The article deals with the research results of education clusters. At present time the subject is especially actual. A cluster is an integration of several homogeneous elements which can be considered as an independent unit with certain properties. The education cluster has the properties of the mutual competition of its members, cooperation of its members, formation of unique competences of the region, concentration of the enterprises and organizations in a certain territory.Thereafter the research results of relationship between educational institutions and manufacturing firms on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan are presented in the article.The research is based on the works of such scholars as M. Porter, M. Enrayt, S. Rosenfeld, V. Price, B. Dalum, K. Pedersen and G. Vilumsen, E. Bergman, E. Fezer and others.There are approaches to the definition of the education cluster, classification of the education clusters, the requirements for the composition and structure of the education clusters, the policy formation of the development of the education clusters in the works of the scholars.The actions to increase the demand for graduates of the educational institutions of the cluster are given.The actions to increase the effectiveness of training programs for staff within the education cluster are given.The actions to improve the interaction between the educational institutions and manufacturing firms in the cluster are given.In conclusion the recommendations concerning further research are formulated.
At present time, economic growth is based on innovation techniques. By-turn innovations are result
of intellectual and creative labour of person. Educational and scientific sector become the elements of
market economy. Economic safety of person, company, territory too much depends on knowledge and
skills to apply innovative approaches in the activity. A trainee person is more important, than a trained
Only effective, focused in the future education system, including general, professional, additional
education and skills training can prepare such person. The modern concept of education is an education
during all life (continuing education).
It is necessary to provide interrelation between education sector and enterprises. It is necessary to
train experts who will be demanded by the enterprises. Methods of integration of science, education and
production have the high practical importance. The world experience speaks about need to develop
education clusters for increase of economic safety of the region.
It is necessary to analyze experience of creation of education clusters and to reveal facilities for their
development in the Republic of Tatarstan in the conditions of modern innovative economy and
problems of increase of economic safety.
The cluster approach is used for a long time in the Republic of Tatarstan. One of the large-scale
projects in this field is the Special economic zone "Alabuga" which is successfully realized now. By
results of its work it is necessary to tell, that for effective work of cluster structure it is important to
provide development not only the principal activity (production activity) of a cluster, but also to create
necessary infrastructure for the decision social (housing, cultural, educational) problems. Ensuring a
manufacturing sector with manpower resources with a high level of proficiency is a primary task.
Today training of highly qualified and popular specialists is the major task of the institution of
higher education; The main problem consists in lack of the mechanism of determination of quantity and
quality parameters training of specialists. There is a "gap" between needs of employers and potential of
institution of higher education. There is no list of concrete educational specialties on which preparation
has to be conducted, and no labour, qualification requirements to the graduate. It is possible to solve
this problem through creation of an education cluster. The cluster has to include schools, educational
institutions of primary, secondary, or higher vocational level, and enterprises, being potential employers
for graduates. The cluster has to share common interests of employers and students. Education has to
provide graduates with such knowledge and skills, which will be demanded in labour market. An
employer has to present criteria, which the graduate has to possess to get a job.
4.Purpose of the study
Purpose of the study is to work out indicators, tasks and stages of development of an education
cluster for improvement of interaction efficiency of all its participants based on application of new
educational technologies in educational process.
In the article the analysis of educational and economic potential of the Republic of Tatarstan with
use of laws of dialectic is carried out. According to the dialectic method of cognition all phenomena
and events have to be considered in their development and interrelation. Development of an education
cluster has to be coordinated with the overall strategy of social and economic development of the
region. (The Strategy of Social and Economic Development of the Republic of Tatarstan till 2030,
In the research the cluster approach is used. A cluster is integration of several homogeneous
elements which can be considered as the independent unit possessing certain properties (Gambu, 1988).
The basis of an education cluster is educational institutions and enterprises. At present time enterprises
are interested in manpower resources with a high education level (Porter & Kramer, 2006).
Factor analysis consists in showing up of degree (strength) of influence of factors on the resulting
effect of activity. Level of innovative development of the enterprises, competitiveness of educational
institutions, level of development of social and technical infrastructure and existence of sufficient
financial resources of the regional budget are major factors which provide development and high
performance of an education cluster (Solvell et al., 2003).
The concept of an education cluster is already realized in the Republic of Tatarstan. For example, the
structure of the education cluster of Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N.
Tupolev – Kazan State Technical University (KNRTU-KSTU) at patronage of Government of the
Republic of Tatarstan and the public company Tatneftekhiminvestholding includes 11 enterprises of
branch (the petrochemical, light, food industry), 6 institutions of secondary vocational level, 4
institutions of primary vocational level and the 236th specialized schools (The passport of the education
cluster KNRTU-KSTU, 2016). Certain steps on elimination of "gap" between education (science) and
the real sector of economy on the basis of the cluster approach have begun to be undertaken at other
universities of the region. So, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University actively masters the budget
program of combined researches of the institute of higher education and the enterprise started by the
Government of the Russian Federation(Decision No. 218). The university on a competitive basis has
got three grants on implementation of combined projects with such powerful corporations as "TNG
Group", "Nizhnekamskneftekhim" and Tasma production association for the sum more than 1 billion
150 million rubles. A share of the university is over 570 million rubles (Gafurov, 2016).Creation of a
belt of the small-scale innovative enterprises around the university happens in KNRTU- KSTU. At the
moment Kazan State Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev have 16 small-scale innovative
companies which together with research effort bring to the institute of higher education about 400
million rubles (Rozanova, 2016).
The education cluster can have such tasks as:
– Creation of a medium-term forecasting system of personnel requirements of economy field of the
Republic of Tatarstan. It will allow carrying out comprehensive planning of structure and volumes of
– Increasing attractiveness of professions and specialties demanded by economy of the Republic of
Tatarstan on all education levels;
– Introduction of mechanisms of working out, examination and realization of educational programs
of vocational education with direct participation of employers and their associations;
– Introduction of a training system that plans significant increase in practical part of training on
workplaces in real economy;
–Modernization of a career development system of the leading and pedagogical employees of
vocational education system.
The education cluster can have such target indicators as:
– A share of educational institutions mastering new educational programs;
– A share employed in the economy completed extension courses;
– A share of school leavers who have entered educational institutions of primary, secondary, or
higher vocational level;
– A share of students who is studying in educational institutions on the co-financing terms at the
expense of the employer;
– A share of leading and pedagogical employees who have undertaken an internship at the
enterprises of the leading employer of the chosen field;
– A share of graduates who have been registered on labour exchange within no more than one year
after graduating class.
Stages of development of the cluster can be integrated with the following:
1. Improvement of forecasting personnel requirements of cluster`s enterprises, formation and
distribution of the state task and order for training. At the same time it is important to organize
monitoring of employers` judgments for presence at school leavers and graduates necessary
professional and personal qualities. Monitoring allows defining requirements and expectations of both
external and internal consumers of educational services, comparing expectations and testing quality of
vocational training. Monitoring allows correcting in time and defining the perspective vectors of social
development partnerships, improving the quality of training of specialists of gas industry and satisfying
the needs of customers in labour market.
2. Increase of demand in graduates of the cluster`s educational institutions of vocational level in
Performance of this stage will be promoted by the organization of
educational activity according to requirements of the international quality management system. It will
allow developing and carrying out quickly and effectively systematic correcting actions for
improvement of the developing system of social partnership on the basis: continuous access to
information on labour market; timely specification of structure of demand for specialists in labour
market; requirements accommodation of employers for the content of vocational training of specialists
for its timely correction; the effective organization of practical training for students at the enterprises of
the industry; quality assessment of training of specialists independent experts, etc.
We consider that advancing training of specialists in the promising direction of development of
production has to be organized today. At the enterprises it is expedient to create departments of training
of specialists and departments responsible for practical training of students. At the same time joint
research activities and scientific research results with involvement of experts of the enterprises and
students have to be carried out. Transfer of skills from specialists of the enterprises for students,
creation of education and business training centers, educational science and technology parks,
information systems of search, recruit staff is necessary (Vasilev & Akhmetshin, 2014).
3. Improvement of the territorial-sectoral organization of resources of the system of vocational
education system focused on requirements of the leading industries of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Special attention should be paid to the organization of industrial (vocational) practice on the basis of
integration of theoretical knowledge and innovative technologies of industries of economy in the
production environment. It will allow increasing a motivation level to the chosen profession, correcting
and updating the matter of types the practical training and study programs, increasing percentage of the
integration into the world of work of graduates at the enterprises of gas industry and providing their
It is necessary to introduce programs of further vocational education on the basis of secondary
general school in various directions. It is necessary to organize various centers of children's crafts, and
to hold public seminars, presentations and master classes. There is the need to create different hobby
groups for identification of the preferable directions of students` training.
4. Raising the effectiveness of implementation of the programs of vocational education focused on
It is expedient to organize work of permanent scientific and
methodical seminars of the education cluster`s subjects that would be sent for harmonization of
requirements of the corporate customers to professional knowledge and skills of school leavers and
graduates. It is useful to create training programs in the directions of various profiles: as it is natural –
scientific and humanitarian. It will promote satisfaction of a wide range of interests of students. To
improve the quality of teaching it is necessary to complete faculty only with the qualified employees
who are constantly increasing the level of theoretical knowledge and practical skills.
5. Creation of cluster state and public system of an assessment of quality of vocational education.
Realization of this stage will be promoted by carrying out combined actions and conferences, business
meetings, excursions exerting influence on development of mutual cooperation (Akhmetov
6. Development of staff resources of vocational education system of the cluster. Development of
sector of further vocational education which includes training of specialists on working specialties with
awarding of skill category, on further specialties of vocational education, organization of extension
courses and vocational training, probation of teachers at the enterprises is provided.
It is expedient to carry out quality problems monitoring of standard legal support of the cluster`s
activity. This process can include all kinds of activity – investment, educational, scientific, innovative,
and social. For example, questions of providing tax benefits for the enterprises which realize innovative
projects in the territory of the cluster can be considered. It is necessary to register criteria of such
innovative projects in the legislation accurately. It is possible to consider use of the stimulating
procedures for the enterprises of the cluster putting investments into the decision of the social,
educational and scientific problems of development of the cluster. After that the exact goals and
objectives of the education cluster will be defined. In development of the education cluster the
described stages can be corrected and be supplemented. After realization all above-mentioned stages
there will be confidence that requirements of the enterprises will be satisfied, and students will study
interesting to them subjects and master skills which will be demanded in the labour market.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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Vasilev, V. L., Ustyuzhina, O. N., & Akhmetshin, E. M. (2016). The Development of Education Clusters as a Tool to Enhance Economic Safety. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2016, vol 12. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 411-416). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.07.65