Physical culture and sport are social phenomena. The goals, objectives, content, forms of organization, and methods used in physical education and sports are subject to general specific principles, based on which the process of relationships in these specific social spheres is built. The physical development of a person is carried out throughout life and is largely determined by the peculiarities of family upbringing, physical activity during study and work, the use of various forms of physical culture for the organization of leisure activities. Sport, unlike physical culture, is aimed at the highest achievements, the manifestation of maximum physical and functional capabilities in the course of competitions imposes increased demands on the intellectual and mental qualities of a person. The possibilities of sports in the formation of harmonious social and interpersonal relations are equally important. Sport unites people, promotes the development of partnerships, mutual respect based on common goals and values, such as health, beauty, physical excellence, victories, the desire to overcome difficulties.
Keywords: Modern society, physical culture, sport, students, university
The formation of a healthy lifestyle among young people is one of the most significant problems of modern Russian science. The high level of its social significance is emphasized by several regulations, the most important of which are Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation" (Federalny zakon.., 2012), Federal Law "On Physical Culture and Sports in the Russian Federation" (Federalny zakon.., 2007), Order of the Government of the Russian Federation "On approval of the Strategy for the development of physical culture and sports in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030" (Rasporyazheniye.., 2020). According to these documents, the formation of a healthy lifestyle is considered an important part of the state policy towards children and youth. Healthy youth is the most valuable capital of society and the state. However, researchers note an insufficient level of health and the formation of a healthy lifestyle among students (Landa, 2021). To the greatest extent, this applies to university students, among whom less than 50% pay significant attention to a healthy lifestyle and physical culture (Melekhin, 2019). The most optimal means of solving this problem is the introduction of various programmes for the formation of a healthy lifestyle in the educational process of the university. In most cases, this can only be done within the framework of the discipline Physical culture and sports.
Physical culture and sport are some of the spheres of social activity, the development of which takes place based on specific economic relations. Physical culture and sport as a specific sphere of social activity function within the established social relations. But at the same time, the functioning of this industry is impossible without taking into account and consciously using the economic laws inherent not only to the entire economy of the country but also to the Physical culture and sports industry, in particular. The economics of physical culture and sports is a specific discipline. It has its object and subject of research, solves its specific tasks. Sport is an essential part of social culture and performs specific functions in society, thereby influencing human life and the state of society as a whole. First of all, sports contribute to improving the health of people, the main labour force of society, thereby creating the potential for achievements in various fields of human activity. Physical exercises create protection from the adverse effects of the external environment, prevent physical inactivity, which is one of the main causes of diseases in the modern world. Sports activities help relieve neuropsychic stress, increase stress resistance, psycho-emotional stability.
Physical culture as a phenomenon of general culture is unique. It is the very first and basic type of culture that is formed in a person. It is in a physical culture that the social and biological exist in inseparable unity in human development (Bishaeva & Malkov, 2020). That is why physical culture can significantly affect not only the state of the body and psyche but also the personality and the development of society as a whole. Physical culture was formed, first of all, under the influence of the practical needs of society in full-fledged physical training of the younger generation and the adult population. In a developed system of education and upbringing, physical culture is, first of all, a factor in the formation of motor skills. Nowadays, the main function of physical culture in society is associated with its influence on the spiritual sphere of a person as an effective means of intellectual, moral, aesthetic education.
In the modern society of the beginning of the XXI century, the role of sport in human life is significantly increasing. This happens for many reasons. Firstly, the rapid development of technology results in a sharp decrease in physical activity and at the same time in an increase in intellectual and neuropsychic tension.
At the same time, health care, a new lifestyle focused on the ecological balance of man and nature, internal and social harmony, acquire a higher value. In general, human life expectancy is increasing, people strive to maintain a healthy body much longer than previous generations (Kuzmina et al., 2020).
Today, an active interest in a healthy lifestyle is being formed in the country. We can say that a new social phenomenon is emerging in Russia, expressed in the acute economic interest of citizens in maintaining health as the basis of material well-being (Romanov, 2021).
At the same time, sociological and medical data indicate an unfavourable state of the physical and spiritual health of the nation (Kuznetsov & Kolodnitskiy, 2020), which is largely due to social reasons, including underestimation of the health, educational and socio-economic role of physical culture and sports by both the state and the population (Chertov et al., 2020).
The economic instability of modern Russian society entails a decrease in the standard of living, deterioration of working and recreation conditions, the state of the environment, an increase in excessive stress loads. The number of people suffering from alcoholism and drug addiction is increasing. Many people are somatically weakened and have chronic diseases.
Experts have found that the amount of motor activity necessary for the normal state of health of a young organism is now only 25%. There is a decrease in the level of general physical fitness and physical development of almost all socio-demographic groups of the population. According to the State Committee for Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, currently, only 24.9% of the population are engaged in physical culture and sports in the country, while in economically developed countries of the world this number reaches 40-60%. Such a low involvement of the population in physical culture and sports activities is due to several factors.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the paper is to analyse the place and role of physical culture and sports as factors in the formation of a healthy lifestyle of Russian students.
Our research was aimed at defining the concept of "physical culture", studying the main interpretations of this concept in historical periodization, we conducted several sociological studies using the survey method.
The development of physical culture and sports is an important part of the state socio-economic policy in Russia and abroad. The program for the development of physical culture and sports, developed by the Russian State Committee for Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, notes that the main function of physical culture and sports is to contribute to the formation of a healthy lifestyle of Russians, education of young people, the younger generation (Narkhov & Narkhova, 2021). The state policy is aimed, first of all, at improving the health of the nation through mass physical education, great importance is attached to professional sports, ensuring the success of Russian athletes at international competitions. The development of sport in general and its types is closely interrelated with the level of material and spiritual development of society (Shukayeva, 2021).
In September 2012, representatives of 53 countries of the European Region, gathered at the session of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee for Europe, approved a new value- and evidence-based health policy framework, Health 2020.
In the First chapter of Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being, the main emphasis has been shifted from the context of overcoming diseases to the priority of improving health and increasing the level of well-being. Health is a key factor of productivity, economic growth, and development. Good health and well-being are an invaluable resource, a key factor in economic and social development, and essential to the life of every person, every family, and society as a whole. Health 2020 is based on the values enshrined in the WHO Constitution: "The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being" (Zotova et al., 2018, p. 7).
It is important to note that the right to health means the duty of the state to create conditions under which everyone can enjoy the highest possible level of health (Afonina et al., 2018).
Citizens, in turn, should understand the value of their health and actively contribute to its strengthening. The evidence proves that education and health are interrelated and go hand in hand.
The strategic focus on ensuring healthy living conditions for the younger generation is of particular importance. The basis of a healthy life depends on a healthy start, which increases the likelihood of getting a higher-paying job and having better physical mental health in adulthood (Bliznevskaya, 2018).
Such basic prerequisites raise the problem of a healthy lifestyle of students, which is considered as one of the aspects of the formation of the professional and personal strategy of modern students, as a basis for success in any area of their future professional activities.
The lifestyle of students determines the state of their health. The increased intensity of the information flow due to the introduction of the latest technical means and computer technologies into the learning process, high mental and psycho-emotional load combined with an unbalanced diet, work, and rest bring students closer to the so-called limit of the physiological capabilities of the body when the compensatory mechanisms of the body can hardly cope with the increased load.
Therefore, the problem of a healthy lifestyle of students is the most urgent problem that determines the future of the country, its scientific and economic potential.
As part of the survey, respondents were asked to choose the most important value orientations for themselves in life.
About 90% of students chose 'Health' as one of the three main value orientations, and 41.3% designated it as the most important, which indicates that young people understand the importance of health in their lives. 'Successful family life' (32.4%) took second place, 'Children' (27.6%) was in the third position.
At the same time, young people do not correlate the values of 'health', 'physical perfection', and 'healthy lifestyle', apparently assuming that health is genetically inherent and it is not necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle to maintain it.
At the same time, the importance of a healthy lifestyle for future professional activity is assessed as 'necessary' by only 18% of students, although 54.3% of respondents think that it 'gives certain benefits' but 21.4% of respondents 'can do without it.' 87.3% of respondents answered positively to the question "Do you consider your knowledge and skills in the field of a healthy lifestyle sufficient?". 38.6% of respondents can 'exercise control over the physical activity of people involved in physical culture and sports', 'develop for themselves and recommend an optimal movement regime for friends and acquaintances', 'recommend a reasonable diet for friends and acquaintances'; 27.6% can 'talk about the specificity of the impact of certain types of physical exercises on the human body'.
This study allows us to conclude that among the value orientations of modern youth, health is among the priorities. However, young people do not see a direct interdependence between the value orientations 'health' and 'healthy lifestyle', 'physical education and sports.' Students are sufficiently well informed about a healthy lifestyle, but they have the low motivation of leading a healthy lifestyle as one of the aspects of the formation of a professional and personal strategy of modern student youth.
Currently, Russian education is receiving social orders that require special attention to health-saving technologies. These orders are aimed at ensuring that the health of student youth does not go beyond the socially demanded conditions for its reproduction, preservation, and increase of the nation.
The well-being of a person throughout his life will largely depend on how successfully today we will be able to form, convince of their effectiveness and, accordingly, consolidate health-saving orientations and healthy lifestyle skills in the youth environment.
Today, a powerful tool that can have an effective impact on the level of health of student youth in all its aspects is to increase the role and importance of the physical culture of the individual, as well as the development of the foundations of modern physical education, which in the context of its renewal is becoming an increasingly urgent objective necessity.
The formation of a healthy lifestyle of student youth includes preserving and strengthening health and can be successfully implemented only if a unified integrated system of physical education of the country is created, which will be based on health-saving technologies.
39.7% of respondents demonstrate a passive attitude to their health, and about 16% have bad habits and a negative attitude to physical exercises. If we talk about the students' perceptions of a healthy lifestyle, then most of the respondents agree that physical exercises are a part of a healthy lifestyle.
However, when they were asked how often they did physical exercises outside the university, 72.6% answered that they did them from time to time, explaining this by lack of time.
Only 18.7% answered that they constantly trained, did physical exercises, gymnastics. The strongest motivation of young people to exercise is the opportunity to strengthen their health and prevent diseases. To the question: 'How often do you do physical exercises?' such answers were received as 'Regularly' - 18.2%, 'Sometimes' - 36.8, 'Rarely' - 29.1%.
The majority of students do not pay due attention to strengthening their health and physical education. The main reason is lack of time (59.5%), fatigue (42.8%), lack of desire (21.3%), lack of skills and habits to go in for sports (11.9%), lack of sports, and technological equipment for full-fledged training (9.1%).
As a result of the study, it can be concluded that it is necessary to develop more methods to motivate young people to go in for sports. For example, to make films, TV series, preferably comedies, in which health and sports are an integral part of the life of young successful people. Television and the Internet are today the most powerful tools for controlling people’s minds. It is desirable to make sports facilities more accessible because young people are mostly not satisfied with their financial situation.
It is necessary to combine sports news with regular broadcasts. Perhaps a good recommendation would be to reduce the advertising of medicines and increase social advertising about the benefits of sports, physical culture, and a healthy lifestyle, linking these components as important to a successful person. Everyone wants to be successful, so showing successful people, sportsmen, demonstrating various videos or making films about them, we will encourage people to go in for sports, and sport and success will become inseparable concepts.
Physical culture and sports in Russia are in a state of social transformation, institutional changes.
Our research allowed us to consider the problems of the impact of sports and physical culture on the health of modern students.
The role of physical culture and sports as factors in the formation of a healthy lifestyle of young people is undoubtedly very significant (Belykh, 2018). However, the data of our sociological research, expert assessment of other sociological surveys, and statistical data allow us to conclude that the value of physical culture and sports in the assessments of student youth as factors in the formation of a healthy lifestyle is insufficient.
The value orientations of young people are the most important component of the personality structure and have a significant impact on the behaviour of young people, both in professional and social activities. The study of value orientations allows us to develop sound long-term strategies of educational work, timely adjust the educational process at the university, and improve the effectiveness of educating university students.
The results of the study show that, in general, the value orientations of students of the Far East correspond to the general attitudes of Russian youth. Our research has recorded great attention of students to the parameter of health as a value. Not only in consciousness but also relationships with other people, students demonstrate awareness of the requirements for a healthy lifestyle. These data also correlate with the results of studies confirming changes in the value system of young people, where not only a concern for their professional career and social status comes to the fore, but also a concern for appearance and health.
As shown in the study, in modern society, sports and physical culture perform the functions of agents of forming a healthy lifestyle, allowing an individual to work out social roles in the process of sports activity and gain the social experience he needs. Sport and physical culture combine the social and biological in a person, serve as an effective mechanism for preserving social, and individual health.
Students must understand the role of physical culture and sports in their lives and consciously concluded their significance. Sports and physical education are not just a part of a healthy lifestyle. These are also new opportunities for the realization of talents. The progressive rhythm of life requires more and more physical activity of young people. The increasing loads that fall on the shoulders of the younger generation throughout their lives require higher physical perfection, which is achieved through physical education.
The formation of a healthy lifestyle of students can be carried out in three directions, namely the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, education and training of a healthy lifestyle (Germanov et al., 2018), creating appropriate conditions for the implementation of a healthy lifestyle.
Based on the data we received, practical recommendations were developed, further prospects for their implementation were determined:
- full-fledged organization of the schedule of the educational process;
- a clear and stable schedule of classes, etc.;
- organization of various events to promote physical culture and healthy lifestyle among students on weekends and days free from training;
- organization of healthy, balanced, and rational nutrition;
- optimization of the motor activity during training of students;
- conducting physical education classes during the whole process of studying at the university;
- optimization of the work of psychologists and social workers, as well as medical assistance to students who have given up bad habits. All this will motivate students to lead a healthy lifestyle after graduation, which will reduce the prevalence of bad habits and chronic diseases;
- development of promotion of a healthy lifestyle among students of the university with the involvement of the media.
In our opinion, to solve this problem, it is necessary to use the capabilities of educational institutions, which should help students in acquiring the necessary motivation based on individual needs, creating conditions for obtaining the necessary knowledge and ways to achieve this knowledge, offering the freedom to choose the type and form of activity for the implementation of motivation in health improvement. We can say that the university should help in solving the problem facing society, i.e., to form in each student the need for a constant improvement of his professional training, including the aspect of health. The presence of such a need is an important condition and a necessary sign of a harmoniously developed personality.
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03 June 2022
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Social sciences, education and psychology, technology and education, economics and law, interdisciplinary sciences
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Lutsenko, E. L., Bogachenko, N. G., Izosimov, A. N., & Karakuleva, L. I. (2022). Physical Culture And Its Influence On The Lifestyle Of Russian Students. In N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), AmurCon 2021: International Scientific Conference, vol 126. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 657-665). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.06.73