Governing Characteristics Of Interaction With Russia, China, Mongolia As A Political Process


The article substantiates the following goals: - to identify the theoretical foundations and legal aspects of the characteristics of the political process of Russian-Chinese and Russian-Mongolian interaction in the information age; - to study the mechanisms of Russia's influence on the forms of interaction between states; - to identify the managerial characteristics of the PRC in the modern political process; - to substantiate the Mongolian management experience. The following multiple methods were used: theoretical, historical, comparative and systems analysis. Research results: 1. The systematic results of the study of Russia's interaction with China and Mongolia are associated with the substantiation of the factors affecting statehood and the political process. 2. The article is devoted to the dynamics of the development of Russia and Mongolia and the determination of the consequences of this process. To assess the dynamics of politics, the category "political process" is used, which can be carried out both slowly and rapidly. The dynamics of development is determined by the subjects of the political system and foreign policy factors associated with the political situation. In the modern information era, the importance of the core subject of the political system - the state, its conservative principles - is increasing. This is due both to the strengthening of public administration to combat the coronavirus, and to an increase in social factors in the development of the state, its continuity. In the political process, both concrete results and factors of influence are manifested.

Keywords: China, Russia, governance from the standpoint of the political process, interaction, mongolia


Socio-political processes in modern Asian countries, including China, were considered by Akopov (2017), Gordienko (2021), Ismagilova and Khadzhi (2020), Izotov and Tochkov (2020), Yemelyanov (2019), Kraftova et al. (2020), Javchunovskaja (2016). The historical method in relation to the interaction between Russia and China was used by: Biryukov and Barsukov (2017), Golobokov (2017), Nosov (2018). The comparative method is based on the concept of Almond (2007), who substantiated the analysis of political phenomena from the point of view of psychological and cultural studies. Legal and managerial characteristics imply a study of the constitutions of the PRC, Mongolia and Russia, the "Concept for Sustainable Development of Mongolia until 2030", the Ulan Bator Declaration of November 13, 2000, and Xin Hua periodicals. Mongolia from the point of view of managerial characteristics and the political process was studied by Rodionov (2018), Jaskina (2010), numerous electronic resources were used, including: National Security Concept of Mongolia, 2010; State Great Hural (Ulaanbaatar city) (State Policy on Railway Transportation), 2010; State Great Hural (Ulaanbaatar city) (Concept of sustainable development of Mongolia until 2030), 2016. Especially interesting are the works of Doctor of Political Sciences V.A. Rodionov from the point of view of the identity of the Mongolian political process and the need for mutually beneficial Russian-Mongolian relations.

Problem Statement

The formulation of the scientific problem is related to the sphere of socio-political relations in modern Russia, China and Mongolia and manifests itself in the economic, political, social, and military sectors. The description of the problem makes it possible to identify the role of socio-political relations in the system of public relations and substantiate their content and forms aimed at interaction and cooperation. The complexity of the study of socio-political relations is due to the fact that these relations cover various spheres of life: economy, politics, social sphere, propaganda, military construction and cooperation.

Research Questions

The subject of the research is the characteristics of the socio-political process in Russia, China and Mongolia, which have temporal, spatial and regional assessments. About regional characteristics should be noted the words of Bobrovnikova and Shevchenko (2015), who noted that, in fact, modern socio-political processes in the country are the history of this country, which has not yet become one, but will certainly become after some time. The political process is one of the central and at the same time very specific categories of political science. Characterization of politics as a process allows us to see the special facets of the interaction of subjects in relation to state power. Political processes are associated with both domestic and foreign policy and are carried out on an interstate and intrastate, intraparty and interparty element. The study of the subject involves the study of a model of political risk management (Beydina et al., 2020).

Purpose of the Studу

The purpose of the study is focused on substantiating the features of the socio-political characteristics of Russia, China and Mongolia.

Research Methods

The research methodology is based on systemic, factorial, structural-functional and comparative approaches. Scientific and pedagogical methods, which tested from the point of view of "tolerant thinking and active development", are also important (Beydina et al., 2016). A systematic approach to the issue of Russia's interaction with China and Mongolia is associated with the substantiation of the factors affecting statehood and the political process.


  • The spectrum of political subjects has both quantitative and qualitative characteristics, which are manifested in political decisions of interaction and are subdivided into objective and subjective, main and auxiliary factors.
  • There are internal factors of the political process (state, parties, metered democracy, public opinion) and external factors (the impact of the states of the world).
  • The existing quantitative indicators in the PRC are manifested in social characteristics: in the level of poverty, the amount of wages. According to Popov (2020): “Despite the prevailing economic quantitative parameters of China, its dominance by quality standards is relative. in particular, in a per capita ratio in the PRC - $ 1 per day”. China bypasses Russia in certain quantitative parameters, but has problems in the aging of the nation, the social level of development, military modernization.
  • The Russian Federation is influenced to a greater extent by internal factors: budget deficit, expansion of the executive branch, crisis of democracy (Beydina, 2017a, 2017b). The crisis of Russian democracy requires the use of modern information technologies, as noted in articles published in Krasnoyarsk (Denisov & Kuharskij, 2018a, 2018b).
  • According to Popov (2020): “The political leadership of the PRC is associated with economic forecasts, with the results of 95% of the world mining of rare earth metals, which are the initial raw material for the production of electronics, televisions, and mobile phones. China's foreign exchange reserves are increasing, industrial and agricultural production is growing, China's global influence is supported by the demographic power of the People's Republic of China (21% of the world's population lives in China). China's transformation into a 21st century superpower accompanied by Sino-Russian energy cooperation, the focus of China's attention on domestic political tasks and the desire to become a world power in terms of status, including using military resources”.

The political system in China is focused on the predominance of the modern Chinese Communist Party, which needs to maintain a sufficient level of political mobilization in managing social processes. According to Akopov (2017), “with a significant presence of propaganda in society, it seems that the regime is strong enough to maintain control over society and politics” (p. 22). The mode is strong by filtering information and the Internet with Chinese characteristics.

According to Popov (2020),

… various ways of influencing the mood in society are gaining relevance, such as: 1. Propaganda in the media (from printed posters to the Internet). 2. Tracking information flows on the Internet and using the network to determine public sentiment. 3. Creation of new ways of spreading control (new mobile applications). But in the conditions when Internet technologies are actively developing and intruding into the life of the Chinese society, it becomes more and more difficult for the authorities to control and filter content traffic. (p. 31)

In Chinese reality there is also modernization, which, according to Novikova (2016), “understood as an increase in the ability of the political system to constantly and successfully adapt to new models and create new types of political and social institutions that provide control over resources” (p. 12). A comparative analysis of modernizations indicates that Russia needs the comprehensive modernization of society, which, as a system, is focused on changing the basic spheres of development of society.

Mongolia is a member of the Regional Forum for Environmentally Sound Transport in Asia. Russia, China and Mongolia are engaged in an active dialogue on cross-border cooperation, in particular, on information, mutual recognition of customs control and legal aspects of assistance within the framework of the Russia-Mongolia-China economic corridor. Countries continue to open new safe container rail freight transportation. On August 9, 2018, the first container cargo left the customs area of the Nansha (the port of Guangzhou province in southern China) by truck towards Dalang railway station, where the containers were loaded onto a train bound for Russia through Mongolia. The customs regime demonstrates a trusting customs relationship between the three countries, and improved connectivity for Mongolia as a landlocked country. The train journey from Guangzhou to Moscow takes only 15 days, which is much faster than that of ocean-going ships. However, although Mongolia has enjoyed rail links with its trading partners for decades, logistics efficiency is low because of administrative and infrastructural problems in the country. With the gradual improvement of the customs regime and efficiency at border crossings, the transportation of goods from the world market to Mongolia is becoming faster and cheaper.

The agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Mongolia noted that Mongolia's policy will focus on addressing poverty reduction, inclusive economic growth, environmental conservation, regional cooperation and integration, and the development of transport infrastructure (Agreement between the government of the Russian Federation and the government of Mongolia on the conditions for the transit carriage of goods by rail, 2018).

The transport sector in Mongolia is divided into four modes of transport - rail, road, air and inland waterways. Given the poor road conditions, high cost of air transport and the limited range of waterways, the railway has little competition in freight transport with other modes of transport. In June 2010, the Government of Mongolia approved the State Policy for Rail Transport (State Great Hural. Ulaanbaatar city. State Policy on Railway Transportation, 2010). The goal of this policy is to promote transit potential, economic and social growth through exports.

The current National Security Concept of Mongolia was adopted in 2010 (National Security Concept of Mongolia, 2010). The Concept is the most important document of Mongolia's foreign policy and clearly reflects the link between security and diplomatic policy. The principle of "third neighbor policy" and the real geographic features of the country play a significant role in its foreign policy.

Mongolia's foreign policy and activities can be roughly divided into several stages:

  • From 1990 to mid-1990s: the choice of a democratic and market economy for security, as enshrined in the 1992 Constitution. The rejection of the socialist system in such a radical format demonstrates the desire of the Mongolian side to win the trust, especially the United States’, and strengthen its position in the international community.
  • From the mid-1990s to the end of the 1990s: the WTO provisions "Prefer the principles of multilateral foreign policy and develop active relations and cooperation with countries and international organizations" were implemented. Mongolia actively cooperates with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Asian Development Bank, the World Trade Organization, and the United Nations Development Program.
  • The beginning of the new millennium: participation in UN peacekeeping operations. In 2002, Mongolia's parliament passed a law allowing its armed forces to participate in UN-sanctioned peacekeeping operations. The decision to participate in UN-mandated operations was an important step in foreign policy as well as the development of relations and cooperation with the United States and NATO. Since then, cooperation with NATO has intensified, and in 2012 Mongolia became a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
  • Present time: ensuring security through economic interests or "politics of diplomatic welfare". Diplomatic policy in the field of natural resources and related economic security issues are very sensitive aspects of Mongolia's foreign policy, and the country's geostrategic position has a decisive influence on it.

The "third neighbor" policy is perhaps the most popular of the basic principles of Mongolia's foreign policy. This policy is inextricably linked to the geopolitical situation, which has changed dramatically since 1991, the location between the two great powers that is often referred when talking about Mongolia.

In fact, most Mongolian statesmen and public figures, regardless of their party or political affiliation, agree on the need for a multilateral foreign policy of the country based on cooperation with Russia, China and Western countries, without an emphasis on any centers of power.

During the visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Mongolia on November 13-14, 2000, at the invitation of President N. Bagabandi, the parties adopted the “Ulaanbaatar Declaration”, which brought Russian-Mongolian relations to a new level, set the direction for their comprehensive development, and laid the political foundation for mutually beneficial cooperation. Particular attention in the declaration was paid to issues of bilateral and regional security. President Putin was accompanied by the presidents of the republics of Buryatia and Tuva, as well as the governor of the Irkutsk region.

The item 23 of the Declaration contains a separate provision: “The Russian side informed the Mongolian side of the goals, objectives and activities of the Shanghai Forum as an organization open to broad international cooperation. The Mongolian side has shown interest in the work of the forum and announced that it will consider the possibility of participating in its work in one form or another” (Ulaanbaatar Declaration, 2020). Obviously, Mongolia is interested in joining the Shanghai Group, but its priority at the moment is membership in the EurAsEC, which will solve the problem of customs tariffs.

In 2003, Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Mongolia to establish "good neighborly and trusting partnerships" and pledged to provide $ 300 million in loans, primarily to "revitalize economic relations" in the mining sector. Russia almost simultaneously canceled Mongolia's large debt. Mongolia joined the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in 2004 as an observer, because, as Mongolian politicians noted, everything has a price.

In 2006, the President of Mongolia N. Enkhbayar paid an official visit to Russia and signed the "Moscow Declaration".

The intensification of Russian political relations since 2000 allowed Russia to participate in the struggle for political influence in Mongolia, as well as in resolving issues raised during bilateral visits, negotiations and meetings, including the possibility of privileged participation in the mining sector of Mongolia.

At the same time, although the two countries have very good political relations, trade and economic ties have not yet reached the level of strategic partnership. Large gas pipeline, railroad, mining, energy and oil refining projects have not been implemented in Mongolia. Despite the fact that during the visit of the Prime Minister of Mongolia U. Khurelsukh to Russia in December 2019, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Government of Mongolia and Gazprom, which laid the foundation for the construction of a gas pipeline through Mongolia, since the signing of the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership, the Mongolian side had doubts about the prospects for implementing the previously reached decisions.

Except for the Ulaanbaatar railway, 50 percent of which is owned by Russian Railways, we can see that Russia's geopolitical interests in Mongolia have disappeared. Russia has tried to connect the world's largest coal mine, Tavan Tolgoi, to Mongolia's main railway line, modernize the railroad, and secure participation in such mega-mineral projects as the Asgat silver deposit, the Tavan Tolgoi coal deposit and the Dornod uranium deposit. The lack of success is still explained by the Mongols - Russia's erroneous strategic policy towards Mongolia.

In the document of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs it is noted: "On June 8, 2018, the Government of Mongolia and the Government of the Russian Federation signed an Agreement on the conditions of transit freight transportation by rail" (Agreement, 2018). Stable rate discounts are provided throughout the year. Mongolia has a 66.4 percent discount on coal transportation through Russia and a 52 percent discount on container shipments. Of course, the issue of entering third markets will be discussed, especially if the planned railway projects will implement within the country.

Optimism is important for the export of Mongolian mining products to third countries, to ensure competitive export prices and to attract foreign investment in the mining and manufacturing sectors for long-term economic sustainability.


To implement the "global power" project, China is building up and strengthening its economic potential, supporting the public sector and the country's military-strategic development. China will represent the largest economy by 2030 and will bypass the United States (Mastepanov & Tomberg, 2018; Wu, 2020; Zhang & Chen, 2019). It is advisable to consider global leadership from the point of view of national security, which we have repeatedly noted in articles (Beydina, 2017a).

We have found that the political process is a series of events, the activities of people to conquer and retain power, which has regional characteristics. This also applies to the political and economic assessments of Chinese reality, the emergence of new political institutions in Mongolia, as well as internal factors in the development of the statehood of the Russian Federation, manifested in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The constant dynamics of the development of the political system is precisely the consideration of the political and legal process. There is a Chinese experience in process management, which is focused on internal economic stability and the preservation of social stability in modern China. The managerial characteristics of China's interaction with Russia are aimed at the course of the Chinese Communist Party, associated with the expansion of employment, the development of cities and towns, an increase in the income of the Chinese within the Xiaokang society and the "Chinese democratic dictatorship" in the political system.

The Mongolian experience in managing the "land of the blue sky" is associated with the policy of the "third neighbor" and the balancing of Mongolia between the RF and the PRC. The position of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation - Trans-Baikal Territory from the point of view of modernizing the basis of cooperation is important: cheap Mongolian connections for the Akshinsky and Kyrinsky regions of Transbaikalia, the modernization of the Mongolian coal deposit Tavan Tolgoi, the gold-copper Oyu Tolgoi, the reconstruction of checkpoints on the border of the Russian Federation and Mongolia.


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Beydina, T. E., Novikova, A. V., Litovchenko, A. P., & Zimina, N. V. (2022). Governing Characteristics Of Interaction With Russia, China, Mongolia As A Political Process. In N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), AmurCon 2021: International Scientific Conference, vol 126. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 119-127). European Publisher.