Nowadays there is a need for schoolchildren to study sambo in Russian general education. This is ensured at the level of social order, project initiatives, software and methodological support. However there is a personnel gap; higher education and advanced training systems are partially focused on the implementation of this task. The purpose of this study is to develop and substantiate a system for training a physical education teacher to teach schoolchildren the basics of sambo in the formats of university education and advanced training. Theoretical methods used in the study include content analysis of international and national scientific databases, program and methodological documents, modeling. The main method of research is a pedagogical experiment conducted based on the Institute of Physical Culture and Sports of the Yelets State University named after I. A. Bunin and the Sports School of the Olympic Reserve No. 11 in Voronezh. 73 students and 109 teachers of physical culture participated in the pedagogical experiment. The study used such diagnostic methods as testing, peer review. Statistical data processing was carried out on the basis of the Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples. The study confirmed the effectiveness of the developed system, the main components of which include reformatting the content of the academic discipline "Modern martial arts" (for students) and the subject and internship modules of the advanced training program (for teachers) by strengthening the content of education in terms of focusing on the practical study of the basics of sambo and teaching sambo methods.
Sambo is the national sport for the Russian Federation. This circumstance allows considering this martial art not only in a sports context, but also as an effective means of spiritual, moral and patriotic education, the basis of general physical training of citizens, rooted in the traditions of the USSR and the Russian Federation.
Currently, the content of physical culture in the general education of the Russian Federation is being modernized through the introduction of aspects of various sports. Sambo is one of the popular national sports broadcasts in the general education system. The main channels for teaching sambo to schoolchildren are lesson activities within the subject area "Physical Education", extracurricular activities in the sports and recreation area, additional education and the All-Russian Physical Culture and Sports Complex "Ready for Labor and Defense" (SC RLD).
In the field of additional education the training of schoolchildren in sambo is implemented as a sports direction, and in general education (class and extracurricular activities), within the framework of the SC RLD, the general educational potential of this type of martial arts is considered. In the exemplary work program for the educational and methodological complex "Physical Culture" (grades 10-11) by A.P. Matveev, the content of sambo is reflected in the section "Applied-oriented activity. Athletic martial arts. According to this program, it is supposed to study racks and grabs, throws and holds, defensive actions and techniques, including within the framework of fulfilling the requirements of the SC RLD. As part of the All-Russian educational project "Sambo to School!" an exemplary work program on physical culture for all levels of general education has been developed. Currently, within the framework of this project the program is being implemented in more than 800 schools in 74 constituent entities of the Russian Federation. In exemplary work programs in physical culture developed within the framework of the updated federal state educational standards for primary general education, basic general education, the introduction of which is planned for implementation in grades 1 and 5 from the 2022/2022 academic year, sambo is studied in an overview in the "Sport" module in including in the context of SC RLD.
In general empirical evidence confirms the need for students to learn sambo at school (Fam & Fam, 2018; Grishaeva & Yakimova, 2019). The positive effects of introducing sambo elements into classroom and extracurricular activities in physical culture in various regions have been confirmed in a number of works (Lyadov et al., 2018; Posylkina & Fedotova, 2018; Shagdurova, 2019).
Increasing interest in sambo in general education schools is a social order of students and their parents. To meet this request the program, methodological and material and technical conditions have been created in schools, but the main problem in the implementation of this initiative is personnel conditions. Even though sambo is a national sport and is practiced by more than 300 thousand citizens of the Russian Federation, not every physical education teacher has a sports specialization within this martial art. The same rule applies to the professional training of students - future teachers of physical culture. Of course, in the content of the bachelor's program in the direction of "Pedagogical education" of the profile "Physical culture" in most universities of the country, the discipline "Martial arts" is implemented, however, it is obvious that one discipline cannot be considered as an effective means of preparing a future teacher for teaching schoolchildren the basics of sambo.
At present in Russia, the training of personnel in the field of "Physical Culture and Sports" is carried out based on specialized institutes (academies, universities) and sports faculties (institutes) of pedagogical and classical universities. As a rule graduates of specialized sports universities receive a coaching specialty in various sports, and sports faculties (institutes) receive teachers and (or) teachers in physical education. For the first, sambo can act as the main type of professional activity, and for others, as one of the means of physical education of the younger generation. This aspect determines the specifics of the professional training of each of the noted groups in matters of the theory and methodology of sambo.
The main physical culture and sports areas of undergraduate education today are Physical culture; Pedagogical education. Minor: Physical culture; Pedagogical education (with two training profiles). Minor: physical culture, life safety. An analysis of the federal state educational standards of higher education in these areas of training showed that they have absolutely no guidelines for the model characteristics of the competencies of trainees in the theory and methodology of martial arts and sambo. In addition there are no clear recommendations in the standards on the time allotted for the study of martial arts. This circumstance on the one hand gives the right to creatively build the process of teaching martial arts, which in some cases is positive; on the other hand it can cause a misunderstanding of local specialists in the technology of training students in matters of theory and methodology of martial arts and sambo.
In this context the contradiction is obvious, consisting in the discrepancy between the tasks of school education, the social demand for mastering the basics of sambo by schoolchildren and the quality of personnel training capable of satisfying this request, solving these problems of physical education at school. Accordingly the problem of this study is to find effective mechanisms for training physical education teachers (current and future) to teach the basics of sambo to schoolchildren.
Given the identified problem, the following design of the article can be determined. Firstly, it is necessary to answer the question of how the training of physical education teachers is carried out within the framework of training at the university, advanced training for teaching schoolchildren the basics of sambo. Secondly, it is of practical importance to develop an adequate mechanism to ensure the training of physical education teachers for the effective teaching of sambo basics to schoolchildren within the framework of classroom and extracurricular activities.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to develop and substantiate a system for training a physical education teacher to effectively teach schoolchildren the basics of sambo in the formats of university education and advanced training.
The theoretical review of the research problem was carried out using international research databases (SCOPUS, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar), as well as the Russian eLIBRARY database. Search queries included the following keywords: “sambo”, “sambo training at school”, “sambo training for schoolchildren”, “sambo to school”, “teacher’s competence in the field of sambo training”, etc. The search query was limited to the time period of 2016 -2022, which is due to the intensification of activities in this direction in the sphere of general and higher education, as well as the phase of active implementation of the All-Russian educational project "Sambo to School!". In total, taking into account the filters, 56 articles were selected in scientific journals, 65 articles in conference proceedings.
The composition of the methods of the practical part of the study was due to its design.
Experience in Training Physical education Teachers for Teaching Schoolchildren the Basics of Sambo
The main method of studying this issue was the content analysis of the main professional educational programs, work programs of academic disciplines, additional professional advanced training programs that are implemented by universities that train future physical education teachers. The sample consisted of 49 universities, including the leading sports universities in Russia: Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sports, Youth and Tourism (Moscow) and National State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Health named after. P. F. Lesgaft (St. Petersburg).
On the basis of the data obtained a system was developed for preparing students and teachers of physical culture for teaching schoolchildren the basics of sambo by means of the modeling method.
System of Training of Physical Education Teachers for Teaching Schoolchildren the Basics of Sambo
Pedagogical experiment was the main method for checking the effectiveness of the system of training physical education teachers for teaching schoolchildren the basics of sambo. The bases of the pedagogical experiment were the Institute of Physical Culture and Sports of Yelets State University named after I. A. Bunin (YSU named after I. A. Bunin) and the Sports School of the Olympic Reserve No. 11 in Voronezh (SShOR No. 11 in Voronezh). As part of the pedagogical experiment the following groups of subjects were identified:
- control group No 1 (CG1), which included students of the YSU Institute of Physical Culture and Sports named after I. A. Bunin mastering the undergraduate program in Pedagogical education (with two training minors) (study period - 2017-2022) consisting of 39 people;
- control group No 2 (CG2), which included teachers of physical culture of Lipetsk and Voronezh regions, who took refresher courses at YSU named after I. A. Bunin, secondary school No. 11 of Voronezh in 2020, consisting of 52 people;
- experimental group No. 1 (EG1), which included students of YSU named after I. A. Bunin mastering the undergraduate program in Pedagogical education (with two training minors) (study period - 2018-2023) consisting of 34 people;
- experimental group No 2 (EG2), which included teachers of physical culture of Lipetsk and Voronezh regions, who took advanced training courses at YSU named after I. A. Bunin, secondary school No. 11 in Voronezh in 2021, consisting of 57 people.
Stages of the pedagogical experiment and the time of their implementation:
- ascertaining stage: CG1 - 2019, CG2 - 2020; EG1 - 2020, EG2 - 2021;
- formative stage: EG1 - 2020-2021, EG2 - 2021;
- control stage: CG1 - 2020, CG2 - 2020; EG1 - 2021, EG2 - 2021.
At the formative stage the developed system of training teachers of physical culture for teaching schoolchildren the basics of sambo was introduced into the practice of teaching. The formative stage of the experiment included the transformation of current activities within the framework of the educational process in 3 areas: the content of education, extracurricular activities, digitalization of the educational process.
In the control group of students, the teaching of the discipline "Combat Sports" (144 hours) in terms of content is focused on the study of various martial arts (boxing, freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, judo, karate, etc.) (Table 1).
In the experimental group the content of the discipline was based on the sambo material, which made it possible, on the one hand, in the conditions of limited training time, to concentrate on one type of martial arts, on the other hand, based on the complexity (physical and sports and methodological content) of the goal, to form the entire range of competencies, required in this area. Educational material related to information about other types of martial arts was mastered mainly in the process of independent work of students. The theoretical material was based on two main modules: "Fundamentals of sambo", "Methods of teaching sambo" (Table 2).
In the additional professional program for advanced training of teachers of physical culture implemented by YSU named after I. A. Bunin in the amount of 72 hours, which was implemented for the control group No. 2, the issues of sambo teaching methodology were considered in the 4th subject module in the form of 1 topic "Modern martial arts", including a lecture session "Technical and physical training of a combatant" (4 hours ) and the practical lesson "Methods of teaching sambo" (6 hours).
Realizing that given the volume and quality of the content of the advanced training program, dedicated to the methodology of teaching sambo in a general educational context, the work program was redesigned according to the principle of strengthening the subject component, practical orientation and reformatting the internship module. A similar idea was used earlier when organizing refresher courses for teachers within the framework of the “Sambo to School!” project. and received experimental justification (Kostyukova et al., 2020; Shagdurova, 2019). This version of the program was implemented in the experimental group No. 2 at YSU named after I. A. Bunin and secondary school No. 11 in Voronezh. Table 3 presents the content of modules 4 and 5 of the program for advanced training of physical education teachers.
When developing the methodological topics of the working program of the academic discipline "Modern martial arts (Sambo)", modules of an additional professional advanced training program for teachers of physical education, materials containing recommendations on the physical training of schoolchildren as part of the development of sambo were used (Agostinho et al., 2018; Barley et al., 2019; Bromley et al., 2018; Osipov et al., 2019), on the integration of sambo materials into the content of classroom and extracurricular activities of schoolchildren (Dyukareva, 2019; Lyadov et al., 2018).
In the group of teachers the practical component was implemented through the internship module, and in the group of students the task of providing students with experience in the field of sambo was solved through involvement in extracurricular activities, in particular through the sambo section.
In order to support the independent activities of respondents in the framework of improving competencies in the field of sambo and methods of teaching martial arts, digital sambo resources were used, in particular, those developed by the All-Russian Sambo Federation, within the framework of the All-Russian educational project "Sambo to School!", placed on the platform of the Moscow Electronic schools that include lesson scenarios, sambo supplements (“Sambo. Rolling in the ground”, “Sambo throws”, “Sambo Glossary”, etc.) (Zhurbenko, 2019).
The ascertaining and control stages of the experiment were based on the diagnostic tools developed by the author, which includes the following elements:
- assessment of knowledge in the field of sambo: the testing method, the test "Fundamentals of sambo", developed by the author on the basis of the work of Shakhov (2012), consisting of 40 questions;
- assessment of the level of proficiency in the basic elements of sambo: stances, grips, throws, holds, defensive actions, techniques;
- assessment of knowledge in the field of sambo teaching methods: the testing method, the test "Sambo teaching methods", developed by the author on the basis of the work of Shakhov (2012) consisting of 20 questions;
- assessment of skills and abilities in the field of sambo methodology: the method of expert assessments of solving cases of methodological content, the following criteria are used: purpose and objectives; variety of content; logical planning; the validity of the applied methods and forms of training; equipment; achievement of planned results; factual errors.
The following scale is used as the levels of formation of these indicators: reproductive, productive, productive and creative levels.
For statistical data processing, the Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples was used. Data processing was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 26 software.
Experience in Training Physical Education Teachers for Teaching Schoolchildren the Basics of Sambo
Analysis of regulatory and methodological documents governing the training of coaching staff in wrestling in two leading sports universities in Russia, the Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sports, Youth and Tourism (Moscow) and the National State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Health named after. P.F. Lesgaft (St. Petersburg) allowed us to draw the following conclusions. The professional competencies of students are formed in the process of organizing educational activities to master various disciplines, such as "Theory and methods in the chosen sport", "Professional and sports improvement", "Disciplines in physical culture and sports (wrestling)", "Technologies of sports training in chosen sport.
An analysis of the above data shows that a large amount of time is allocated to the disciplines of specialization (about 30% of the total amount of time for all types of educational activities). By the end of the training period, future coaches should form competencies in the following main sections of wrestling: history; terminology; technical-tactical and physical training; methodology for teaching a contingent of different age, gender, and motivation; judicial practice; control over various aspects of preparedness; organization of competitions; sportsmanship; conducting scientific research.
Analysis of normative-methodical and other documents regulating the training of teachers and teachers of physical culture in the issues of wrestling of various universities of Russia (A. G. and N. G. Stoletov Vladimir State University; Yelets State University named after I. A. Bunin; Lipetsk State Pedagogical University named after P. P. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky; Tula State University; Oryol State University named after I. S. Turgenev, etc.), showed that the problems of the theory and methodology of martial arts are considered within the framework of a compulsory or optional discipline , an elective course, the name of which varies and can be one of the following: "Martial Arts", "Martial Arts", "Martial Arts", "Martial Arts with Teaching Methods", "Self-Defense", "Sambo", "Wrestling". As a rule no more than 144 hours are allotted for the development of these disciplines, of which more than half are the hours allocated for independent work. There are universities in which the study of martial arts is not provided at all (Tula State University). In most universities, martial arts are considered comprehensively without any detailing by type, in some educational institutions the learning process is built mainly on the basis of one type - judo (Vladimir State University named after A. G. and N. G. Stoletovs), sambo (Eletsk State University named after I. A. Bunin). Also the undeveloped methodology of teaching martial arts in a number of universities was noted: the lack of important educational sections, lack of system, poor elaboration of control tools, etc.
Also 56 additional professional advanced training programs for physical education teachers, implemented by universities, educational development institutions, were analyzed. In the bulk of the programs, the issues of teaching sambo to schoolchildren are not considered in the general educational context. In 13 programs, the study of these issues was recorded in a subject module, in 5 - in a variable module, involving an internship.
System of Training of Physical Education Teachers for Teaching Schoolchildren the Basics of Sambo
Assessment of respondents' knowledge, carried out at the ascertaining stage, showed that this indicator is most developed in the group of students. Comparison with the results of the control stage revealed a high degree of dynamics of this indicator among participants in both control and experimental groups, especially the dynamics of this indicator is noticeable in student groups: in CG1 the dynamics was 41.0%, in EG1 - 47.1%, in CG2 - 26 .9%, in EG2 – 24.6%. Application of the Kruskal-Wallis test did not reveal statistically significant differences between the control and experimental groups (Hamp1 = 0.026; Hamp2 = 0.039). Significant differences were found between groups of students and teachers: students acquired knowledge to a greater extent at a productive and creative level, while teachers - at a productive level (Hamp1 = 6.139; Hamp2 = 5.938)
The study of other indicators revealed more significant differences between participants in the control and experimental groups. In particular, the dynamics of SAMBO skills among the control group respondents is very low: in CG1 - 5.1%, in CG2 - 0.0%. In the experimental groups, an increase in results was observed between a decrease in the number of participants demonstrating a reproductive level and the number of participants with a productive level of proficiency in the basics of SAMBO: EG1 - 67.6%, EG2 - 61.4%. The statistical significance of differences between the participants in the control and experimental groups in this indicator was established (Hamp1 = 12.532; Hamp2 = 10.104).
The change in indicators related to mastery of the sambo teaching methodology was carried out according to a similar scenario, however, in the experimental group No. 2, the dynamics is higher. The dynamics of the indicator "knowledge in the field of sambo techniques" in the control groups is low (CG1 - 0.0%, CG2 - 1.9%), in the experimental groups it is much higher (EG1 - 27.5%, EG2 - 33.3%). Differences were confirmed statistically: Hamp1 = 6.249; Hamp2 = 8.041. The dynamics of the indicator "skills and skills in the field of Sambo techniques" in the control groups is also low (CG1 - 0.0%, CG2 - 0.0%), in the experimental groups it is much higher (EG1 - 17.6%, EG2 - 26.3 %). Differences were confirmed statistically: Hamp1 = 5.024; Hamp2 = 6.117.
In the context of a study of active teachers of physical education in science, similar results have already been obtained (Galitsyn & Sergoyan, 2019; Grishaeva & Yakimova, 2019). For an acting teacher it is more difficult to perceive new knowledge; for a student it is difficult to master the methodological component of professional competence.
The study made it possible to formulate the following conclusions. Firstly, at present, in the field of general education of the Russian Federation, there is a need for schoolchildren to study sambo in the general educational plan. This is confirmed by social demand, project initiatives, software and methodological support. Secondly, this area of work is not being fully implemented due to the weak staff potential of the teaching staff in terms of readiness to teach the basics of sambo to schoolchildren. Thirdly, the existing system of professional training of future teachers of physical culture, advanced training of teachers partially fulfills this staffing need in the field of general education, mainly there is a lack of synchronization of educational goals and mechanisms for their implementation. Fourthly, one of the solutions to this problem is to reformat the content of the pedagogical bachelor's program, which trains future teachers of physical culture, in terms of the discipline "Modern martial arts". It is proposed to focus in the content of this discipline on one type of martial arts - the national martial art of sambo. It is also required to strengthen the content of the discipline in terms of the methods of teaching sambo. The experimental method confirmed the effectiveness of strengthening the practical component of the professional training of students both in the field of sambo and in the field of sambo teaching methods. Of significant importance in the productive solution of this problem is the involvement of students in extracurricular activities in the form of classes in the sambo section, the development of digital sambo resources and sambo teaching methods. Fifth, it is required to improve the professional development of teachers of physical culture. In this direction, it is necessary to focus on specifying the subject module of the relevant sambo part programs and sambo teaching methods, as well as the mandatory implementation of the internship module that meets the objectives of the subject module.
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29 August 2022
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Nedosekin, A. N. (2022). Preparation Of Physical Education Teachers For Teaching Sambo Schoolchildren. In I. Kovalev, & A. Voroshilova (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society (ICEST-III 2022), vol 127. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 408-418). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.08.46