The article analyses the results of a study on the role of the environment and the family in the development of children and students’ independence in the process of physical education. The environmental factors are usually divided into three groups (macro-factors, meso-factors, micro-factors) to determine their nature and pedagogical correction. As a logical basis for such differentiation in this model, we have adopted such a scale of the environment as macro-environment, meso-environment, micro-environment, as well as the degree of activity and mediation of the influence of the corresponding factor on the personality. The functioning and development of all three levels of the environment are interdependent and interrelated. The family is the most important institution of socialization for the younger generations. It is a personal environment for the life and development of children, adolescents, and young men. Its quality is determined by several parameters of a particular family. The content, nature, and results of family education depend on some characteristics of the family, primarily on the personal resources that it has. Our research has revealed a pattern, namely the more often parents pay attention to the physical education of their children, the more children enjoy doing physical exercises at home. In other words, the results of the survey show that the physical orientation of parents has a certain influence on the corresponding orientation of children.
Keywords: Children, environment, independence, physical education, parents
The theoretical analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on the research problem allowed us to define independence as a personal-volitional quality, the development of which is particularly influenced by the environment.
The environment is characterized by multiplicity, qualitative diversity, inconsistency of formative influences. To determine their nature and pedagogical correction, it is customary to divide environmental factors into three groups (macro-factors, meso-factors, micro-factors). As a logical basis for such differentiation in this model, we have adopted the following scale of the environment: macro-environment, meso-environment, micro-environment, as well as the degree of activity and mediation of the influence of the corresponding factor on personality (Vorotilkina et al., 2019).
A characteristic of the macro-environment is a way of life that develops in certain historical conditions based on material production and includes the activities of people to transform these conditions and this very basis. Through the way of life, direct connections of the individual with the macro-environment are carried out. Thanks to them, society influences the formation of people’s mentality. The way of life is determined by a complex of interacting circumstances. The circumstances of the macro-environment, its structural characteristics are essentially determined by social relations at a certain stage of their development. This is the economic and political situation in the country, the type, and level of culture, the psychological climate in society. People living in the same macro-environment are not only members of society, but also members of many communities that form the micro-environment of development.
The micro-environment is, firstly, the sphere of direct communication between people. The main communities, namely the parental family, preschool educational institution, school, university, public organizations, own family, can be considered as private environments that replace each other in the course of socialization or coexist at certain stages of a person’s life.
Secondly, when characterizing the micro-environment, we should not overlook its material aspect. The development environment is also a habitat, it satisfies not only a person’s need for communication but also his other material and spiritual needs. The material environment plays, in addition to utilitarian functions, an aesthetic and moral role.
The micro-environment is characterized by the structure of circumstances that nominally coincide with the circumstances of the macro-environment, depending on them, but not identical to them. The development of personality is influenced not so much by any separate factor but by the holistic way of life in the micro-environment. It is reflected in the individual way of life of people, the way of acting in unity and interpenetration with the objective conditions of human existence (Anokhina et al., 2018; Byankina et al., 2019; Fedorov et al., 2020; Vorotilkina et al., 2019).
The functioning and development of all three levels of the environment are interdependent and interrelated; changes in the macro-environment result in a change in the meso- and micro-environment and vice versa.
The influence of environmental factors is objective, mostly spontaneous, frontal, and interdependent. At the same time, the absence or insufficient activity of the influence of any factors is also a factor (for example, the absence of a family is the most important factor in human development).
The degree of mediated influence of environmental factors varies, i.e., the macro-environment affects the development of a person and the formation of his personality mainly indirectly; the meso-environment influences the immediate environment both directly and indirectly; the micro-environment transforms the effects of the macro- and meso-environment and affects most often directly (Anishenko et al., 2018; Byankina et al., 2018; Dorontsev et al., 2019; Vorotilkina et al., 2019).
The child’s environment is a complex of natural conditions, and the material world of human habitation, and those noospheric phenomena that form the child’s world as a human world. Both the people around the child, and human communities, organizations, with which he has to interact to varying degrees, collectively create a near-personal educational space that absorbs and assimilates (or confronts) the spiritual and moral essence of this growing person.
The environment helps the child to realize his appearance, characterizing him either as a potentially successful, promising, attractive person, or vice versa; creates the need for constant analysis, evaluation of a set of stable, habit-based qualities, of its character; determining a person’s attitude to himself, others, activities, communication, to material and spiritual values; creates conditions for a growing person to comprehend himself as an integral personality, i.e., it offers situations that require either rejection of their values, beliefs, ideals, or their confirmation, demands solutions that involve a moral choice, spiritual and moral self-determination, thereby subjecting the personality to a self-identity test, each time again forcing him to realize the measure of his vitality; offers the child a complex palette of values, which are in the form of the positions of their apologists, in a state of competition. They are actively declared or demonstrated, passively revealing themselves in the activities and behaviour of all environmental subjects, in their relation to each other and environmental objects, in a certain spiritual and emotional atmosphere of the child’s environment. The environment acts as a factor of self-education, self-improvement of a young person, because it continuously reproduces the contradiction between a relatively high socially demanded level of personal development, potentially determining, in the child’s opinion, the success of his life, and a lower actual, available level, which produces bursts of his need for self-transformation and activates the corresponding amateur activity. The environment also acts as a complex of conditions for self-realization, self-actualization of the individual, namely it is the arena of personal self-presentation and self-affirmation (or self-discrediting, depending on internal, personal, and external, environmental, including pedagogical conditions) (Egorova & Shorygin, 2020; Fedorov et al., 2020; Grigoryeva, 2021; Kartavtseva et al., 2021).
Social micro-groups to which a person belongs and which act as the most important factors of his socialization have a different effect at different stages of a person’s age development: in infancy and preschool age, the family plays the leading role; the family affects the younger schoolchild in about the same way as the school and the children's collective; in adolescence, the influence of peers becomes more and more significant; an adult is influenced primarily by a socio-professional group, family, individuals (Byankina et al., 2019; Grigoryeva, 2021; Klimenko, 2021; Klupt, 2019).
The subject of the study was to identify the attitude of parents to physical education classes at school.
We study the forms and methods of physical education of children in the family, the formation of motivation in children for physical culture and sports, for independent motor activity in the conditions of family education; creation of appropriate conditions in the family, the acquisition of sports equipment.
We identify what forms of work with children are most in-demand in family education, for example, joint physical activities, tourism, individual physical activity with children, depending on the age and psychophysical characteristics of children; what teaching methods (visual, verbal, practical) are most often used by parents to attract children to physical activity, what principles are they based in physical education (consciousness and activity, visibility, accessibility and individualization, the continuity of the physical education process, increasing developmental and training effects).
Purpose of the Study
The study aims to reveal children's interest in physical education.
The study does not pretend to the representativeness of the data, but it provides a foundation for identifying trends that confirm or, on the contrary, do not coincide with the studies conducted in this sphere by Russian and foreign researchers. The age group of respondents is 30-55 years old. The number of respondents includes 150 people.
The family influences the development of independence in motor activity the most actively.
The family is the most important institution of socialization for the younger generations. It is a personal environment for the life and development of children, adolescents, and young men. Its quality is determined by some parameters of a particular family, i.e.
-demographic - family structure (large, including other relatives, or nuclear, including only parents and children; full or incomplete; childless, one-child, multi-child);
-socio-cultural (educational level of parents, their participation in the life of society);
-socio-economic (property characteristics and business of parents at work);
-technical and hygienic (living conditions, home equipment, lifestyle features).
Family education is more or less conscious efforts made by older family members, which are aimed at ensuring that younger family members correspond to the older ideas about what a child, teenager, or young man should be and should become.
The content, nature, and results of family education depend on some characteristics of the family, first of all, on the personal resources that it has.
Personal resources, in particular, the level of education of older family members, their social status, value orientations, level of claims, etc., affect the goals and style of family education.
The most important characteristic of family education is its style, that is, the system of techniques typical for older people and the nature of interaction with younger ones. Depending on the measure of its 'hardness-softness', the style can be defined as authoritarian or democratic with a lot of intermediate variants (Lebedinsky et al., 2019; Melnikova et al., 2018).
So, a family is a joint activity, communication, experiences, an atmosphere of mutual affection, a feeling and manifestation of care, warmth, tenderness, responsibility, this is the support of each other by family members; external relations and relationships to the environment close to the child, to neighbours, acquaintances, family friends, a range of interests, the prevailing forms of leisure activities, attitude to health, to all living things, to one’s housework and job, spiritual and moral values, etc. (Nakhodkin et al., 2017; Rozhdestvenskaya & Isupova, 2019; Vorotilkina et al., 2019).
The child, who is increasingly aware of himself as significant (or insignificant) in this environment, day after day is saturated with all moods, states, relationships, imperceptibly for himself and others, absorbs this 'flavour' of family ties, the style of relationships and life, the prevailing ways of dealing with each other and other people, the ways of activity accepted in the family (at a level accessible to him), perceives important spiritual and moral truths 'with mother’s milk', which then become internal regulators of his behaviour and development (Anokhina et al., 2018).
Analysis of the data of scientific studies (Vorotilkina et al., 2019) shows that the orientation of children to physical activity is largely due to the orientation of parents to physical education.
Physical education of children in the family has several features, parents, developing the personality of the child, take into account his characteristics, which they know better than anyone else. In turn, it is the position of parents that forms the basis for the lifestyle and worldview of children. The family’s attitude to an active lifestyle, physical exercises, their habits, develop children’s interest in sports, physical improvement, attitude to life. The base of physical and mental health is formed at the preschool age up to seven years. During this period, the organs and functional systems of the body are actively developing, the main personality traits, character, attitude towards oneself and others are forming. This period is most favourable for the formation of the concept of the health value in the mind of the baby, for the manifestation of his interest in self-development and self-preservation.
Numerous studies and the pedagogical experience of physical education teachers show that many parents believe that attending physical education classes and sports clubs is quite enough for children’s development, but this is a misconception. It is impossible to overestimate the role of morning exercises, which children can do at home with the support of parents or together with them and other family members; it is one of the most effective forms of physical education. Morning exercises stimulate the formation of muscles, especially those groups of them that are 'responsible' for proper posture, develop respiratory organs, blood circulation, improve metabolism. If a child gets used to starting his day with morning exercises, then, in addition to maintaining his health, he will acquire the skills of organization, self-discipline, and a habit of doing systematic physical exercises will be formed.
Our questionnaire survey of parents to identify children’s interest in physical exercises shows that about 58.7% of parents pay attention to the physical education of their children, trying to introduce them to various forms of physical exercises; 14.2% of parents show no interest in physical education of children at all, do not realize the importance of physical culture for human life.
The analysis of the answers received as a result of the survey made it possible to develop methods, forms of work with parents to improve their physical education. So, for example, in the experimental groups, lectures, conversations, consultations, thematic exhibitions, etc. were organized for them, revealing the role of physical culture in a child’s life, the importance of physical exercises for the development of a growing organism, the potential of physical culture in the upbringing of children.
As a result of the pedagogical experiment, which lasted for an academic year, a close relationship was established between the orientation of parents to physical exercises and the attitude of their children to various forms of physical culture.
For example, it was revealed that if at the beginning of the experiment the number of parents constantly paying attention to the physical education of their children was 31.5%, then by the end of the experiment it was 50%. In the control groups, 27.2% and 17%, respectively.
The change in the orientation of parents towards physical exercises determined the dynamics of the interests of their children. So, it was found that if at the beginning of the experiment in the family 15.8% of children in the experimental group and 36.7% of children in the control group were happy to engage in various forms of motor activity, then by the end of the experiment the dynamics of the studied indicators changed (experimental group - 36.3%, control group - 9.7%).
Our research has revealed a pattern: the more often parents pay attention to the physical education of their children, the more children enjoy doing physical exercises at home. Summarizing the results obtained, we can conclude that the physical orientation of parents has a certain influence on the corresponding orientation of children. The validity of this statement is confirmed by the research materials of specialists on this issue.
Thus, the results of the survey show that the example of parents significantly affects the introduction of children to regular physical culture and sports activities, increases the authority of parents in the eyes of children, contributes to the organization of full-fledged leisure of the family, a healthy lifestyle, thereby forming an attitude towards physical culture as a value. Only joint physical education classes of parents with children contribute to the formation of stable motivation for physical activity, develop physical abilities, promote active joint recreation for positive emotions and further create a favourable microclimate in the family.
The data obtained make it possible to judge the need for a close relationship between teachers and parents in the process of forming the independence and activity of children.
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03 June 2022
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Social sciences, education and psychology, technology and education, economics and law, interdisciplinary sciences
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Vorotilkina, I. M., Nevelichko, L. G., Bogachenko, N. G., Kornilova, A. G., & Prokopieva, M. M. (2022). Development Of Children And Students’ Independence In The Process Of Physical Education. In & N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), AmurCon 2021: International Scientific Conference, vol 126. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1070-1077). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.06.118