Studying the Role of the Degree of Acceptance of Other Cultures in a Multicultural Educational Environment

Abstract

The number of people in the world trying to get education abroad reaches 5 million. The formation of psychological security of environment in educational process is a necessary condition of getting quality education and personal development of a student. The degree of reception of another culture in intercultural education is a bases for secure and effective communication for all students. The present article deals with the problem of adaptation of foreign students and their integration into multicultural educational environment through acceptance of another culture. The role of local international university students is considered and their attitude and role in the process of adaptation. The results of research on the basis of author’s questionnaire “Acceptance of another Culture” are presented. The major factors of “Acceptance of another Culture” were studied. The comparative analysis has been done which include the factors of constructive adaptation processes among Russian students and those who immigrated to England.

Keywords: Multicultural educational, socio-cultural adaptation of foreign students, strategies of adaptation, factors of successful adaptation, maladaptive factors of educational process, psycho-correctional adaptation methods in education

Introduction

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical branch of the United Nations

Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The number of students going abroad in order to get

education reaches the figure of 5 million and has the tendency for stable growth. The formation of

psychologically safe supporting environment in educational process is topical and necessary condition

for receiving quality education and personal development of students. The study of peculiarities of

socio-psychological adaptation of international students with consideration of ethnic mentality and

selection of methods of research are of great current importance now (Drozhzhina D.S., 2013 &

Kakimzhanov M.K., 2015). Psychological safety is an important state of educational environment, being free from manifestations of psychological violence in interrelations, provides satisfaction of

needs of personal and confidential communication, creates reference significance of environment and

provides psychological health needed for participants (Amirova O.K. & Lebedeva N.V., 2015) . The

integration of foreign students and their dialogue in multicultural educational environment is

considerably defined by the readiness of “local students” to accept them into their environment. In

order to study this matter we elaborated our own questionnaire “Acceptance of Another Culture”. Of

great importance, in our view, is to study intercultural communication processes in multicultural

education (Bagramova N.V., 2008, 2009,2012). Some scholars, e.g. I.A. Baeva, believe that

communication of participants of training and educational process present educational environment,

socially organized favorable psychological and pedagogical conditions for its realization, “give birth”

to psychological safety of educational environment (Baeva I.A., 2002). The category of psychological

safety is defined by the authors in three aspects: communicative, interactive and perceptive

competence.

The situation of migration is transformational for every individual. Several authors have noted

increasing levels of creativity while been in multicultural environment (Maddux, WW, 2010). External

cultural pressure from environment leads to the need for restructuring and development of dynamic

components of personality. In order for students to be able to fully express themselves, it is necessary

to provide them with the appropriate climate and facilitate the process of integration into the society.

The emotional involvement of students in the learning process plays a major role in this (Ming Ming

Chiu, 2011), as well as the attitude of foreign students to fellow students (Junious, DL, 2010). The

difference between the cultures forms "necessary zones for development". In a stable situation, with

absence of significant cultural differences, the selection is carried out in preference to the side of

recognizable factors that may inhibit personal development and inter-group interaction, creating a

comfort zone.

The set of task

The task of research is the role of the degree of acceptance of other cultures in a multicultural

educational environment.

Questions of research

Hypotheses: We may guess the influence of a degree of acceptance of another culture on the

constructive and destructive character or processes of flow of sociocultural adaptation of students; the

effectiveness of adaptation is greatly defined by readiness of “local students” to accept them to their

environment.

The goal of research

The goal of the given work is research of degree of acceptance in the intercultural communication

with the local students and foreign students, and building up of an effective dialogue in multicultural

educational environment.

Method of research

We have studied the degree of acceptance by students of another culture in multicultural

environment. In the communicative, interactive and perceptive competence of students, we evaluate

our work through study of the degree of acceptance of another culture. The technique of acceptance of

another culture is elaborated. Technique of research: author s questionnaire «Acceptance of Another

Culture»; composed of 30 questions. Quesfions are connected with the choice of preferences in artistic

activities of writers, artists, composers, actors, cuisine, radio shows. Selection was done among

Russian, English figures, and also it was proposed to give personal option of an answer. The choice of

place, culture, environment of education of children, knowledge of languages, attitude to mixed

marriage is a defining and international factor in degree of another culture. Questions connected with

other identity characterize the degree of psychological maturity, stability, consciousness of degree of

acceptance of own culture.

Respondents: Russian students of KFU and students-temporary migrants who study in

London. Age -20. Political and cultural environment of KFU is great interest because students from

81 countries study in the university. Their number is 3200. Experimental part of the study was done on

the bases of Kazan Federal University and on the bases of «Russian - London » society (London, GB).

Results of research;

The questionnaire was tested. Studies are done on the components «comprising acceptance of

another culture» which influence formation of constructive accepted line of conduct which contribute

to integration of foreign students into multicultural education and constructive interaction, and also the

factors of destructive character. Exponential results during interaction with another culture are:

language knowledge (12), its application (13, 14, 16); interaction with representatives of other nation

(22, 24,30); plans for future (17, 18); processes of adaptation (19, 20, 21); interfluence (22); motivation

(25); financial situation. See the tab. 1.

Table 1 - Differences in the degree of acceptance among Russian remaining students and migrant students to England.
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Figure 1: Attitude to education of children
Attitude to education of children
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Figure 2: Attitude to mixed marriage
Attitude to mixed marriage
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Figure 3: Preference of artists, writers, composers
Preference of artists, writers, composers
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Figure 4: Influence of English way of live on Russians
Influence of English way of live on Russians
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Table 2 - Strategy of acculturation.
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Analysis of paragraphs 29 and 30 of the questionnaire allows you to assess the nature of the

acculturation strategies chosen by migrants (Tab.2). Qualitative analysis of paragraphs of the author's

questionnaire "AAC" showed that students, immigrants prefer Russian artists, writers, composers, but

in a smaller percentage compared to the first year of residence (67 % of immigrants to 86% of

Russians). Sociocultural adaptation of immigrants is realized by the choice of acculturation strategies

according to the type of integration (40%) and assimilation (60 %) − of immigrant women, and the

assimilation (60%) and separation (40%) – of immigrant men (pic.5).

Figure 5: Socio-cultural adaptation
Socio-cultural adaptation
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Despite the fact that, as shown by the conversation with student immigrants the decision to emigrate

was taken by them not spontaneously, the way for immigrants were long enough (according to the

survey on average from 2 to 5 years) and they had sufficient time to familiarize themselves with the

culture of the country of entry and even agree with some of its requirements, but cultural distance,

however, was preserved. Russian students are at a stable situation in homeland while safeguarding the

native comfort zone (separation 100%) and that may complicate communication with other visitors and

hinder acceptance of foreigners.

Conclusions

Sociocultural adaptation of immigrants is realized by the choice of acculturation strategies

according to the type of integration and assimilation - of emigrant women, and the assimilation and

separation - of emigrant men. The situation of migration is transformational for the individual. External

cultural pressure of environment leads to the necessity of reformation and formation of dynamic

components of the personality.

Migrant women easily reach the degree of acceptance of another culture and 40% are integrated. In

case of Russian students, during stable situation at home, the choice in preferences is carried out in

direction of the recognizable, keeping the comfort zone that perhaps complicates communication with

newcomers, and hinders the acceptance of foreigners. Russian students, regardless of gender, built

intergroup interactions on separation type, saving separate groups of their ethnicity.

The multicultural environment is a developing and transforming factor for the personality of

students. Educational activities of group and individual type with the students by tutors with teachers,

aimed at increasing the adoption of a different cultural environment are necessary. Psychological help

to students in a multicultural environment should be provided in the development of the degree of

acceptance of the other in the educational cooperation, mutual development, readiness to help

international students integrate into a different environment, thereby greatly enhancing the efficiency

of the educational process. Integration processes increase psychological security and contributes to the

formation of a constructive course of action in a multicultural education. Strategy of separation of

Russian students indicates that there are unresolved conflicts, confusion of understanding, which

requires solution. The important point is the lack of marginal trends in collaboration, both among

migrants and Russians.

The arrangement of group and individual kind of educational activities are required with students,

tutors, teachers in order to increase the degree of acceptance of another culture. Integration processes

promote psychological safety and contribute to the formation of constructive behavior in a

multicultural learning process.

Psychological assistance to students in a multicultural environment should be provided in the

development of the degree of acceptance of another in educational interaction, development of mutual

support, readiness to help foreign students to integrate themselves into different environment that will

greatly enhance the effectiveness of the educational process. Competencies of a teacher in a

multicultural educational environment should include knowledge of cultural and psychological

characteristics of ethnic groups and ability to establish contact during communication.

Acknowledgements

I thank the participants of the project: "Londoners", Russian students and all those who helped in the collection of empirical material, organizers of «Russian London» and KFU coordinators for work with foreign students.

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Cite this article as:

Latypova, E. (2016). Studying the Role of the Degree of Acceptance of Other Cultures in a Multicultural Educational Environment. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2016, vol 12. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 103-108). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.07.17