Precedence In The Names Of Dishes (Based On Youtube Cooking Channels)


The article deals with the names of dishes presented on YouTube cooking channels in the context of the precedence theory. The gastronomic discourse is a special type of mass information discourse. It includes a large set of extralinguistic features and reflects cultural, linguistic, ethnic and ideological worldviews. This is a system that incorporates the features of national culture and has specific social characteristics. Video recipes refer to the creolized type of content. A recipe's title (name of a dish) is displayed below the video with a bright screen picture. The title's main function is to attract viewer's attention. This function of appeal is achieved by various language means, including precedence. The name of a dish conveys the main content of video recipes. The name is associated with the entire text, but its meaning is fully manifested only after watching the video. The empirical basis is represented with the names of dishes containing precedent phenomena. The study has been conducted on the material of video content from the best cooking YouTube channels. We analyze the forms and types of precedent texts, such as precedent names from fiction and fairy tales, movie titles and phrases, proverbs and sayings, idioms, winged words. The sources of precedence have been determined, the functional characteristics of precedent phenomena in the names of dishes with distinct national specificity have been given. The linguistic creativity of bloggers in attracting viewers by dish names is clearly traced.

Keywords: Cooking channel, gastronomic discourse, names of dishes, precedent phenomenon, title, YouTube video hosting


The study of the concept of precedence is a promising area of modern linguistics. A lot of works are devoted to this topic, but the questions of pointing out techniques, composition and functions of precedent units are still debatable (Krasnykh, 2002; Slyshkin, 2000). Precedent units are an important part of modern communication, including the virtual discourse. Names of dishes from the YouTube cooking channels are no exception.

Food is an integral part of human life from birth to death. Cooking technologies, food features and principles of their processing and various recipes have been passed on from generation to generation. However, linguistic studies of the gastronomic discourse only began in the 19th century. From that time on, the gastronomic discourse has been studied from various aspects (Olyanich, 2004).

The demand for gastronomic topics in the mass media, including the virtual discourse, is increasing due to the digitalization of life in the modern information society.

Problem Statement

The term and concept of was introduced in 1986 by Karaulov (2007), who defined such texts as well known and significant for a social group or a nation.

The sources of precedence include Russian, Soviet and world fiction and publicism, folklore, opera and song texts, paremiological fund, virtual discourse, advertising discourse. These are quotations, names of authors and characters of fiction works, films and cartoons, as well as proverbs, sayings, winged words, idioms, advertising slogans, etc. Precedent units (phenomena) reflect cultural and moral values of a society, its political and economic structure, as well as people's mentality. It is obvious that this goes beyond the verbal framework, this is already a fact of culture that makes up the general cultural fund of a language (Vlasova, 2015).

Research Questions

This article is devoted to the study of precedent phenomena in the names of dishes used as the titles of recipes from the YouTube cooking channels. The study devoted to this topic is undertaken for the first time, which determines its relevance and novelty. In our study, the terms, and are used as synonyms. The concept of a precedent phenomenon includes the concepts of a precedent text, a precedent sentence, a precedent situation and a precedent name. Following Gudkov (2003), we understand precedent phenomena as units known to the majority of a linguacultural society. They are constantly used by representatives of the society, as these units form the fund of its collective memory.

The names of dishes are one of the genres of the gastronomic discourse. Video recipe as a genre of the gastronomic discourse is widely represented on the cooking channels of the YouTube video hosting. Video recipes refer to the creolized type of content. A recipe's title (name of a dish) is displayed below the video with a bright screen picture. The title's main function is to attract viewer's attention. This function is achieved by using a variety of linguistic means, including precedent phenomena. The name of a dish is the title of a video recipe. This language unit is obligatory, and its position is strictly fixed in the text: before and above the text (Culture of Russian speech, 2003).

Precedent phenomena are widely used in naming dishes. The first thing a food blog visitor notices is a dish name. If it performs its functions, then the user will definitely start watching the video recipe. The cultural significance of precedent units creates a positive image, thereby fulfilling the function of attracting attention.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the peculiarities of the use of precedent texts in the names of dishes on the cooking channels of YouTube video hosting. The main tasks of the study are the following: 1) to define the concept of a precedent text; 2) to consider the names of dishes from the viewpoint of the title's main function; 3) to analyze the features of precedent units in the names of dishes. The research material includes 250 names of dishes from YouTube video recipes. The links to cooking blogs are indicated directly under the given dish names. The article retains the original Russian spelling of the titles and provides their English translation.

Research Methods

The study is based on the general scientific methods of description including theoretical analysis, methods of comparison and synthesis, contextual analysis and linguaculturological analysis.


The names of dishes have an equal number of national precedent units known to any member of a nation, and universal precedent units known to everyone and constituting the universal cognitive space of mankind (Prokhorov, 2004, p. 150). Socio-precedent phenomena known to representatives of a narrow group of people are presented in our material by the least number and only in the names of national dishes.

Let us give examples of the names of dishes containing precedent phenomena.

A fairly large group consists of the names of dishes containing the names of fairy-tale characters or the titles of fairy tales:


We should note the fact that all the analyzed names of dishes are sometimes entire texts consisting of one or more sentences of different forms. In this title, the name Alice goes back to the precedent name – the character of the books by the British writer Lewis Carroll 'Alice in Wonderland' and 'Alice Through the Looking-Glass'. The lexeme in the dish name is associated with the amazing, fantastic, fairy-tale world of, and these qualities are assigned to the cake.

"Новогодний салат АЛЕНЬКИЙ ЦВЕТОЧЕК с крабовыми палочками очень вкусный нежный свежий Люда Изи Кук" Translation: "New Year's salad SCARLET FLOWER with crab sticks is very tasty tender fresh Lyuda Easy Cook".

The source of precedence is the name of the famous fairy tale by the Russian writer Sergey Aksakov 'The Scarlet Flower', written in the title in capital letters. This name is associated with the shape and color of the top layer of salad in the form of a flower garnished with bright red slices of paprika. In this case, the blogger uses the meaning of the words of the precedent phenomenon – color and shape. The plot of this good story about sacrificial love, patience and reward for these virtues is also supposed to draw attention to the recipe.

"Салат "Снежная Королева". Нежный и Очень Вкусный Рецепт!!!" Translation: "Salad 'The Snow Queen'. Tender and very tasty recipe";

This title is based on the name of the character of the longest and most popular fairy tale all over the world 'The Snow Queen' by the Danish fairy-tale writer Hans Christian Andersen. The queen's image is associated with the dazzling beauty that is pecualiar of new-fallen snow. But this beauty is cold and lifeless. The reason for choosing this name lies in the appearance of the queen, not her essence, since the salad is topped with a layer of grated white melted cheese, reminiscent of sparkling snowdrifts. It is clear that the dish is not associated with such qualities as insensitivity and a cold evil heart.

"КРЕМ БЕЛОСНЕЖКА, для любых десертов из доступных продуктов / Snow White cream, for any desserts".

The name of the cream goes back to the famous fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'. Just like in the precedent phenomenon, the reason for choosing the name was the white color of the snow. But unlike the Snow Queen, Snow White is a positive character. Her image is one of the most beloved and recognizable. Credulity, kindness, diligence and meekness of the king's beautiful daughter are reflected in cartoons, music, sculptures and paintings. This knowledge may attract the user's attention. It is interesting to note that in this example the English translation follows the original Russian title, while in the previous examples the names are given only in Russian (the translation is ours).

The precedence is often expressed in the names of fiction characters or their titles. For example,

"Торт "ГРАФСКИЕ РАЗВАЛИНЫ"/Cake "ruins of the princely";

The cake's shape resembles the ruins of an old dilapidated castle. Such a romantic, somewhat gloomy name adds charm and popularity to the dish. The source of the name is the popular Soviet story 'On the Count's Ruins' by Arkady Gaidar. We should note that at that time the writer's works permeated with patriotism and glorification of the Motherland were very popular among the Soviet citizens. The movement of young volunteers was organized thanks to his books, which were loved by not only children, but adults as well. The names of dishes express the form embedded in the meaning of the precedent unit. In addition, this title acts as a playful jargonism with a few meanings: 1.; 2.; 3. (Mokienko & Nikitina, 2007).

"ТЕФТЕЛИ длятефтели по-шведски любимое блюдо шведов" Translation: "Meatballs for CARLSON Swedish meatballs is a favorite dish of the Swedes";

Many meatball recipes have a built-in precedent name in their titles. There are even dishes with two names –: FAVORITE MEATBALLS of; * Meatballs ' and'.

is a playful troublemaker and a hero of the fairy tale 'Carlson, who lives on the roof' by Swedish writer Astrid Lindgren. According to the book, meatballs is Carlson's favorite dishes. It is quite logical that the writer chose this particular food, since meatballs is a traditional Swedish dish. The precedent phenomenon is associated with the Soviet cartoon of the same name. It is interesting to note that according to the Russian cartoon, jam is the Carlson's favorite food.

"Торт "Стёпка – растрёпка" для любителей торта "Наполеон" /Crispy Napoleon cake" Translation: "Cake Stepka-mophead for fans of Napoleon cake / Crispy Napoleon cake";

'Стёпка-растрёпка' (german ., literally 'Sloppy Peter') is the title of a collection of ten moralizing poems. They were written in 1845 by German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann for his son. This is one of the first children's picture books in history. Food blogger of the Baking and Cooking channel, Galina, would hardly have called her cake by this name if she knew that according to one of the poems, the boy Stepka became a freak with long nails, because he did not obey his parents and hadn't allowed them to cut his nails and hair for a whole year. Other poems for children with bad habits also remind of sadistic rhymes and have a frightening, and even blood-minded meaning. For example, the girl Katya played with matches, set a fire, and burned herself, or the boy Petya could not unlearn the bad habit of sucking his fingers, and for this the tailor cut them off with scissors.

The topping on the cake which reminds of disheveled children's hair, actualizes the direct meaning of the boy's nickname –, who had walked around with undone hair for a whole year.

Phrases from films and their titles also act as precedent phenomena:

"Очень быстрая выпечка! Овсянка, СЭР!" Translation: Very tasty pastry! Porridge, Sir!

The precedent statement / 'Porridge, Sir!' was borrowed by a blogger from the Russian version of the film about Sherlock Holmes. This phrase is spoken by the butler, imperturbably observing the conservative traditions of Baskerville Hall, and sharply suppressing all attempts by Sir Henry to beg for meat. The film became very popular, including in England, the actors played this scene so talentedly that the phrase quickly became catchy. It is worth noting that this phrase does not cause any associations among the English. English idiom with the lexeme means.

"Индейка варено-копченая с финтифлюшками" Translation: "This leg belongs to someone who needs it! Boiled and smoked turkey with trinkets";

The first part of the title is a precedent phrase from the Soviet feature film 'Beware of the Car', staged at the Mosfilm studio in 1966 by director Eldar Ryazanov. The blogger's humor and colorful picture will certainly attract the user's attention.

"ТортШИКАРНЫЙ ТОРТ НА ВСЮ СЕМЬЮ! ТАКОЕ СОЧЕТАНИЕ ВКУСОВ ПРОСТО ПАЛЬЧИКИ ОБЛИЖЕШЬ" Translation: "Cake MAGNIFICENT AGE! GREAT CAKE FOR THE WHOLE FAMILY! SUCH A COMBINATION OF TASTES YOU WILL JUST LICK YOUR FINGERS". The precedence is in the name of the popular Turkish historical series 'The Magnificent Age' about the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Beautiful actors in elegant colorful costumes are the main characters of the series. Luxurious royal chambers are shown in the film. Excellent camera work adorns the plot. All this is combined with the qualities of the cake called MAGNIFICENT AGE.

The names of mythological heroes, biblical characters, as well as phrases from liturgical texts can also act as a source of precedence:


The biblical character Queen Esther is associated with the national Jewish holiday of Purim, which sends us back to biblical times. In this name, all words, except for the word, are written in capital letters and each sentence ends with an exclamation mark. All information about the dish is already disclosed in the title. The image of the queen is intended to enhance the colorful design of the cake: it is as beautiful as the queen from the Old Testament book, who captivated the Persian king Artaxerxes with her beauty and her mind, and thereby saved the people of Israel from death.

"Бесподобный салат “СЕКРЕТ АФРОДИТЫ” на праздничный стол Люда Изи Кук салаты salmon avocado salad" Translation: "Incomparable salad APHRODITE'S SECRET on the festive table Luda Easy Cook salads salmon avocado salad"

The name goes back to the precedent name, included in the phraseThe image of the ancient Greek goddess of beauty and love, eternal spring and life, fanned by ideas about the magical properties of Aphrodite's belt and the Golden Cup of wine, extrapolates its properties to the dish and gives it a romantic halo. That is exactly what one needs for a festive table. These associations that arise in people's minds when they read the name can incline them to watch the video , write a comment, and like it.

"Поститесь Постом Приятным! Ложные Беляши – Это Очень Вкусно и Сытно!" Translation: "Fast in a Pleasant Manner! False Pasty – It's Very Tasty and Substantial!"

The first motivating sentence in the title is taken from a liturgical verse read in the Orthodox Church on the first Monday of the Great Lent. The precedent phrase reflects the content of the Lenten dish – false, i.e. not meat pasty. The blogger takes into account the preferences of the audience, who like the recipes for lenten dishes.

Idioms can become a source of precedence as well:

"Нямка по мотивам бефстроганов. ПРОСТО. БЫСТРО. ВКУСНО." Translation: Yummy like beef stroganoff. EASY. FAST";

The lexeme refers to youth slang and means a tasty food, a. The name evokes sweet childhood memories of delicious dishes. This is also indicated by the root, an imitation of baby talk:.

"Салат "НА ТРАВЕ ДРОВА". Очень вкусный салат." Translation: "Salad Firewood on the Grass. Very tasty salad";This title contains only the beginning of a well-known tongue twister: “There is grass in the yard, firewood on the grass. Don't cut wood on the grass in the yard." The picture of firewood on the grass was embodied in the top layer of a salad consisting of green onions and rye croutons in the form of firewood. The original name, familiar to everyone since childhood, and the corresponding image can attract the users' attention.

"Век живи – Век учись! Соседка поделилась старинным рецептом УЖИНА за считанные минуты ПОКОРЯЕТ СРАЗУ" Translation: Live and learn! A neighbor shared an old recipe for DINNER. CONQUERING IMMEDIATELY in a matter of minutes";

The precedent phenomenon, the proverb, is represented in this title only by the beginning. The second part ('and you will die a fool') is usually omitted (Big Phraseological Dictionary of the Russian Language, 2009). The proverb's meaning is that one should always strive to acquire new knowledge, and this is a good reason to look through the entire recipe.

The next title is based on the phraseological unit ('You can't pull them away by their ears') with a meaning (Big Phraseological Dictionary of the Russian Language, 2009). The recipe's author explicated this meaning at the end of the title:

"За Уши не оттащишь, как Вкусно! Готовлю рецепт часто ВМЕСТО УЖИНА! Очень ВКУСНО и ПРОСТО!" Translation: Extremely delicious! I often cook the dish INSTEAD OF DINNER! Very TASTY and SIMPLE!";

It should be noted that this idiom is based on a stereotype about a typical way of punishing children (pulling them by ears). It takes some effort to make a child stop doing something reprehensible – pulling their ears. The meaning that the blogger gives to this idiom is that the dish is so tasty that only force can stop someone eating it.

The title of the recipe for lightly salted cucumbers is based on the idiom ('craving for pickles') (Big Phraseological Dictionary of the Russian Language, 2009)

"Потянуло на солененькое? Китайские огурцы! Сталик Ханкишиев, РенТВ 18 сентября" Translation: "Craving for pickles? Chinese cucumbers! Stalik Khankishiev, RenTV 18 September";

Russians associate this idiom with taste cravings for salt, usually pickled cucumbers, in pregnant women. A very apt title is sure to arouse interest in this recipe.

And one more reference to the idiom in the title of the recipe of the same blogger:

"Язык проглотишь – вспомнил рецепт маринада для большого куска мяса или чего Бог пошлет! Сталик РенТВ" Translation: "You can swallow your tongue – I remembered the marinade recipe for a large piece of meat or whatever God sends! Stalik RenTV";

Here the author used the second meaning of the idiom 'you can swallow your tongue' – praise to the cook for delicious food (Big Phraseological Dictionary of the Russian Language, 2009).


Thus, the conducted research allows us to conclude that the identification of sources of precedence in the names of dishes is of great importance, because knowledge of sources determines the level of culture of both the blogger and the Internet user. The use of precedent phenomena in the names of dishes by food bloggers is an appeal to the cultural foundation of humanity, which gives the naming process an educational focus. Appeal to precedent phenomena enriches the language material, which stimulates the verbal and mental activity of the authors themselves and Internet users, helps to expand their worldviews, enriches their vocabulary and artistic taste.


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25 November 2022

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Mikitenko, N. Y., Dorzhinova, Z. B., Akimenko, N. A., Ubushaeva, V. V., Mandzhieva, E. B., & Nikitina, L. A. (2022). Precedence In The Names Of Dishes (Based On Youtube Cooking Channels). In D. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism (SCTCMG 2022), vol 128. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 438-445). European Publisher.