The article is devoted to the research of the value system of university students in the aspect of training nationally oriented elites. The problems of their upbringing and education in modern transitive society are actualized based on the criteria of compliance of their value system with the high ideals of culture, spiritual and moral self-improvement, and the orientation of interests to serve society. The authors identified the negative trends of modern education affecting qualitative changes in the meanings and foundations of education of the highest stratum of society. The research focuses on the analysis of strengthening pragmatic and individualistic principles, the substitution of higher values by market ones, the loss of anthropological, axiological, and culture-creating missions of education. The data obtained indicate an underestimation of the reflexive-value, educational aspects of the educational process aimed at forming a system of personal and professional values and meanings of the personality of future psychologists. The purpose of the study is to identify correlations and identify the leading factors in the value system of students-future psychologists, determining its hierarchical structure in the context of the preparation of nationally oriented elite. The authors used the following methods: testing, ranking, correlation, and factor analysis. The importance of motivational driving forces underlying the values of respondents who are aware of the full extent of their influence on people (r=0.604**); strive for understanding, tolerance, and protection of the well-being of all people and nature (r=0.420**) was proved; independent choice of one's life path (r=0.402**) was shown.
Modern scientific and public discourses actualize the problem of the quality of elites associated with the task of training nationally oriented elite groups. This problem is seen even more acute in the aspect of socio-economic and political contexts of inequality, disadvantage, crisis, and transition (Manning et al., 2018; Pokrovsky et al., 2020), generating quasi-elites (Dobrynin & Dobrynina, 2017), pseudo-elites, mediocracy (Shkaratan & Karacharovskiy, 2019), proto-elite communities (Starostin, 2019). These are groups coming to power with average intellectual capabilities, unable to lead society. The above is reinforced in the transitivity and, accordingly, the transit of elites, their systemic split, conflict, and struggle. According to Karabushchenko et al. (2019), there is an inevitable decrease in the quality of elites, their cultural and anthropological characteristics in these circumstances. We observe the transformation of elites, leading to the emergence of so-called hybrids and chimaeras, formed on axiologically opposite value systems, taking into account the requirements of new challenges. Toshchenko (2015) believes that modern groups calling themselves the elite are a phantom dubious in all respects. Starostin (2019) directly indicates that a significant percentage of Russian elites are agents of the influence of the West. According to the researchers, the above transformations are reflected in society in the form of trends: instability, alienation of elites from their people, culture, and national values; priority of individualistic and utilitarian meanings and goals of elites neglecting the interests of social development (Gasiukova & Shkaratan, 2019; Shkaratan & Karacharovskiy, 2019); strengthening of egalitarian sentiments; marginalization of elite genesis; the crisis of elite selection, reduction of their professional qualities (Karabushchenko et al., 2019; Starostin, 2019).
The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is the cultural-analytical tradition of the value approach in elitology and elitopedagogy, which opposes the ideas of the structural and functional approaches of the theory of elites that focus on the formal aspects of the elite (status) and correlate the elite exclusively with the ruling, political elites.
The cultural-analytical tradition is focused on the value-based anthropological criteria for elite selection - elitism (intellectual and psychological qualities based on the system of values of spiritual superiority of the individual), and meritocratic tradition, justifying the need for interaction and complementarity of the cultures of the "masses" and the "elite" (with the leading role of the latter), and recognizing cultural motivation as the basis of social change (Olkhovskaya, 2010). New meritocratic elite (the class of "merital property" - property for merit) in new conditions of modernity should replace the natural-rent oligarchy as a reactionary class not interested in the development of the country (Gromyko, 2019). Diskin (2020) believes that the subject of institutional transformations should be the "responsible class". It is the most active and responsible part of civil society, the foundation of which is the consolidation of sub-elite groups based on mutual socio-economic interests, moral and ethical ideals, and moral responsibility (Diskin, 2020). Gromyko (2019) and Karabushchenko et al. (2020) argue that the coming era of post-industrialism requires the nationalization of elites, their transformations, correlated with the main substantive anthropological qualities of "being chosen" in intellectualism, professionalism, and creativity. In turn, it will require changes in the elite consciousness, education, and culture.
It is important to note that from the standpoint of the normative-value approach to determining the essence of the elite, it is interpreted as a reference group on whose values the society is based. This group plays a decisive role in rendering knowledge and developing civilizational norms. In addition, the representatives of Russian elitology in the hierarchy of elites give primacy to the cultural elite, whose leading position in society is justified by the possession of high cultural, psychological, moral indicators, moral authority, and abilities of a higher level. It is a cultural elite that plays a crucial role in producing knowledge, developing axiological norms, generating cutting-edge ideas in culture, and defending the spiritual values of the nation.
In elitology, the axiomatic position is that the elite is created by university education, which is a mechanism for selecting elites and upholding meritocratic values. The main mission of the university (in anthropological, axiological, and culture-creating contexts) consists in professional training and providing "a unique culture of education." It is the elitization of the individual (movement vertically and horizontally of the educational space as the implementation of the transition of the individual from the state of "mass" to "elite" consciousness) of the avant-garde of society – its spiritual (cultural and intellectual) elite, capable and ready to respond to the challenges of modernity based on national interests. Elitologists prove the relationship between the concepts of "education" and "elitism," where the latter is the acme, the highest level of education of the individual, and hence his intellectual and innovative activity, creativity, shows the professional and personal growth of the subject (Karabushchenko et al., 2019). Karabushchenko (2015) concretizes the presented relationship in the concept of "elite-oriented self-determination" as a realization process by a person of his prospects to achieve social, professional, and personal heights based on elite-oriented values. The author summarizes the content and specifics of these values: general social, reflecting the readiness for action regarding the preservation and multiplication of the resources of the development of society, and raising the standard of living of the population (patriotism, responsibility, duty, solidarity, collectivity, social justice, and equality); orientation to the values of Russian culture; high level of cultures (general, political, legal); national-oriented position; humanism; multiplication of national values, preservation of cultural traditions and historical memory; professional improvement (Karabushchenko, 2012).
The attitudes of globalization processes towards permanent modernization, currently being implemented in Russian education, related to the phenomena of commodification-McDonaldization, commercialization, and financialization of national educational systems, have an ambiguous evaluation of specialists. Along with the identified positive aspects, most researchers conclude the exceedingly negative consequences of the modernization of education. The essence of the phenomenon of "commodification" consists in acquiring the economic value of something that previously had no such meaning. In education and science as socio-cultural institutions, this process means the values and relations replacement in spiritual production with market values, components of commercial activity. Commercialization, which implies making a profit in higher education and science, is currently a criterion for the effectiveness of the organization's activities and the most crucial administratively imposed goal. At the same time, the state underfunding of universities forces them to provide paid educational services searching for additional financial resources. Thus, some researchers suppose that higher school has begun to spontaneously acquire the features of business structures, characterized by profit maximization and minimization of functions that go beyond market relations. In higher school, these features are correlated with pedagogical activities and processes in a classical sense, introducing students to cultural values, science, and professional activities. Accordingly, commercialization leads to the devaluation of humanistic goals and values of education and upbringing. In the conditions of commodification and commercialization, money destroys the essence of education. The higher school has acquired marketability features. On the contrary, legal and moral norms are trampled and lose their humanistic character in this situation. Thus higher school turns into a "diploma factory," in which knowledge, professional competence, and professional culture have lost their value. But the diploma itself, for which the student makes minimal efforts to obtain while reducing the requirements for fundamental scientific training and the objectivity of knowledge control in the educational process, reducing hours for academic disciplines and direct communication between the student and the teacher (Dobrynin & Dobrynina, 2017; Fortunatova, 2017; Tyurina & Ovchinnikov, 2019). The bureaucratization leads to the formalization and emasculation of meritocratic tradition from education (Rezakov & Rekesheva, 2021).
The student youth is especially vulnerable in this context with their characteristic contradictory specificity of subjectivity. On the one hand, it is expressed in relativism, and, on the other hand, in maintaining an orientation towards moral realism in the absence of sufficient self-regulation, self-control, spiritual certainty, and the ability to manage their mental manifestations in non-standard situations (Popova & Levdanskaya, 2019).
In connection with the above, there is a contradiction between the need to train nationally oriented elites based on the criteria of compliance of their value system with the high ideals of culture, spiritual and moral self-improvement, the orientation of interests to serve society, the formation of a mentality, based on the views and traditions of their people and the pedagogical capabilities of modern higher education in such training in the conditions of modernization of national educational systems and crisis phenomena of contemporary Russian society.
A distinctive feature of the profession of a psychologist is his sincere interaction with the client. The psychologist acts as a cultural model expressing understanding, thinking, particular behavior, maintaining relationships, and responding to a problem. He helps a person solve critical situations based on his self-understanding and the resources of his personality. In this context, the future psychologist as a subject of professional psychological activity is a potential cultural elite.
Thus, the problem of the paper is to study the value system of students - future psychologists and the factors determining its hierarchical structure in the context of training nationally oriented elite.
The subject of the study is the value system of students-future psychologists in the context of training nationally oriented elite.
Setting research questions:
1. What is the hierarchical structure of values of modern students-future psychologists?
2. Does the system of values under study correlate with the nationally oriented elite values (development of intelligence, self-improvement, service to society, preservation, and development of their national culture)?
3. Are there stable correlations reflecting the specifics of the profession in the context of training a nationally oriented elite?
4. What factors determine the hierarchical structure of the value system of students-future psychologists in the context of training nationally oriented elite?
Research hypotheses: 1) the hierarchical structure of the value system of students-future psychologists has stable connections reflecting the specifics of the profession, orienting students to the desire for kindness, conformity, and universalism as criteria for the preparation of a nationally oriented elite (Karabushchenko, 2012, 2015); the desire to express kindness, conformity, and universalism, which correspond partly to the system of elite-oriented values and elite-oriented self-determination (Karabushchenko, 2012, 2015). 2) Personal and professional values are the leading factor determining the hierarchical structure of the value system of students-future psychologists during training nationally oriented elite.
Purpose of the Studу
The purpose of the study is to identify correlations and identify the leading factors in the value system of students-future psychologists, determining its hierarchical structure in the context of the preparation of nationally oriented elite.
The subject of the study was studied using the following set of methods: testing, ranking, correlation, and factor analysis.
The statistical analysis of the results obtained was carried out with the help of the statistical software package Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and the statistical data processing program IBM SPSS Statistics, version 19.0. Data on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient were obtained. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of selective adequacy tested the degree of applicability of factor analysis to this sample. We used the Bartlett sphericity criterion at the stage of checking the normality of the distribution of the studied feature (Petrenko, 2021).
Bachelor students-future psychologists constituted the research sample (n=67) aged (Mo=20) in February 2020 by remote diagnosis. As a tool, we used the value test questionnaire Sh. Schwartz. That made it possible to study the students' value system, covering its specific space as a whole (Kaasa, 2021).
Determining the subjective significance of the corresponding type of value, the respondents ranked two lists of values (considering them as abstract ideals) and 40 personality profiles (as guides to action). The subsequent analysis of empirical data was carried out using the statistical software package Microsoft Office Excel 2010, SPSS Statistics 19.0.
The results of descriptive statistics of average values presented in Figure 1 demonstrate that the most significant values for future psychologists are: "independence" (4.01), "hedonism" (3.93), and "safety" (3.81). The least significant value in the sample of respondents is "traditions" (2.58). It may mean that being on the path of self-determination, the students are characterized by independent thinking and actions that can be taken for an adequate level of professional training. At the same time, they do not deny the importance of enjoying life and some safety. It is not so significant for respondents to respect/observe/maintain the traditions (rituals, symbols, and customs) of a group or culture.
The information in table 1 contains data indicating the representativeness of the sample. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of selective adequacy verifies the degree of applicability of factor analysis to this sample. The value is within the acceptable adequacy of empirical data.
The Bartlett sphericity criterion shows the value of the normality of the distribution of the studied feature and confirms that the data are acceptable for factor analysis.
Since the respondents' value structure was measured on a rank scale, we applied Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r-Spearman's). During this procedure, a statistically significant relationship was revealed between several variables presented in Table 2.
The correlation analysis revealed significant direct moderate positive links between the motivational driving forces underlying values and organizing the value continuum of the respondents who are aware of the full extent of their influence on people (r=0.604**); strive for understanding, tolerance, protection of the well-being of all people and nature (r=0.420**); independent choice of their life path (r=0.402**), it is important for them to enjoy their own life, achieve success (r=,349**), and at the same time feel secure, have a certain "rear" (r= ,373**).
The question of the formation of general cultural values and traditions remains open (knowledge and experience in the field of national and universal culture; spiritual and moral foundations of human life; cultural foundations of family, social phenomena and traditions; the role of science and religion in human life; competencies in the domestic and cultural and leisure sphere). The presence of insignificant correlations between the variable "tradition" and other values can be explained by the lack of a unified tradition system due to the inclusion of students of different nationalities and cultures in the learning process. Nevertheless, students find it difficult to immerse into the learning process during their studies. They cannot feel semantic, communicative, informational, and personal resources for self-realization as a person of culture. These tendencies aggravate both global-scale crisis phenomena and the Russian society, including those determined by the coronavirus pandemic. It has become an accelerator for exacerbating social contradictions and undermining the existing institutional system, which "lost its strong support in the form of reflexive socio-economic interests supported by existing values and traditions" (Diskin, 2020). Therefore, we propose to involve students in modern commemorative practices actively. They contribute to the formation of civic values and models of elite behavior (Shub & Tsukerman, 2019) by mitigating the differences between generations by the cultural context (Boehnke et al., 2021).
The correlation matrix of 10 values was subjected to a principal component analysis procedure. As a result, five factors with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted. These factors underwent a rotation procedure using the varimax method with Kaiser Normalization. This procedure allowed us to obtain a factor structure of values of students-future psychologists, presented in Table 3.
The first factor can be interpreted as "personal values" since the variables associated with this phenomenon have the highest loads (r=0.865). It demonstrates direct and inverse relationships between the values studied within the factor. In other words, for the successful professionalization of a future psychologist, it is crucial to maintain and preserve the cultural, family, and other traditions, which correlates with the structure of values of the cultural elite and with the results of colleagues' research (Tkachenko, 2021).
We named the second factor "professional values" because the hierarchical structure, representing solid and moderate connections within the aspect, is directly related to this phenomenon, exposing sufficiently high loads. The content of the factor is represented by a set of professionally important values ("independence" r=0.763; "conformity" r=0.642; "universalism" r=0.619 and "kindness" r=0.588), successfully correlated both within the factor and in the hierarchy of the factor structure itself (Bordonskaya et al., 2020; Budnikova, 2018; Erdyneeva et al., 2016).
We interpreted the third factor as "social values" in connection with the leading meanings of socially significant determinants. The dominant variable of this factor, "power" (r=0.758), is directly related to the term "elite" and shows how the process of identifying future psychologists with their professions, their status, and functions. Since this variable has proved the significance index in the correlation study, we can state at the probabilistic level that students plan to realize the value of "power" through control over people. And this, in the context of the training of a nationally oriented elite, is the leading indicator of the success of professionalization of the respondents if they broadcast the values of "conformity" (as avoiding harm or distress to other people) (r=0.642) and "universalism" (as striving for understanding, tolerance, protection of the well-being of all people and nature) (r=0.619). This fact requires additional diagnostic studies, the confirmation of which we found in the colleagues' works (Erdyneeva et al., 2018; Starostin, 2019; Tkachenko, 2021; Rezakov & Rekesheva, 2021).
Thus, in the course of the study, we came to the following conclusions:
1. Theoretical analysis of the works of Karabushchenko et al. (2019) and Toshchenko (2015) showed that the national security of the state and its sovereignty begin within a university. We agree with the scientists' opinion that the modern elite needs a significant inventory of its fundamental values, such as moral honor, morality, service to the highest interests of society, citizenship, laid down from the first steps at university.
2. In the aspect of the research topic, the following trends in the hierarchy of values of future elite representatives have revealed: their selfishness in the context of priorities of consumerism, hedonism and market pragmatism, the irrelevance of socially significant forms and life meanings. Partly, we can explain this tendency by the conditions in which the study was carried out (the pandemic period). As is known, in critical situations, the transformation of the value system takes place at the individual level, and at the social level, there is an aggravation of oppositely directed tendencies (altruism/individualism; cooperation/struggle). Likely, the health threats experienced in the pandemic conditions, self-isolation, restrictions in live communication and movement, together with the total digitalization of all spheres of life, contributed to the switching to individualism, nihilism, and hedonism as a way of adapting to changed conditions.
3. The intensity of degree and the direction of the relationship between variables partially confirm the hypothesis that the hierarchical structure of the value system of students-future psychologists has stable connections reflecting the specifics of the profession that orients them to the have intentions to express kindness, conformity, and universalism. It partially corresponds to the system of elite-oriented values and elite-oriented self-determination (Karabushchenko, 2012, 2015). Since being the ground elements of culture, values act as a significant resource for personal development (Erdyneeva et al., 2018) and reflect the most stable features of society and the individual (Berry et al., 2007). We assume that this is due to regular transformations of values caused by the natural phenomenon of socialization, together with the adaptation of our respondents (Erdyneeva et al., 2018).
4. The hypothesis that personal and professional values are the leading factor determining the hierarchical structure of values of students-future psychologists in training nationally oriented elite is partially confirmed, only in the aspect of professional specificity. Thus, future psychologists, as potential representatives of elite groups, realize their personal and professional development in the context of individual awareness of the value priorities in the chosen profession (Erdyneeva et al., 2018; Maralov et al., 2020). This fact gives us reasons to assert that the insufficient level of formation of social elite-oriented values is also partially related to the conditions of restrictions during the pandemic. We can explain it by values of social relations, tolerance, humanism, and involvement with others presupposes a student's active position and engagement in social and cultural projective practices and socially significant activities.
5. It is necessary to raise and educate new generations of elites based on civilizational identity, examples of historical truth and memory reflecting the depth of nature of the patriotism of the people, the positive experience of outstanding figures of previous eras, and a thorough analysis of the negative (destructive) practices of political elites and their leaders of the past. Only in such dialectical unity can a new generation of elites be brought up with a sense of duty and responsibility to themselves, society, and the Motherland (Gromyko, 2019; Karabushchenko et al., 2019; Toshchenko, 2020).
Thus, for the cultural and psychological selection of elites, the student from the first days of study must be immersed in the environment of the specific corporate culture of the university, follow the code of honor of the student, stimulating the development of the qualities of personal dignity: responsibility, integrity, duty, honor, ethics of excellence, leadership; maximally involved in research, project and socially significant activities, develop creative abilities in interaction with all subjects of education.
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03 June 2022
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Erdyneeva, K. G., Levdanskaya, Y. Y., & Popova, N. N. (2022). The Value System Of Students - Future Psychologists: Training Nationally Oriented Elite. In N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), AmurCon 2021: International Scientific Conference, vol 126. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 261-272). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.06.30