The purpose of this paper is the development of both a long-term program for learning the acrobatic exercises and a logical-structural scheme for performing these floor exercises based on the interaction of algorithms of the main and concrete goals of sports training for junior gymnasts of 12 to 15 years old. The following methods have been used in this research: study of specialized literature; pedagogical observation method; video-computerized method of biomechanical analysis; pedagogical experiment; metoda statistical-mathematical method of data processing and interpretation. The results of the research highlight the content of the long-term program for learning the acrobatic exercises in the case of junior gymnasts aged 12 to 15. There are also given examples of active periods of acrobatic exercise performing and the entire logical and structural operational scheme of the macro-methods of acrobatic exercise learning consistent with the requirements of sports training classification program. The longterm programs, the examples of active periods for their achievement and also the processing of the logicalstructural functioning scheme ensure the effectiveness of acrobatic exercise learning within the women’s polyathlon of sports training in artistic gymnastics.
Currently, artistic gymnastics reached a really high level demonstrated by intensified sports mastery,
by development and rivalry of competitive programs complexity; this sports mastery is based on
improvement of the components specific to high classification gymnasts’ training and turns into
virtuosity. These outstanding progresses meet the trends of performance sport and its particular
features, using new didactic technologies for directing the learning process (Vieru, 1997; Arkaev &
Suchilin, 2004; Gaverdovskij, 2007; Potop, 2014: 20).
Floor is the longest event of high dynamism and spectacular character thanks to its extremely
abundant and diverse content. The complexity of twisting somersaults is given by the full twists
involved by this element: one twist around the transverse axis and the other executed simultaneously
around the longitudinal axis, in different planes. At the present moment, in conformity with the Code
of Points provisions, the content of floor routines is characterized by the high difficulty and complexity
of the acrobatic connections. Gymnasts must execute a twist of minimum 360° in order to answer
composition requirements for the execution of somersaults with longitudinal rotation (Vieru, 1997:
With regard to the technology of guiding the learning process, Gaverdovskij (2007: 762) highlights
the basic principles, the types of didactic programming (linear, branched and adaptive), the technical
means of learning; as for the problem of specificity and systematization of the didactic principles in
sports, he presents the traditional teaching and learning in sport, the criteria of emphasizing the
learning principle and the sports exercise learning principles as well (experience of differentiated
The review of specialized literature confirm how important is the research on gymnastics exercise
technique and its learning, taking into consideration the postures and positions of the body. In this
regard, Boloban and Biriuk (1979) recommend the use of the movement postural orientation method
for studying gymnastics technique. The concept and methodology of using this method by studying the
papers have been perfected during recent years (Boloban, 1988-2013; Sadovski et al;, 2009; Potop,
Grigore & Marinescu, 2012; Potop, Grad & Boloban, 2013; Potop, 2014; Potop et al., 2015).
The macro methods of learning difficult acrobatic and gymnastics exercises of coordination, also the
logical-structural diagram for achievement in sports training are well presented by Boloban (1988).
Structurally, the macro methods introduce the functional assembly of long-term programs for learning
the exercises of ”movement school”, the basic level of specialization, of the arbitrary and final
programs, also the development of physical qualities consistent with the technical training based on the
influence of key concrete goals of gymnasts’ sports training (Boloban, 2010, 2011, 2013).
The of this paper is the establishment of a long-term program for acrobatic exercises
learning associated with a logical-structural scheme for floor exercises performing based on the
interaction of algorithms of the most important goals of sports training in the case of 12 to 15 years old
. We consider that the implementation of long-term programs, in compliance
with the active periods of their fulfilment, and the processing of the operating logical-structural scheme
will ensure the effectiveness of learning the acrobatic exercises on floor within women’s polyathlon of
sports training in artistic gymnastics.
2. Materials and methods
This research was conducted by means of the following methods: pedagogical observation method;
literature review method; video computerized method, using “Kinovea” and “Physics ToolKit”
programs; movement orientation postural method; method of pedagogical experiment, statistical
method – “KyPlot” program and method of graphical representation. The research monitored junior
gymnasts’ progresses in the execution of double back somersault in various acrobatic lines/ series
during floor routines in three national competitions.
The biomechanical analysis was made by means of the movement postural orientation method (as
per Boloban, 2013; Sadovski et al.; 2009), adapted for floor in women’s artistic gymnastics: body
launching posture (LP) – toes in standing position with arms up before flipping off of the floor,
multiplication of body posture (MP) – multiplication of body posture during the flight phase of double
back somersault (tucked, pike and tucked with 360 degrees twist) and concluding posture (CP) of the
body – landing.
For the development of long-term learning program on floor, it was necessary to assess the training
level by means of 7 tests for physical training:Test 1 – standing long jump, cm;
Test 2 – standing high jump, cm; Test 3 – rope climb with no leg support, seconds; Test 4
– suspended on a fixed ladder, raising the legs up for 30 seconds, nb. of repeats; Test 5 – prone trunk
extension for 30 seconds, nb. of repeats; Test 6 – jump to handstand on the beam, nb. of repeats;
: Test 7 – handstand hold on the beam, seconds.
Table 1 presents the results of 12 to 15 years old gymnasts’ physical training, in terms of strength of
arms, abdomen, back, lower limbs and sense of balance, etc.; it highlights the arithmetic mean, the
standard error mean and the coefficient of comparison of the means between intermediate and final
testing of Wilcoxon Singed Rank Test for Paired Data.
Figure 1 presents a long-term program according to the components of the macro-method of
learning gymnastics exercises on floor during the stage of basic specialization (12 to 15 years), in terms
of specific physical training, psychological preparation and fundamental technical training consistent
with the classification program provisions and the technical requirements of the International Code of
Points for juniors (FIG).
during the stage of basic specialization (12 to 15 years)
Note:Main purposes (MP)learning of highly difficult routines; meeting the requirements of Jun. I category; Concrete purposes of sports training (CP): learning the handspring routines according to the provisions of the classification program; fulfilment of sports categories requirements; Jun.– sports category Juniors; I.L. – initial learning; T.L.- thorough learning; I.P. – improvement and putting into practice.
Table 2 shows the average performance results obtained by the junior gymnasts aged 12-15 in the 4
national competitions on floor, in terms of number of athletes participating in the competition,
difficulty of the routine, execution score, final score and some penalties specific to this apparatus.
Table 3 highlights the results of the angular measurements of sports technique key elements used in
the double back somersault executed by junior gymnasts aged 12 to 15 in the three national competitions.
Figure 2 shows the spatial characteristics of GCG vertical movement trajectory of the key elements
of sports technique used in the double back somersault executed by junior gymnast (M.A.) in the two
national competitions (2013 and 2014), as for the launching posture (LP), body multiplication posture
in the flight maximum moment of GCG (MP, FMH) and concluding posture (CP) – landing. According
to the teaching aids used in the learning process (Fig. 2), the coach complements the pedagogical
functional equations that can improve the technological process in achieving the elements of didactical
structure of the programmed learning (Boloban, 2013).
P DP DR LM MeL MFOL RC RL
Pedagogical functional equation of learning the double back somersault on floor
Note: P – purposes and tasks of learning; DP – didactical principles; DR –didactical rules; LM – learning methods; MeL – means learning; MFOL – methods and forms of organization of lessons; RC – regulation and control of learning process; RL – results of learning.
Note: P – purpose of exercise learning; P.T. – pedagogical tasks; P1-4 – aiding / preparatory exercises; P1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 – supplementary exercises with aiding - preparatory character; K1, K2, K3, K4 – control, correction of learning process, RL – results of learning.
Figure 3 presents the diagram of the algorithms of linear-branched programming for acquiring the
double back somersault on floor, regarding the purpose of learning, pedagogical tasks, aiding-
preparatory exercises, supplementary exercises, verification and improvement of learning and results of
Discussions and conclusions
The results on physical training level highlight the increase of the explosive strength of lower limbs
and the increase of arms strength, abdominal and back strength, the improvement of the combined
strength of the scapular belt, back and abdomen and especially the development of the sense of balance
in handstand on beam.
The video biomechanical analysis using the method of movement postural orientation identified and
analysed the progress of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of sports technique key elements of
the double back somersault. The recording of the performances obtained in competitions during the
period 2013-2014 highlights the results of learning the acrobatic elements on floor and the
effectiveness of using programmed learning didactical technologies.
The improvement of the physical training of the gymnasts aged 12 to 15 contributed to the
improvement of sports technique key elements of the acrobatic exercises and getting better
performances in competitions.
The realization of long-term programs (in compliance with the active periods of their fulfilment)
and the processing of the operating logical-structural scheme lead to the effectiveness of learning the
acrobatic exercises on floor within women’s polyathlon structure of sports training in artistic
This case study is part of the pedagogical experiment of the post-doctoral thesis; it is introduced in the research plan of Physical Education and Sport field of Ukraine for 2011-2015. National registration number: 0111U001726 (theme: 2.15). Index UDK: 796.012.2. We express our gratitude to the Romanian Gymnastics Federation and especially to Mrs Anca Grigoraș Mihăilescu, federal coach and to the group of coaches of Izvorani Olympic Team who helped us to conduct this research.
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10 June 2016
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Potop, V., & Boloban, V. (2016). Long-Term Programs for Learning the Acrobatic Exercises on Floor in Women’s Artistic Gymnastics. In V. Grigore, M. Stanescu, & M. Paunescu (Eds.), Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy - ICPESK 2015, vol 11. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 503-509). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.06.70