The paper presents the analysis of the preconditions, results and consequences of the creation of the Ingush Autonomous Region in 1924 after the collapse of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which was the first original experience of the Soviet version of the mountain integrism. The most important achievements marked the studied period in the field of cultural construction and education. The rapid growth of school network, the coverage of almost the entire population with primary and secondary education, the elimination of illiteracy – these phenomena common to the entire post-revolutionary Soviet reality were of particular importance for Ingushetia, which entered the twentieth century as the next-to-last part of the Terek region in terms of literacy. It was very important that, as a result of the transformations of the early 1920s it became possible to fold the Ingush statehood around the historical, cultural and economic center of Ingushetia – Vladikavkaz, which became the administrative center of the Ingush Autonomous Region during its ten-year existence. The authors state that the steps of the Soviet government to establish administrative-territorial boundaries between new autonomous entities laid the foundation for future national conflicts. It is noted that the first years of the existence of the Ingush autonomy were especially difficult, as the tasks were to eliminate the severe consequences of the Civil War and improve the daily life of the population.
The formation of the national statehood of the mountain peoples after the events of the revolution and the civil war in Russia is of great interest not only in terms of regional, but also Russian historiography as a whole. At the same time, we are studying not only the Mountain Republic, as the first experience in the formation of a federal formation of mountain peoples, but also those national formations that in the 1920s inherited a short-lived mountain federation.
The study of various aspects of the formation of new national regions on the ruins of the collapsed Mountain Republic is not only of enduring historical significance, but also it has applied value in the modern conditions of the formation of national-state policy in the North Caucasus.
Some of the related issues are considered in the studies of the Soviet period. For example, Zoev (1991) in his work studies mainly economic and cultural issues.
In recent decades, some aspects of this topic of interest were considered in the works of such authors as Daudov (2012), Kokorkhoeva (2002), Matiev (2017), Yandiev (2017).
Among the latest works by Russian authors, we should mention the fundamental study by Shnirelman (2006), which, among other things, explains certain aspects of the national-state regime of mountain peoples in modern times.
However, the role of the combination of socio-political and socio-economic aspects of the formation of the Ingush Autonomous Region after the collapse of the Mountain ASSR did not become the main focus of any of the mentioned works.
On September 1, 1921, Kabarda left the Mountain ASSR. In 1921, the Balkar Region separated from the Mountain ASSR. Then the Chechen Region emerged from the Mountain ASSR, and in November 1922 it was transformed into the Chechen Autonomous Region (Ibragimov, 2008). On January 12, 1922, the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Region was created on the Karachay territory, separated from the Mountain ASSR, and the Circassian region separated from the Kuban-Chernomorsk region – on January 12, 1922 (Shnirelman, 2006).
On July 1, 1924, the visiting bureau of the South-Eastern Regional Committee of communist party (b), headed by Secretary A. I. Mikoyan, at a meeting in Vladikavkaz, considered the issue “On the state of the Revolutionary Committees and the Organization Bureau of communist party (b) of Ossetia, Ingushetia, the Sunzha district and the mountains. Vladikavkaz in connection with the reorganization of the Mountain Republic" and approved the composition of the Organization Bureau of communist party (b) and the Revolutionary Committees of Ingushetia, North Ossetia and Sunzha District. The organization bureau of communist party (b) of Ingushetia included I. B. Zyazikov (chairman), M. Banhaev, H. Lyanov, I. Malsagov, A. Gorchkhanov (Yandiev, 2017). On July 7, 1924, the “Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee was issued on the abolition of the Autonomous Mountainous Soviet Socialist Republic and its division into two autonomous regionsNorth Ossetia and Ingushetia, into an autonomous administrative unitthe Sunzha District with the rights of the provincial executive committee and the allocation of Vladikavkaz into an independent administrative unit". The Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic became a short-lived federal association because it was convenient for the Kremlin to manage the mountaineers according to separate ethnic groups, opposing the Caucasian peoples to each other in the interests of power (Kharsiev, 2012).
On July 14, 1924, a meeting was held of the commission for the distribution of property liquidated in connection with the reorganization of the Mountainous Republic of the People's Commissariat of the RKI, which was headed by A.I. Gorchkhanov. I. Zyazikov was already invited to the position of the head of the financial department of the Revolutionary Committee of the Ingush Autonomous Region. The states of the former people's commissariat were divided between Ingushetia and Ossetia on a parity of 6 people, the Sunzha District was assigned 3 units (Yandiev, 2017).
At a meeting of the interdepartmental commission on July 15, it was decided to assign the following industrial enterprises to Ingushetia: 1) State Vine Plant; 2) Mining plant, on the 9th verst of the Georgian Military Highway; 3) Starch plant No. 2; 4) State leather factory, former Maisuradze; 5) Sawmill, formerly Krolin; 6) Mill, former Lyanova; 7) Mill, former Lazareva; 8) Soap factory, former Kozyrev; 9) Printing house No. 2; 10) Brick and tile factory, former Simonova. Of the enterprises located in the villages Ingushetia got; 11) a mill, the former Spiridonov, in the village. Malchi; 12) the former Fedorov mill in the village of Shalkhi; 13) limestone furnaces at the Svinukha River; 14) limestone furnaces in the Chernorechenskaya dacha; 15) limestone furnaces in the 14th Konkur dacha; 16) lime kilns near the Popov farm; 17) limestone furnaces on the Belaya Rechka; 18) limestone furnaces near the Angusht village; 19) limestone furnaces on the Black River; 20) lime kilns, former Rogalevich (Yandiev, 2017).
On August 25, 1924, the Mountain Republic was officially abolished. Regional organizations of Ingushetia and North Ossetia, educational institutions, medical institutions, industrial enterprises were located in Vladikavkaz, and this decision created an aggravated situation around it. Both Ingush and Ossetians pretended to Vladikavkaz. The issue of the establishment of administrative-territorial boundaries between new autonomous entities could not be resolved immediately. The arbitrary change of borders led to the division of peoples, some of which ended up outside their national and administrative borders.
Thus, from the moment the autonomies were created, a kind of a trap was created, which began to operate already during the delimitation of the Terek region.
The complaints were from Ossetia and Ingushetia to various authorities. To resolve them, various commissions of central and regional authorities were created. Disputes over the border villages of Ingushetia and North Ossetia arose repeatedly.
In November 1924, the secretary of the Ingush Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, I.B. Zyazikov, was forced to protest to the chairman of the commission for the demarcation of the Mountain Republic about the illegal settlement of disputed border areas. Only on February 16, 1925, this conflict was localized, but it was not possible to completely resolve disputes over border lands (Chakhkiev, 1991).
During the resolution of the most acute problems of the statehood of Ingushetia, namely the fate of Vladikavkaz, I. Zyazikov, the secretary of the Ingush regional committee, and A. Gorchkhanov, the chairman of the Ingush regional executive committee, argued in favor of transferring the city to the Ingush Autonomous Region. They noted that Vladikavkaz was and remains the economic and cultural center of the Ingush because all industrial enterprises, cultural institutions, educational institutions, social facilities were located there: a hospital, industrial and pedagogical technical schools, etc. (Gazetaingush, 2014).
In some sources, there were references to the following characteristic case that occurred in those early days of the existence of the Ingush Autonomous Region. In August 1924, a national holiday was held in the village of Bazorkino, dedicated to the separation of Ingushetia from the Mountainous Republic into a separate Autonomous Region. In the midst of the fun, a group of horsemen appeared on the square These were people who, for one reason or another, did not accept Soviet power. One of these people, having risen to the podium, said that they were tired of the life to which they condemned themselves, and they asked to be allowed to return to a peaceful life and not be persecuted for the sins of past years. After him, an old man, white with gray hair, came to the podium. He thanked the speaker for his words and called on all those present to support his request. Idris Zyazikov took the floor. Chakhkiev (1991) wrote:
If you sincerely repent of your criminal activity and want to atone for the harm you have caused with honest labor, then I also declare here that the Soviet government will not take revenge on you for your past criminal activity. Everyone will tell you the address of the Ingush regional committee in Vladikavkaz, and you yourself know it well. Come to the regional committee and there, together with the Regional Revolutionary Committee, we will consider your application, take into account your request ... And here, at the holiday of the Ingush people and their guest brothers from neighboring republics and regions, there is nothing for you to do. (p. 58)
At the end of 1924, the South-Eastern Territory was renamed the North Caucasian Territory with the center in Rostov-on-Don, which included the newly formed autonomies. Thus, the question of the statehood of the Ingush people was finally resolved.
The rally of the Ingush people, held on August 10, 1924, welcomed the separation of the Ingush Autonomous Region from the Mountain ASSR and elected it a revolutionary committee headed by Inaluk Malsagov. On January 31, 1925, the First Plenum of the Ingush Revolutionary Committee divided the Ingush Autonomous Region into 4 districts: Psedakhsky, Nazranovsky, Galashkinsky and Prigorodny. The districts included the following village councils: Angushtsky, Armkhinsky, Akhki – Yurtovsky, Bazorkinsky, Gadaborshevsky, Galgaevsky, Novo- Dzheyrakhsky, Dlinnodolinsky, Sholkhinsky, Yandievsky.
In January 1925, the Ingush Regional Executive Committee was elected, consisting of: Malsagov Inaluk – the chairman, Aldiev Sultan – the deputy chairman and head of community facilities, Gorchkhanov Ali – the deputy chairman and head of the Financial Department, Zyazikov Idris – the member of the Presidium, Akhriev Magomet – the secretary of the Presidium, Sautiev Mussa – the head of the Land Administration, Chabiev Eglau – the head of the Administrative Department, Tulatov Magomed – the head of the Health Department, Malsagov Zaurbek – the head of the Department of public education, Khamkhoev Khizir – Head of Social Security Department, Tsokiyev Gazi-Magomed – Labor Inspector, Albogachiev Yusup – authorized by the KrayRKI ; Bazorkina Zheneta , Kamyshnikov, Sorokin, Kotiev Berd, Khaniev Mohammed, Smolin, Vedzizhev Majit , Yandiev Zakre , Akhriev Osman, Lyanov Hussein, Buzurkiev Sontal, Shadiev Osman, Islamov Zaurbek, Nalgiev Mohammed, Khakiev Salmurza, Barkinkhoev Komsi, Gagiev Pina, Bersanov Maas, Ekiev Nikolsk, Vadilgov Ilya, Medov Donduko, Buguchev Gazii , Mamyrgov Islam (Ingush Regional Executive Committee, 1925).
Ingush Regional Executive Committee faced difficult tasks of the establishment of the daily life of the population and liquidation of the consequences of the Civil War. New local authorities were formed, enterprises were built, agriculture was raised. In the first year of the Autonomy 's existence alone, the Ingush Regional Executive Committee spent more than 600,000 rubles for the implementation of all these activities.
After the liquidation of the City Committee for Internal Trade, Ingvnutorg began to deal with the issues of domestic trade, which regulated prices in the grain market and in the market for industrial and agricultural goods. In the procurement market of the Ingush Autonomy, such organizations as the State Bank, Gostorg, Khleboprodukt, Rustertorg, Prodsnabzhenie, Severo-Patoka, IngMestkhoz and Gosspirt worked. For 1924–1925 these organizations and individuals exported through Nazran 2.137.792 poods of grain for 14.964544 rubles, at an average procurement market price of 70 kopecks for a pood.
During this period, on the territory of the Ingush Autonomy there were 305 trade enterprises, of which: 9 state, 44 cooperative, 252 private. The annual turnover of all trade in the region for 1924–1925 amounted to 2.602.649 rubles and 77 kopecks, of which: 295.320 was the turnover of state organizations, 1.380.879 was the turnover of cooperative organizations, 926.450 was the turnover of private enterprises. As we can see, private enterprises had the largest turnover. This was explained by the fact that it was they who bought up the main part of the grain – more than 464,000 pounds.
In Ingushetia, large fairs were not held and Vladikavkaz commercial, industrial and agricultural fair was not in great demand. The only stock exchange that functioned mainly during grain operations was also in Vladikavkaz. Most of the enterprises of Ingushetia exported products outside the autonomy. In 1924, in Nazran, the position of an authorized representative of Vladikavkaz Commodity Exchange was established, who was engaged in registering exclusively grain transactions. The first commissioner was a resident of NazranM. Bekbuzarov.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to consider the socio-political and socio-economic aspects of the formation of the Ingush Autonomous Region as a result of the collapse of the Mountain ASSR.
During the study the following methods were used historical-genetic, comparative and typological.
After the creation of the Ingush Autonomous Region in 1924, its population was 69,722 people. The number of men and women was approximately equal – 34,991 men and 34,731 women (Tusikov, 1926).
Vladikavkaz became the common center of the Ingush and North Ossetian Autonomous Regions. Most of the industrial enterprises of the city were destroyed, the main part of the building stock was destroyed, the tram traffic in 1921 completely stopped due to the wear and tear of the tram fleet and the lack of electricity. The city power plant, due to the complete wear of the composite units, has sharply reduced the generation of electricity. The streets were unlit. Green spaces were not renewed. In many streets, the pavements turned into heaps of stones. The sidewalks ceased to exist. The population of the city decreased from 79 thousand in 1914 to 61 thousand in 1920 (Plyshevsky, 1948).
However, already in 1925/1926 the production of the licensed industry reached 46.6% of the pre-war level. By continuous repairs, the capacity of the power plant increased sharply by 1927. In 1928, an additional diesel unit of 150 horsepower was installed on it, dismantled in Grozny. Already by the 7th anniversary of Great October, in November 1924, tram traffic was restored in the city (Plyshevsky, 1948).
Vladikavkaz at this time was being improved at an accelerated pace. All new streets were supplied with asphalt concrete, including those in the eastern part of the city, where the main governing bodies of the Ingush Autonomous District were located. Thus, such streets as M. Gorky, Hospitalnaya, Markova, Butyrina and others underwent reconstruction during this period. The reconstruction of the city's water supply began. New water intakes were built near the Ingush village of Redant in the Prigorodny district, supplying the city with spring water of the highest quality (Plyshevsky, 1948). These water intakes were still functioning, supplying Vladikavkaz with water.
The secretary of the Ingush regional party committee, Idris Zyazikov, did everything possible to improve the educational level of the population and the party and Soviet activists of the autonomous region. For this, new schools were built and opened in large rural settlements, technical schools – in Nazran and Vladikavkaz, which was the capital of the autonomy. At the request of the leadership of the region, places were regularly allocated for Ingush youth in higher educational institutions of the country. In addition, working youth were sent to short-term training and retraining courses for senior officials of the party, Soviet and economic bodies.
Economic restoration was actively carried out in the new autonomous region. As of 1925, Barsuki was the center of the Barsukovsky village council of the Nazranovsky district of the Ingush Autonomous Region of the North Caucasus Territory, which also included the Nazran fortress. At that time, there were 2 wells in the village, a primary school, 14 small industrial enterprises (12 mills and 2 forges) (Tusikov, 1926).
Villages destroyed during the civil war were rebuilt. However, along with them, new settlements appeared. Yes, Field Marshal's station received its former name Alkhasty in 1922 (Alkhaste, Alkhaste- Yurt).
New Ingush settlements were also emerging in the Prigorodny District. In the spring of 1925, the middle-class peasants from the village Long Valley took up residence on the plane and founded New Dzheyrakh village.
In accordance with the minutes of the meeting of the Central Commission on the division of the former Mountain Republic between the newly formed autonomous units of August 25, 1924, the village of Balta was removed from the administrative control of Ossetia and reassigned to the jurisdiction of Ingushetia. Similar decisions were made with respect to the villages of Chmi and Lars. The leaders of the autonomies Inaluk Malsagov and Simon Takoev signed the document.
The possibility of eviction to the plains sharply reduced the population of the mountain strip. Thus, if in Beini in 1889 there were 16 households and 118 souls (Kartoev & Chakhkiev, 2016), then in 1926 in the same village these figures were reduced to 7 households and 27 souls (Khristianovich, 1928).
On August 2, 1925, the first anniversary of the formation of the Ingush Autonomous Region was solemnly celebrated in Bazorkino. The leadership of the region represented by Idris Zyazikov, Ali Gorchkhanov and Inaluk Malsagov. Numerous guests from neighboring regions, Moscow, Georgia took part in the celebrations.
Thus, in the conditions of the collapse of the Mountain Republic and the creation of national autonomous formations of the mountain peoples, the political and economic asset of the Ingush Autonomous Region faced a number of difficult political tasks. In the conditions of a totalitarian regime inexorably erected in the country, when any public policy was impossible, and the implementation of any programs and attitudes was transformed into a struggle of various groups in the party leadership, in which the victory of Stalin and his henchmen became more and more clearly visible, the Ingush leaders had to take into account a huge number of various factors and undercover political intrigues, due to which the domestic and national politics of that time were carried out.
Eventually Ingushetia could well remain a part of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which at the time of the collapse united only two regions of Ingushetia and North Ossetia and Vladikavkaz. The dependence of the Ingush on the industrial, economic, cultural potential of Vladikavkaz, mutual trade and economic ties between Ingushetia and North Ossetia made it possible for both nations to continue coexistence within the framework of this federal entity relatively painlessly.
The educational gap between the Ingush and their neighbors, which persisted among the Ingush, greatly hindered the opposition to such plans. Despite the fact that in the period of the 1920s–early 30s great progress was made in the education of the people, the number of literate people increased sharply and in the 30s the situation was close to the continuous literacy of the population, yet with higher education, the situation was much more complicated. There was no explosive growth of specialists with higher education in a short period after the creation of the Mountain ASSR, and then the Ingush Autonomous Region. The educated stratum grew, although at an incomparably faster rate than in the pre-revolutionary period, but still the rate of its growth did not keep pace with the needs of the region in the new conditions. In the future, the preservation of this educational gap from neighboring regions played a dramatic role in the fate of the Ingush statehood in the first half of the 20th century.
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23 December 2022
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Dolgieva, M. B., Matiev, T. K., Katieva, M. N., & Dzumatova, Z. R. (2022). Formation Of The Ingush Autonomous Region After Collapse Of The Mountain Republic. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization- ISCKMC 2022, vol 129. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 319-326). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.12.40