all four papers) and two raters proved to be too lenient with respect to the organization

criterion (they systematically assigned higher scores than the chief examiner). These results were

further confirmed by the other method of monitoring raters for leniency and severity: checking if there

is one criterion where the assessors have the tendency to give more or fewer points (comparing the

number of candidates who got one score for each criterion). Evidence was found that the same three

raters had problems when applying the grid for the two criteria ( accuracy and organization ): one of

them was too severe (only one script out of 12 received the maximum score for grammatical accuracy

and 3 out of 12 were rated with 4 points) and two of them were too lenient (they both assigned 5 and 4

points for organization for all the 22 papers they graded).

The results of the study demonstrate that the assessors rate accurately, they are consistent with

themselves and they agree with other raters to a great extent, they are not too lenient and not too severe.

However, the analysis revealed some aspects that could be revised in the grading phase:

the marking scheme should be adjusted with respect to partial credit items, as some errors occur

when rating this kind of items;even if raters applied the grid correctly, it seemed that some of the aspects mentioned in the gridwere downplayed by the assessors – the following training sessions should focus on raisingraters’ awareness regarding these aspects (e.g. the Complexity criterion refers to bothgrammatical structures and vocabulary range);as some discrepancies between raters were encountered when analysing the points awarded for accuracy in speaking and organization in writing, the grids could be revisited and enriched withquantitative details (e.g. concrete examples of the connecting words a candidate is expected touse at each band in the grid, type and number of mistakes a student could make, etc.).

Limitations and further research

As a high-stakes examination, it is important that RFL, level B2 exam continues to demonstrate

validity and reliability in all aspects including or especially in what concerns test scores. We believe

our small study contributes in some way to the validity argument supporting the use of RFL B2

examinations as means of assessing the communicative competences of those who want to register to

any academic program taught in Romanian in any university in our country. Also, we believe that the

methods and procedures presented here could raise awareness (in what concerns other examination

agencies) regarding the importance of monitoring raters in ensuring accurate, valid and reliable test


However, the study should be regarded as a point of departure and the findings are intended to be

representative only for one session of examination. Evidently, it should benefit from further analysis –

more raters and more sessions of examinations should be observed, comparisons between raters’

performances should be made and the evolution/involution of each rater should be analyzed. Also,

verbal protocol analysis (Bachman, 1990) could be of great use in the case of rating scripts (raters

could be asked to record their thoughts while rating the scripts – the analysis of transcripts could lead

to interesting and relevant results).


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  2. Bachman, L. (1990). Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available online at: Fulcher, G., Davidson, F. (2007). Language Testing and Assessment. An advanced resource book. In Candlin, C., Carter, R. (eds.), Routledge Applied Linguistics, Routledge.
  3. Green, A. (1998). Verbal protocol analysis in language testing research. Cambridge: UCLES/Cambridge University Press.
  4. Hughes, A. (1989). Testing for Language Teachers, 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Manual for Language test development and examining for use with the CEFR – produced by ALTE on behalf of Available online at: the Language Policy Unit, Council of Europe (2011).
  6. Messik, S. (1989). ‘Validity.’ In Linn, R. L. (ed.), Educational Measurement. New York: Macmillan/ American Council on Education, 13–103.

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Cite this article as:

Vasiu, L., & Arieșan, A. (2016). The Role of Monitoring Raters in Ensuring Accurate and Meaningful Test Scores. Case Study: RFL Examinations. In A. Sandu, T. Ciulei, & A. Frunza (Eds.), Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty, vol 15. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1068-1076). Future Academy.