Learning the Snatch Sports Technique Based on Biomechanical Criteria in Weightlifting 

Abstract

This paper is meant to highlight the didactic technology of learning the sports technique of snatch procedure in weightlifting based on biomechanical criteria. This scientific approach led to a study conducted in “Rapid” Sports Club of Bucharest, Weightlifting Department. A number of 5 athletes aged 12 to 16 years participated in this study. The following methods of research were used: specialized bibliographic study; method of pedagogical observation; computerized video method, using Physics Toolkit biomechanical analysis program; statistical method of research data processing by means of KyPlot program. The study monitored the performances of junior weightlifters during training sessions in terms of learning and improving the sports technique of snatch lift. In the biomechanical analysis, there were identified, measured and evaluated the phases of snatch lift sports technique, there were highlighted the execution faults and the influence of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics on the technical execution. On the basis of the results obtained, there were developed algorithmic programs for the linearbranched learning of snatch lift, using the most efficient preparatory exercises for specific physical and technical training. The use of the video method of biomechanical analysis of snatch procedure in weightlifting contributed to the more efficient learning of sports technique and to the achievement of better performances in competition.

Keywords: Weightlifting, biomechanics, didactics, snatch, performance

1. Introduction

The increase of performances in weightlifting, a phenomenon that we are continuously witnessing,

is based on the improvement of technique and training methods (B.I., 2009).

The review of technique and technical training in weightlifting is highlighted by the following

components (Ulareanu, 2014a: 86): technical elements (snatch and clean & jerk), technical procedure

(“hockey” snatch or high pull, split in hockey, etc.), style and basic mechanism of technical procedure.

The relations between technical procedures and elements are not present in all sport branches, some

of them having only technical procedures (weightlifting). Before starting to learn the technical

exercises, the children should know a series of aiding exercises and execute them correctly, with load

accessible for their age (Ulareanu, 2014b: 111).

Recently, the international sports arena and national competition countries have deteriorated sharply

athletic competition, the weightlifters’ fights becoming more acute and intense. In achieving victory,

conditions can be based on non-traditional approaches to the formation of technical skills in athletes, as

well as on research and development of technology implementation in competitive “jerk” and “push”

exercises included in the biathlon (Kornilov, 2010: 28).

Weightlifting was usually studied in terms of kinematic and kinetic parameters by various

researchers (Garhammer, 1985; Baumann et al., 1988; Lee, Huwang, & Tsuang, 1995; Gourgoulis et

al., 2000; Ulareanu, Potop, & Timnea, 2013; Oleshko, 2014). During the lifting process, the feet

become a supporting base to maintain balance and to facilitate the movement of the barbell as the

forces applied on it by the weightlifter. Thus, an understanding of the feet reaction to the ground as

well as the movement would be very valuable for coaches (Garhammer, 1984; Yu-Chuan & Wu-Chou,

2001).

: it is meantto highlight the didactic technology of learning the sports

technique of snatch procedure in weightlifting based on biomechanical criteria.

.We considered that the use of the biomechanical analysis video method of

snatch procedure in weightlifting would contribute to a more efficient learning of sports technique and

to better performances in competition.

2. Materials and methods

This scientific approach led to a study conducted in “Rapid” Sports Club of Bucharest,

Weightlifting Department. A number of 5 athletes aged 12 to 16 years participated in this study. The

following methods of research were used: specialized bibliographic study; method of pedagogical

observation; computerized video method, using Physics Toolkit biomechanical analysis program;

statistical method of research data processing by means of KyPlot program. The study monitored the

performances of junior weightlifters during training sessions in terms of learning and improving the

sports technique of snatch lift.

The video recording was made with a Panasonic video camera, perpendicular to the plane of

motion; the images were converted into AVI format (30 frames/sec, 1 frame = 0.033 sec) by means of

Pinnacle studio video capture program. The measure of the angular features of movement phases in

snatch style was performed by means of Kinovea program and focused on the angular positions

between thigh and torso in the start position, straightening, end of snatch, getting under bar in squat;

during the lifting from squat, we measured the angle between feet - GCG and barbell. We also analysed

and assessed the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of movement phases in snatch style.

The technique of snatch style was learned by means of the linear-branched programming, in

conformity with the model of professor V. Boloban (2013), adapted by us, using four levels of means

for the correction of mistakes and improvement of the technique.

3. Results

The video computerized analysis of snatch style in performance weightlifting identified, analysed

and evaluated the characteristics of movement phases of sports technique in terms of start position

(SP), straightening, flipping, getting under barbell in squat, lifting and barbell catch.

Table 1 - Anthropometric indicators and weight in snatch style execution during workouts and competitions of junior weightlifters (n = 5)
See Full Size >

Table 1 shows the anthropometric indicators and the weight in snatch style execution during

workouts and competitions.

Table 2 and Figure 1 show the angular characteristics of body segments during the phases of snatch

style execution by junior weightlifters aged 12 to 16 in terms of barbell weight, angles of the start

position, straightening, flipping, getting under barbell in squat, raising from squat and fixing the

barbell.

Table 2 - Angular characteristics of body segments in snatch style execution (n = 5)
See Full Size >
Figure 1: Angular characteristics of snatch style phases (M.D.)
Angular characteristics of snatch style phases (M.D.)
See Full Size >
Table 3 - Results of biomechanical indicators in snatch style (n = 5, mean ± SEM)
See Full Size >

SPStart position and leaving the SP; GUB - Getting under barbell in squat; Raising and catching the barbell.

In Table 3, there are shown the results of the biomechanical characteristics of snatch style regarding

the barbell trajectory (X, Y), velocity (Vx, Vy and V) and force (Fx, Fy and F) of the start position, straightening, flipping, getting under barbell in squat, raising from squat and barbell fixing.

Figure 2 presents the algorithmic diagram of the linear-branched programming in snatch style

learning, highlighting the goal of learning, pedagogical tasks, aiding and preparatory exercises for

learning snatch style, supplementary preparatory exercises, process of control, correction of learning

and the results of learning.

Figure 2: Algorithmic diagram of linear-branched programming in snatch style learning. Note: P – purpose of exercise learning; PT – pedagogical tasks; P1-4 – aiding / preparatory exercises ; P1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 – supplementary exercises with aiding - preparatory character; K1, K2, K3, K4 – control, correction of learning process, RL – results of learning.
Algorithmic diagram of linear-branched programming in snatch style learning. Note: P – purpose of exercise learning; PT – pedagogical tasks; P1-4 – aiding / preparatory exercises ; P1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 – supplementary exercises with aiding - preparatory character; K1, K2, K3, K4 – control, correction of learning process, RL – results of learning.
See Full Size >

Methods to correct mistakes and to improve the phases of snatch style:

1.Insufficient pulling – execution of pulls during which the complete straightening, torso extension

and head bending backwards are monitored; snatch without split; pulling from boxes of different

heights, etc.

2.Getting under barbell in “hockey” position too early: pulls maintaining the barbell in the highest

spot, etc.

3.Flipping is not executed from both legs: snatch from hanging; snatch from boxes; separate

performance of the snatch, monitoring the tiptoeing and falling in squat, etc.

4.Lifting the barbell with the same speed: development of back and lower legs muscles; workout

from hanging position; workout from boxes, etc.

4. Discussions and conclusions

The assessment of the technical training was performed by the method of movement postural

orientation (Boloban, 2013), adapted by us to the specific features of snatch style, using the

biomechanical analysis of the key elements of sports technique by means of the video computerized

method.

The identification of the key elements of sports technique in snatch style was performed by means

of a specialized program named Physical Toolkit, with a group of 5 junior athletes aged 12 to 16,

monitoring - with Kinovea program - the angular characteristics of the snatch style in three attempts

(Table 1).

The results of the anthropometric indicators and the weight in snatch style execution during

workouts highlight an average body weight of 57.6 kg and an average height of 1.63 m; the barbell

weight during the first attempt executions is 37.4 kg, at the second attempt is 41.4 kg, and at the third

attempt is 46.0 kg, which represents 75.88 % of the maximum weight of 62.0 kg lifted in the event.

Regarding the angular characteristics of body segments we found out (Table 2) - in start posture – a

mean of the torso – hip angle of 48.9° and 39.5° between torso line and the platform; at the end of the

straightening phase, the mean of the angle between the torso line and the platform is 37.3°; the posture

of the torso at the end of the flipping is 183.5°; in the phase of entering under the barbell in squat

position, the angle shank-hip is 58.5°, hip-torso 60.7°, and torso-arms 207.5°; in the phase of lifting

with split legs in semi-triple-extension of the shank-hip-torso, the angular values of these ones are of

107.2°-93.3°-214.4°.

The results of the angular characteristics of body segments between the phases of snatch style were

obtained with the help of ANOVA test, revealing significant differences between the angles of the start

posture and straightening at P˂ 0.01; the angular relation in the phases of getting under the barbell in

squat position and lifting with split legs and fixing the barbell show significant differences at P˂ 0.001.

As for the results of the biomechanical characteristics in snatch style (Table 3), we notice in the

flipping phase a value of barbell lifting at 0.95 m with a resultant of linear velocity of 8.26 m/s, and

during the lifting from split leg position, the force resultant is 2107.5 N.

The assessment of technical execution level by means of the method of movement postural

orientation led to the creation of an algorithmic diagram for correcting and learning the snatch style

(Fig. 2).

The use of the video computerized method of biomechanical analysis of snatch style in weightlifting

contributed to the more efficient learning of sports technique and to the achievement of better

performances in competition.

Acknowledgements

We express our gratitude to the main coaches of the Weightlifting Department of “Rapid” Sports Club of Bucharest - Rugea Pavel and Dumitru Alexandru, who helped us to conduct this research in good conditions.

References

  • Baumann, W., Gross, V., Quade, K., Gaibierz. P., & Schwirtz, A. (1988). The snatch technique of world class

  • weightlifters at the 1985 World Championships. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 4, 68-89.

  • Boloban, V. N. (2013). Regulation of athlete’s body posture. (Monography). Kiev: Olympic Literature, 168-

  • 187.

  • Garhammer, J. (1985). Biomechanical profiles of Olympic weightlifting. International Journal of Sports

  • Biomechanics, 1, 122-130.

  • Garhammer, J. (1984). Center of pressure movements during weight lifting. Sports Biomechanics (pp. 279-

  • 291). Del Mar: Academic Publishers.

  • Gourgoulis, V., Aggelousis, N., Mavromatis, G., & Garas, A. (2000). Three-dimensional kinematic analysis

  • of the snatch of elite Greek weightlifters. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 643-652.

  • Kornilov, A. (2010). Biomechanical structure of competitive exercise jerk and special exercises in weightlifting. (Dissertation author’s abstract on scientific degree of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Moscow).

  • Newsletter (B.I.) (2009). Romanian Weightlifting Federation, no. 55.

  • Oleshko, V. (2014). Biomechanical characteristics of technical-tactical actions of skilled weightlifters in the competitive exercises with account for their component modeling. Science of Olympic Sport, 3, 21-32.

  • Lee, Y. H., Huwang, C. Y., & Tsuang, Y. H. (1995). Biomechanical characteristics of pre-activation and pulling phases of snatch lift. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 11, 288-298.

  • Ulareanu, M. V. (2014a). Antrenamentul de bază în haltere de performanță. București: Printech.

  • Ulareanu, M. V. (2014b). Orientări metodologice pentru inițierea tinerilor în sportul halterelor. București: Printech.

  • Ulareanu, M. V., Potop, V., & Timnea, O. C. (2013). Biomechanical characteristics of movement phases of snatch style in performance weightlifting. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / Science, Movement and Health, XIII(2 Supplement), 376-382.

  • Yu-Chuan, L., & Wu-Chou, C., (2001). Foot pressure study during pulling phase of snatch lifting. Biomechanics Symposia 2001/ University of San Francisco. 143-146.

Copyright information

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

About this article

Publication Date

18 December 2019

eBook ISBN

978-1-80296-010-5

Publisher

Future Academy

Volume

11

Print ISBN (optional)

-

Edition Number

1st Edition

Pages

1-509

Subjects

Sports, sport science, physical education

Cite this article as:

Ulareanu, M. V., Potop, V., & Timnea, O. C. (2019). Learning the Snatch Sports Technique Based on Biomechanical Criteria in Weightlifting . In V. Grigore, M. Stanescu, & M. Paunescu (Eds.), Physical Education, Sport and Kinetotherapy - ICPESK 2015, vol 11. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 252-257). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.06.34