The paper "Legislative strategies on the development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic" is based on the application-practical dimension, on the opportunities that legislative strategies have had on the development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet context COVID-19 pandemic. The study receives the way in which the promoted legislative strategies supported the initiative of the school organizations and the most effective involvement of the social partners in the efficiency and support of the didactic approach. The research aims at an analysis of the legislative strategies and the working methodology required were a catalyst for the optimal development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet, an effective framework that allowed institutional management to carry out in optimal conditions the stages of implementation, even in disadvantaged environments of the development of teaching activities by providing support for learning through alternative means through local community services provided to learners by the local authority.
The school institution in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that it is a living organism and a system open to communication and interaction with the context of social, economic, political and cultural evolution in the community environment being in a permanent connection of exchanges axiological. In this context, the school has demonstrated that it is an open system, able to adapt to the dynamics of the community, and the human resources and the management team have a proactive, collaborative, flexible and innovative attitude for reformist actions in the legislative, educational and curricular context. occurred in the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the legislative strategies promoted supported the initiative of school organizations and the involvement of community partners as effectively as possible, contributing to the construction of a shared vision on the evolution of the educational institution and the didactic approach (European Commision, 2021; Senge, 2016).
The context of the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to a rethinking of the architecture of the educational process, its quality, resources and costs involved in the optimal support of the teaching act, in which in this new construction the teacher through the current rethinking of the training process is a “facilitator teacher, open to change” (Holotescu & Grosseck, 2020, p. 218), “an expert of the teaching-learning act with RED” (Holotescu & Grosseck, 2020, p. 218) and “open evaluator, implements open evaluation practices” (Holotescu & Grosseck, 2020, p. 218). However, we cannot implement all these constants, except through a favorable legislative context and through an educational and training policy generated to connect us to the major goals of global politics.
The education system being under the influence of the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, the pedagogical study aimed to answer the question: To what extent have the legislative strategies implemented at the level of the education system been effectively contributed to the optimization of the educational process, implicitly to the increase of the quality of the educational process?
Purpose of the Study
In this social and educational dynamic, in which the actors of the action, teachers, educators, parents were involved in the process of cooperation and collaboration of the most efficient development of the didactic approach, the question was often raised from the actors if the solutions assumed at the institutional level and at the micro-collective level, they are sustainable, they are responsible decisions, whose effect at the level of long-term management will have the expected results and will contribute to the increase of the quality of the educational process. Thus, the legislative strategies and the working methodology constructed represented a catalyst, a facilitator of the development in optimal conditions of the development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet, an efficient framework that allowed the institutional management to carry out in optimal conditions the stages of implementation, to legislate the roles assumed by each decision-maker, to take measures in the development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet, even in disadvantaged environments where educators and teachers have limited access to technology (Law no.1 / 2011, Order No.5545 / 2020).
Based on the educational policy documents and legislative documents legislated at EU and national level, the aim was to build a favorable context for conducting teaching activities through technology and the Internet in the best possible parameters, but also took into account the restructuring of the framework. curriculum of in-service teacher training programs based on the model of approaching the management of training through competencies, focusing on the development of digital competence and areas of manifestation (Adam, 2020; Ceobanu et al., 2020; Redecker & Punie, 2017).
The aim of the research was the analysis of legislative strategies for the development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet that have contributed to optimizing the teaching approach in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, but also to increase the quality of the educational process.
1. Determining the general level of implementation of legislative strategies regarding the development of teaching activities through technology and the Internet in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic
2. Highlighting the possible solutions advanced by teachers in order to optimize the teaching approach on technology and the Internet in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The study took into account the legislative, educational and curricular context from the perspective of digitalization, the needs of the school organization both in urban and rural areas, taking into account structural features, human and cultural dimension, but also its functional dimensions. In this pandemic context, for teachers, “the great advantage of using technology in the educational process is that in this way scientific abstractions can be transformed into sensory experiences that are available to all” (Ceobanu, 2020, p. 31).
The approach of the present study is established in accordance with the specific objectives.
In a synthetic way, the research hypothesis of the study undertaken could be concretized as follows: Knowledge of the legislative framework and its main implementation methodologies leads to an optimization of the development of teaching activities through the use of technology and the Internet in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, implicitly increasing the quality of the educational process.
In the pedagogical investigation for the essential construction of the subject based on the simple random essentiality procedure, teachers from 27 pre-university education organizations with their related structures were included. In this study we wanted to outline a broader picture of the factual situation regarding the way the actors manage the legislative framework and its main methodologies for its implementation and determined a better development of teaching activities through the use of technology and the Internet in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, implicitly led to the solution of the existing barriers at administrative level, to the human, pedagogical or material resources involved in the good institutional functioning in the pandemic context. The sample of interviewees consisted of 135 tenured and substitute teachers in pre-university education, individualized by: the initial training system, the certification of teachers in the system of continuing education programs, the degree obtained, the school unit in urban or rural areas, seniority allocated to officials in the institution where he is incumbent or substitute, seniority in the education system, through the career development plan, through the planning of continuous professional development at the level of the educational institution, but also through the culture and climate of the school organization. school. In agreement with the objectives of the pedagogical study undertaken, the research methods and working tools were established to support the sustainability of the ascertaining research. The interview-based survey method was used, through which information was obtained from the interviewees relevant to the study of how to implement at the institutional level the legislative strategy and methodology for conducting teaching activities through technology and the Internet, but also of the legislative framework regarding the processing of personal data (Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Law no.1 / 2011, Order No.5545 / 2020). The method of researching curricular documents and other school documents, as well as methods and tools for collecting and interpreting research data to contribute to the validation of the proposed hypothesis were also considered.
The educational process is subject to changes in the social, economic dynamics and implicitly in the societal evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection. From this point of view, at the level of the legislative framework, subsequent modifications and completions were made for the educational system, which would support the school institutions in developing a management focused on organizational efficiency and active participation of actors in decisions developed and implemented at institutional level. In the pandemic context of the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, at institutional level the management team aimed at complying with and implementing the legislative provisions, in order to build a resilient organization in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. From this point of view, 92% of the interviewees sought to assume an active role in relation to the priorities, needs, interests and the problematic situation that the community faces through an open dialogue on cooperation, collaboration and partnership. Thus, the teachers emphasized that in this context the legislative framework, through the subsequent amendments and completions, was characterized by the pregnancy and conciseness of the norm, by the clarity and accuracy of the text, which contributed to a better implementation at institutional level. The respondents underlined that, in order to implement the legislative decisions, the construction of the methodology-framework "for carrying out teaching activities through technology and the Internet, as well as the processing of personal data of the participants in this type of activities" (Order No.5545 / 2020, art. 1), but also the constructs of “teaching activity through technology and the internet” (Order No.5545 / 2020, art.2, paragraph a), “virtual educational environment” (Order No.5545 / 2020, art.2, paragraph b), “forms of communication through technology and the internet” (Order No.5545 / 2020, art.2, paragraph c). From this point of view, an efficient regulation at legislative and application methodology level, contributed to the awareness of the society on the pressing problems that the school faces, contributing to the elaboration of strategies that unify the directions of action of the social partners in the community the role of partner institution in solving the problematic situations that the school institution faced.
Interviewees pointed out that at the level of the specialized commissions of the institution, the legislative framework on the organization of communication activities through technology and the Internet was developed, but also the legislative framework that "ensures compliance with personal data protection requirements, according to Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union of 27 April 2016 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data ”(Order No.5545 / 2020, art.4, paragraph 1 ) for a better functionality in the virtual environment and in order for the teaching staff to know the security measures in the virtual environment and the processing of personal data of the educable, to ensure the rights of the children, but also of the mental, emotional, social and spiritual health of minors. This provision represented a professional responsibility at the level of the teaching staff by knowing the risks and safety measures in order to use new technologies in teaching, assuming responsible exercise of the professional act, but also assuming the consequences of violating the legal framework by disseminating personal data of educators in networks. social; The respondents highlighted another solution at institutional level by familiarizing educators and educators with RGPD, because by respecting the principles governing the conduct of activities through technology (Order No.5545 / 2020, art.3) participants in the activities agreed to processing of personal data, ,,Consent should be given by a clear affirmative act establishing a freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject's agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her, such as by a written statement, including by electronic means , or an oral statement ”according to Regulation (EU) 2016/679, art. 32, aware of the risks, protection and security measures; in this context, at the level of decisional management, structured and subordinated decisions were adopted in the structure of the managerial hierarchy of the school organization regarding the qualitative level of management in assuming the responsibility of the school institution “as a personal data operator” (Order No. 5545/2020, art.5, paragraph 1) by ensuring the measures of protection, confidentiality, security of the data of the educable in the online learning platforms and of the teachers by creating systems and accounts for the beneficiaries. Thus, a percentage of 19% of teachers working as full-time or substitute teachers in rural structures in disadvantaged areas, who faced the lack of internet connection and digital tools and resources, while educators do not they had access to the internet and the endowment with the necessary equipment to participate in the didactic activities through technology and the internet. In this context, some of the managers of school organizations through sustainable partnerships at community level with the support of local authorities and social partners, economic agents have ensured through external sources the possibility of participation of learners in online schooling; but for disadvantaged areas “limited access to technology” (Order No.5545 / 2020, art.20, paragraph 1), also through community partnerships and the support of local authorities and social partners or economic agents have been ensured, , support activity for learning through alternative means ”(Order No.5545 / 2020, art.20, paragraph 1) by distributing educational materials, developing educational resources, by registering teaching activities in audio-visual support, these being distributed through community services (Order No.5545 / 2020, art.20, paragraph 3 and paragraph 4). Also, 96% of the interviewees stated that in their didactic work the changes brought to the legislative framework regarding the annual evaluation of the activity of the teaching and auxiliary teaching staff played an important role, by establishing the working methodology at the job description of the position. in pre-university education and the self-assessment / evaluation framework sheet in order to award the annual grade for teachers in pre-university education by Order No. 3189/2021, which regulated the annual evaluation criteria and by "the use of information and communication technology - ICT in the activity of didactic design ”[Order No. 3189/2021, art.7, paragraph 2, paragraph a (iii)], by “organizing and carrying out didactic, curricular and extracurricular activities in the school, extracurricular and online environment ”[Order No. 3189/2021, art.7, paragraph 2, paragraph b (V)], but also the attributions by teachers in evaluating learning outcomes educables in the online environment [Order No. 3189/2021, art.7, paragraph 2, paragraph c]. Thus, the teachers and especially the institutional management team underlined that the inclusion of these attributions in the job description and in the evaluation grids contributed to a loyal stimulation of the professional competition, the increase of the degree of professional responsibility, of the degree of commitment in professional development. to online courses and continuing education programs mediated by the Teaching Staff House, accredited institutions from the private sector, contributing to increasing the quality of teacher-mediated learning content through digital teaching; developing their capacity to create digital educational resources, of a learning community among learners by promoting the particularities of the digital learning process; developing strategies for digital evaluation and providing constructive and digital feedback; the continuous development of digital skills and implicitly the facility of digital and informational literacy of learners in accordance with the directives and the development strategy at the level of digital education of the EU (European Commission, 2021). In this context, as well as the possible solutions advanced by teachers in order to optimize the teaching approach to technology and the Internet, implicitly increasing the school results of students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic 71% of respondents stressed: building communities of active learning in the digital environment, which allowed learners to participate interactively in activities, applying knowledge in various contexts, but also their transfer; the emphasis in the online teaching approach fell on the product of learning for learners, by creating resources, original products, the transfer of ideas in the active working group; developing various skills specific to intellectual activity: the ability to argue, the ability to write and present information and products created by students in the virtual environment, the ability to analyze a material, a product of individual or group work, the ability to perform an analysis or synthesis of information and data given for study in the created learning community; the virtual environment was an opportunity for students to develop communication and debate skills; the development of mediation strategies that contribute to the structuring of desirable learning and training experiences for learners; developing independence and cognitive autonomy; but also the development of educators through counseling activities of the capacity for personal self-reflection, of the capacity for emotional resilience in the context of conflict situations; personal responsibility and flexibility in the virtual learning community; building a digital narrative identity, managing the virtual environment as an opportunity for the learner in cooperation, collaboration and interrelationship; developing tolerance for frustration in different situations of disagreements and misunderstandings that occur in the virtual environment (Ceobanu, 2016; Ceobanu, 2020; Cuc, 2013, 2014, 2019a, 2019b, 2019c, 2020a, 2020b, 2020c; Ceobanu et al., 2020).
In the social dynamics influenced by the peculiarities of the COVID-19 pandemic, the study aims to emphasize the coherence, conciseness and clarity of legislative strategies legislated at national level in the education system, which had a beneficial influence in order to optimize the teaching approach through technology and internet, implicitly in order to increase the quality of the teaching act and the school results of the educators in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Promoting a legislative framework that has supported the initiatives of school organizations in managing viable partnerships at regional and local level in order to develop skills and ensure a quality teaching approach. This for the educational institution and for the teaching staff represented the implementation of a new type of teaching-learning-digital evaluation. Thus, the legislative framework and the coherent and viable working methodology for the pandemic context, an important role belonged to the management team of the school organization that implemented the provisions in the institution, but also to the teachers, who took responsibility, through strategic creativity and high degree adaptability and professional involvement to find solutions, as effective as possible to the shortcomings and limitations of the teaching process carried out through technology and the Internet. Also in this legislative context, to successfully implement a diversity of new technologies, applications, platforms, educational resources, to stimulate the learnable, to facilitate inter (active), dynamic, digital learning in learning communities. Education was challenged during this period to adapt to new innovations in science and technology, to adopt a dynamic of multilevel change, from macrosystem, to mesosystem and microsystem of the dynamics of the group / class of educators, to adopt a democratic-participatory and proactive management, through which to rebalance the axis of the educational needs of the digital generation with the educational offer of the educational institution. By virtue of the legal provisions, at the level of the local community, it was possible to rethink the educational partnerships, the way of involvement in the good approach of the school organization of the social partners through concrete measures: supporting the school with funds, material and financial resources, endowment with a material base and the equipment necessary for a viable operation of the teaching activity; also to facilitate for the educational institution the obtaining of extra-budgetary funds and financial resources, to support the institution in the challenges of building new spaces, the purchase of equipment, tools and digital resources, the facilitation of funds necessary to promote the professional development opportunities of teachers . Subsequent amendments and completions to the legislative framework support in this pandemic context the rethinking and reorganization of the school institution and the educational process, by managing development directions in the dimension of technological acquisitions and the implementation of new technologies in the educational process (so that technology becomes the new educational environment). virtual, to facilitate the generation of new content and to represent the open educational resource); to familiarize the actors with the new cyberculture, professional development of teachers at the level of digital competence, but also the teaching-learning process - digital assessment contributing to increasing the quality of teaching (Ceobanu, 2020; Cucoș, 2020).
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23 March 2022
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Cuc, M. C. (2022). Legislative Strategies Regarding Teaching Through Technology And Internet In The Pandemic Context. In I. Albulescu, & C. Stan (Eds.), Education, Reflection, Development - ERD 2021, vol 2. European Proceedings of Educational Sciences (pp. 468-476). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epes.22032.47