The Development of Education Clusters as a Tool to Enhance Economic Safety

Abstract

The article deals with the research results of education clusters. At present time the subject is especially actual. A cluster is an integration of several homogeneous elements which can be considered as an independent unit with certain properties. The education cluster has the properties of the mutual competition of its members, cooperation of its members, formation of unique competences of the region, concentration of the enterprises and organizations in a certain territory.Thereafter the research results of relationship between educational institutions and manufacturing firms on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan are presented in the article.The research is based on the works of such scholars as M. Porter, M. Enrayt, S. Rosenfeld, V. Price, B. Dalum, K. Pedersen and G. Vilumsen, E. Bergman, E. Fezer and others.There are approaches to the definition of the education cluster, classification of the education clusters, the requirements for the composition and structure of the education clusters, the policy formation of the development of the education clusters in the works of the scholars.The actions to increase the demand for graduates of the educational institutions of the cluster are given.The actions to increase the effectiveness of training programs for staff within the education cluster are given.The actions to improve the interaction between the educational institutions and manufacturing firms in the cluster are given.In conclusion the recommendations concerning further research are formulated.

Keywords: Education clusterefficiencyeconomyinnovation

1. Introduction

At present time, economic growth is based on innovation techniques. By-turn innovations are result

of intellectual and creative labour of person. Educational and scientific sector become the elements of

market economy. Economic safety of person, company, territory too much depends on knowledge and

skills to apply innovative approaches in the activity. A trainee person is more important, than a trained

person is.

Only effective, focused in the future education system, including general, professional, additional

education and skills training can prepare such person. The modern concept of education is an education

during all life (continuing education).

It is necessary to provide interrelation between education sector and enterprises. It is necessary to

train experts who will be demanded by the enterprises. Methods of integration of science, education and

production have the high practical importance. The world experience speaks about need to develop

education clusters for increase of economic safety of the region.

2.Problem statement

It is necessary to analyze experience of creation of education clusters and to reveal facilities for their

development in the Republic of Tatarstan in the conditions of modern innovative economy and

problems of increase of economic safety.

3.Research questions

The cluster approach is used for a long time in the Republic of Tatarstan. One of the large-scale

projects in this field is the Special economic zone "Alabuga" which is successfully realized now. By

results of its work it is necessary to tell, that for effective work of cluster structure it is important to

provide development not only the principal activity (production activity) of a cluster, but also to create

necessary infrastructure for the decision social (housing, cultural, educational) problems. Ensuring a

manufacturing sector with manpower resources with a high level of proficiency is a primary task.

Today training of highly qualified and popular specialists is the major task of the institution of

higher education; The main problem consists in lack of the mechanism of determination of quantity and

quality parameters training of specialists. There is a "gap" between needs of employers and potential of

institution of higher education. There is no list of concrete educational specialties on which preparation

has to be conducted, and no labour, qualification requirements to the graduate. It is possible to solve

this problem through creation of an education cluster. The cluster has to include schools, educational

institutions of primary, secondary, or higher vocational level, and enterprises, being potential employers

for graduates. The cluster has to share common interests of employers and students. Education has to

provide graduates with such knowledge and skills, which will be demanded in labour market. An

employer has to present criteria, which the graduate has to possess to get a job.

4.Purpose of the study

Purpose of the study is to work out indicators, tasks and stages of development of an education

cluster for improvement of interaction efficiency of all its participants based on application of new

educational technologies in educational process.

5.Research methods

In the article the analysis of educational and economic potential of the Republic of Tatarstan with

use of laws of dialectic is carried out. According to the dialectic method of cognition all phenomena

and events have to be considered in their development and interrelation. Development of an education

cluster has to be coordinated with the overall strategy of social and economic development of the

region. (The Strategy of Social and Economic Development of the Republic of Tatarstan till 2030,

2016).

In the research the cluster approach is used. A cluster is integration of several homogeneous

elements which can be considered as the independent unit possessing certain properties (Gambu, 1988).

The basis of an education cluster is educational institutions and enterprises. At present time enterprises

are interested in manpower resources with a high education level (Porter & Kramer, 2006).

Factor analysis consists in showing up of degree (strength) of influence of factors on the resulting

effect of activity. Level of innovative development of the enterprises, competitiveness of educational

institutions, level of development of social and technical infrastructure and existence of sufficient

financial resources of the regional budget are major factors which provide development and high

performance of an education cluster (Solvell et al., 2003).

6.Findings

The concept of an education cluster is already realized in the Republic of Tatarstan. For example, the

structure of the education cluster of Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N.

Tupolev – Kazan State Technical University (KNRTU-KSTU) at patronage of Government of the

Republic of Tatarstan and the public company Tatneftekhiminvestholding includes 11 enterprises of

branch (the petrochemical, light, food industry), 6 institutions of secondary vocational level, 4

institutions of primary vocational level and the 236th specialized schools (The passport of the education

cluster KNRTU-KSTU, 2016). Certain steps on elimination of "gap" between education (science) and

the real sector of economy on the basis of the cluster approach have begun to be undertaken at other

universities of the region. So, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University actively masters the budget

program of combined researches of the institute of higher education and the enterprise started by the

Government of the Russian Federation(Decision No. 218). The university on a competitive basis has

got three grants on implementation of combined projects with such powerful corporations as "TNG

Group", "Nizhnekamskneftekhim" and Tasma production association for the sum more than 1 billion

150 million rubles. A share of the university is over 570 million rubles (Gafurov, 2016).Creation of a

belt of the small-scale innovative enterprises around the university happens in KNRTU- KSTU. At the

moment Kazan State Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev have 16 small-scale innovative

companies which together with research effort bring to the institute of higher education about 400

million rubles (Rozanova, 2016).

The education cluster can have such tasks as:

– Creation of a medium-term forecasting system of personnel requirements of economy field of the

Republic of Tatarstan. It will allow carrying out comprehensive planning of structure and volumes of

training;

– Increasing attractiveness of professions and specialties demanded by economy of the Republic of

Tatarstan on all education levels;

– Introduction of mechanisms of working out, examination and realization of educational programs

of vocational education with direct participation of employers and their associations;

– Introduction of a training system that plans significant increase in practical part of training on

workplaces in real economy;

–Modernization of a career development system of the leading and pedagogical employees of

vocational education system.

The education cluster can have such target indicators as:

– A share of educational institutions mastering new educational programs;

– A share employed in the economy completed extension courses;

– A share of school leavers who have entered educational institutions of primary, secondary, or

higher vocational level;

– A share of students who is studying in educational institutions on the co-financing terms at the

expense of the employer;

– A share of leading and pedagogical employees who have undertaken an internship at the

enterprises of the leading employer of the chosen field;

– A share of graduates who have been registered on labour exchange within no more than one year

after graduating class.

Stages of development of the cluster can be integrated with the following:

1. Improvement of forecasting personnel requirements of cluster`s enterprises, formation and

distribution of the state task and order for training. At the same time it is important to organize

monitoring of employers` judgments for presence at school leavers and graduates necessary

professional and personal qualities. Monitoring allows defining requirements and expectations of both

external and internal consumers of educational services, comparing expectations and testing quality of

vocational training. Monitoring allows correcting in time and defining the perspective vectors of social

development partnerships, improving the quality of training of specialists of gas industry and satisfying

the needs of customers in labour market.

2. Increase of demand in graduates of the cluster`s educational institutions of vocational level in

republican labour market. Performance of this stage will be promoted by the organization of

educational activity according to requirements of the international quality management system. It will

allow developing and carrying out quickly and effectively systematic correcting actions for

improvement of the developing system of social partnership on the basis: continuous access to

information on labour market; timely specification of structure of demand for specialists in labour

market; requirements accommodation of employers for the content of vocational training of specialists

for its timely correction; the effective organization of practical training for students at the enterprises of

the industry; quality assessment of training of specialists independent experts, etc.

We consider that advancing training of specialists in the promising direction of development of

production has to be organized today. At the enterprises it is expedient to create departments of training

of specialists and departments responsible for practical training of students. At the same time joint

research activities and scientific research results with involvement of experts of the enterprises and

students have to be carried out. Transfer of skills from specialists of the enterprises for students,

creation of education and business training centers, educational science and technology parks,

information systems of search, recruit staff is necessary (Vasilev & Akhmetshin, 2014).

3. Improvement of the territorial-sectoral organization of resources of the system of vocational

education system focused on requirements of the leading industries of the Republic of Tatarstan.

Special attention should be paid to the organization of industrial (vocational) practice on the basis of

integration of theoretical knowledge and innovative technologies of industries of economy in the

production environment. It will allow increasing a motivation level to the chosen profession, correcting

and updating the matter of types the practical training and study programs, increasing percentage of the

integration into the world of work of graduates at the enterprises of gas industry and providing their

career advancement.

It is necessary to introduce programs of further vocational education on the basis of secondary

general school in various directions. It is necessary to organize various centers of children's crafts, and

to hold public seminars, presentations and master classes. There is the need to create different hobby

groups for identification of the preferable directions of students` training.

4. Raising the effectiveness of implementation of the programs of vocational education focused on

requirements of national economy. It is expedient to organize work of permanent scientific and

methodical seminars of the education cluster`s subjects that would be sent for harmonization of

requirements of the corporate customers to professional knowledge and skills of school leavers and

graduates. It is useful to create training programs in the directions of various profiles: as it is natural –

scientific and humanitarian. It will promote satisfaction of a wide range of interests of students. To

improve the quality of teaching it is necessary to complete faculty only with the qualified employees

who are constantly increasing the level of theoretical knowledge and practical skills.

5. Creation of cluster state and public system of an assessment of quality of vocational education.

Realization of this stage will be promoted by carrying out combined actions and conferences, business

meetings, excursions exerting influence on development of mutual cooperation (Akhmetov et al.,

2015).

6. Development of staff resources of vocational education system of the cluster. Development of

sector of further vocational education which includes training of specialists on working specialties with

awarding of skill category, on further specialties of vocational education, organization of extension

courses and vocational training, probation of teachers at the enterprises is provided.

7.Conclusions

It is expedient to carry out quality problems monitoring of standard legal support of the cluster`s

activity. This process can include all kinds of activity – investment, educational, scientific, innovative,

and social. For example, questions of providing tax benefits for the enterprises which realize innovative

projects in the territory of the cluster can be considered. It is necessary to register criteria of such

innovative projects in the legislation accurately. It is possible to consider use of the stimulating

procedures for the enterprises of the cluster putting investments into the decision of the social,

educational and scientific problems of development of the cluster. After that the exact goals and

objectives of the education cluster will be defined. In development of the education cluster the

described stages can be corrected and be supplemented. After realization all above-mentioned stages

there will be confidence that requirements of the enterprises will be satisfied, and students will study

interesting to them subjects and master skills which will be demanded in the labour market.

Acknowledgements

The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2016.07.65

Online ISSN

2357-1330