Current Problems Of The Personality’s Physical Culture


The article analyses the results of a study on important issues of physical culture of a person at the stage of preschool and primary school age. The authors come to the conclusion that physical culture is a part of the general culture of mankind, which is a creative activity to master the past and create new values, mainly in the field of physical development, health improvement, and education of people; it characterizes an important stage of socialization and individualization of personality. The formation of the physical culture of a person is a multifaceted, complex in structure, and time-consuming process. Appropriate methods, tools, forms should correspond to each age stage, then only a constant interest in this activity and the formation of a need for it will be ensured. The high efficiency of the methodology of physical culture and cognitive education, which stimulate independence in physical activity, change the hierarchy of motives towards greater awareness of the need to do physical exercises, to be 'healthy, strong, beautiful', and forcing the child to do physical exercises not only in organized groups at a kindergarten but also in everyday life.

Keywords: Emotions, independence, motive, pre-schooler, primary school child


A culture is a specific form of being, its emergence, existence, and change are associated exclusively with a person and determined by his activities. To define the essence of culture correctly, we must remember that culture (Latin – cultivation, processing) in the scientific and philosophical understanding can be represented as a set of all types of transformative activity, as a result of which a person creates, preserves and transmits cultural values to subsequent generations (Vorotilkina et al., 2019).

R. Tshumi considered culture as a structure that elevated a person above himself and made his life valuable. M. Heidegger defined culture as the realization of supreme values by cultivating the highest human virtues. A. Schweitzer regarded culture as conditions in which individuals comprehended the ideals of human perfection. S. L. Frank believed that it determined the cultural development of mankind, its gradual and continuous moral and mental improvement. L. A. Kogan defined culture as a system that acted as a measure and a way of forming and developing person’s values in the course of his social activity. V. A. Dobrynina considered culture as a set of material and spiritual values, the development of which always presupposed the development of the creator of culture, namely a man. I. Herman interpreted culture as the integrity of human development, which took a person beyond natural boundaries. M. S. Kagan considered culture as an open system with an immanent logic of its self-movement, self-improvement, self-development (as cited in Vorotilkina et al., 2019).

So, culture is everything created by mankind as a set of conditions, methods, and results of the formation, development, and preservation of a social person’s needs, abilities, and properties. As a derivative of activity, culture is a universal technology of its rational and effective implementation in the processes of production, communication, and consumption. Therefore, it becomes the demiurge of activities in creating the necessary conditions for human life and society, on the one hand, in developing the needs, abilities, and personality traits, on the other hand (Anishenko et al., 2018; Byankina et al., 2019; Fedorov et al., 2020; Nakhodkin et al., 2017; Rozhdestvenskaya & Isupova, 2019; Vorotilkina et al., 2019).

Problem Statement

As a social system, culture unfolds in three forms of its existence, including the culture of living conditions, the culture of activity, and the culture of the individual. These forms transform, overflow one into another, forming a cycle of culture as a condition for its development, dissemination, and assimilation, preservation, and transmission in generations (Anokhina et al., 2018; Byankina et al., 2019; Dorontsev et al., 2019; Egorova & Shorygin, 2020; Fedorov et al., 2020; Grigoryeva, 2021; Khilazheva, 2021; Vorotilkina et al., 2019).

The interaction and mutual influence of cultural forms are also characteristic of the phenomena of physical culture and sports. The living conditions ensure the deployment of the processes of forming the culture of motor activity, which develops the process of forming the physical culture of the individual (Anishenko et al., 2018; Byankina et al., 2018; Kartavtseva et al., 2021; Klupt, 2019; Lebedinsky et al., 2019; Melnikova et al., 2018; Nakhodkin et al., 2017; Rozhdestvenskaya & Isupova, 2019). Physical culture as part of the general culture of mankind is a creative activity for the development of the past and the creation of new values mainly in the field of physical development, health improvement, and education of people (Egorova & Shorygin, 2020), characterizes an important stage of socialization and individualization of personality (Klupt, 2019; Lebedinsky et al., 2019).

The purpose of the physical culture of the individual is the all-round and comprehensive development of physical and spiritual abilities of a person in the aspect of the formation of his physical culture, i.e., the self-realization of a person in the development of his spiritual and physical abilities through physical activity, the development of other values of physical culture. At the same time, the main means of physical culture is physical activity, in which physical exercises are its main element (Lebedinsky et al., 2019; Vorotilkina et al., 2019).

The peculiarity of the phenomenon of physical culture, in contrast to its other spheres, consists primarily in the fact that it most naturally unites the social and biological in a person into a single whole (Klimenko, 2021).

Experts (Vorotilkina et al., 2019) in the structure of physical culture, along with other components, distinguish a motivational-value component, which reflects a positive emotional attitude to physical culture, a formed need for it, a system of knowledge, interests, motives, and beliefs that organize and guide volitional efforts of the individual, cognitive and practical activities to master the values of physical culture, focus on a healthy lifestyle, physical improvement.

Research Questions

The subject of the research is the attitude of 6–10-year-old respondents to physical culture.

A physical education teacher is faced with the task of forming a high level of motor activity of students in the classroom. To do this, it is necessary that schoolchildren have an interest in physical exercises, strive to develop the physical and mental qualities necessary for this, and receive satisfaction from these lessons.

We study how, in physical education classes, schoolchildren show cognitive activity, i.e., attentively and consciously perceive educational material, and motor activity, which is associated with doing physical exercises reasonably and consciously.

We investigate how biological factors (the need for movement, the need to preserve life and health) and social factors (features of the organization of activities in the classroom, evaluation of activities by other people, primarily by the teacher, interest in lessons, a sense of satisfaction with lessons and the true goals of doing physical exercises) influence the formation of cognitive and motor activity of schoolchildren in the process of physical education.

We study how a high level of emotional stability provides a positive result of communication, the interaction of children with peers and adults in the process of physical education, contributes to the qualitative assimilation of knowledge, the formation of motor skills, and, in general, promotes successful learning in physical education lessons.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to identify actual problems of the physical culture of the individual at different stages of ontogenesis.

Research Methods

The study does not pretend to the representativeness of the data, but it provides a foundation for identifying trends that confirm or, on the contrary, do not coincide with the studies conducted in this sphere by Russian and foreign researchers. There are two age groups of respondents of 6-7 and 8-10 years old. The number of respondents includes 100 people.


Interest in the studied age groups is because children of older preschool age and younger schoolchildren have specific not only physiological, mental, physical, but also worldview characteristics. This dictates the need for a differentiated approach that takes into account the gender and age characteristics of the studied demographic group, in the process of their physical education. 5-7 years old, or senior preschool age, is a defining period in the personal and psychological development of a child when he masters new psychological mechanisms that determine his activities and behaviour, the specifics of thinking, will, attention. The child becomes more stable in emotional reactions, more mentally enduring, he forms social and moral representations. Physical characteristics in children of this age group are distinguished by the active development of motor abilities, improved coordination of movements. But the psychophysical capabilities of older pre-schoolers are still very limited, therefore, when planning physical activity for him, the teacher should take into account that the child still needs to be helped, and not be forced to do what he still does not have enough physical abilities for, since health is the basis of his successful future.

Primary school age is an intensively developing age group that is in a period of rapid physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual development, the formation of personality as a social category. This is the period of formation of volitional qualities, enhanced muscle growth, an increase in muscle mass and strength. Intensive development of the motor apparatus causes greater mobility of younger schoolchildren, restlessness, the desire for dynamic activities, namely running, jumping, climbing.

At the end of the preschool period, the children have a sufficiently formed cognitive interest, which is fixed during the transition of children to school education, if an educational process is well-organized, taking into account the psychophysiological characteristics of age.

A study conducted at secondary school No. 14 in Birobidzhan using the methodology 'Focus on acquiring knowledge in physical education lessons' and 'Focus on acquiring marks in physical education lessons' shows that the focus on knowledge among students is sufficiently high. Schoolchildren of the first, second, and third forms took part in the survey. Younger schoolchildren are interested both in getting marks and knowledge in physical education lessons. Analysing the answers of the children, it should be stated that for younger schoolchildren, physical education lessons are not a burdensome occupation but learning new things. For knowledge to be solid, it is necessary to reinforce them with the activities, in this case, the educational one, to teach them to obtain this knowledge independently, to form a need and interest in knowledge.

The results of the study (Byankina et al., 2018) show that at the senior preschool and school-age, children and adolescents have a high level of formation of educational interests, interest in the process of learning physical exercises, they are interested in learning new things, doing physical education lessons, solving complex motor tasks, trying their hand at performing various physical exercises. Young people (medical college and first-year students of the pedagogical university) show an interest only in the external side of learning, in its form (they liked the status of a student, they enjoyed good marks, they willingly performed interesting tasks, etc.). It should be noted that most respondents believe that it is boring at a physical education class if they have to do a monotonous, uninteresting thing (from 56% to 85%). In this regard, teachers working with children need to remember that interest in activity relieves fatigue, while monotony ruins interesting learning. Only a teacher who is passionate about his work can be inventive in techniques that make children wonder, worry, creating the necessary emotional and cognitive atmosphere of joint activity.

A study of the emotional attitude to physical culture and motivation of motor activity of pre-schoolers and younger schoolchildren shows that the majority of children (27% of 6-year-old children, 43% of 7-8-year-old children, 35% of 9-10-year-old children) believe that those people who exercise are good, kind, cheerful, strong, etc.). Children who do not do physical exercises are characterized by negative qualities, namely bad, dirty, angry, slow, weak, small, etc. (35% of 6-year-old children, 42% of 7-8-year-old children, 33% of 9-10-year-old children).

The test results allow us to state that the majority of children (57% of 6-year-old children and 72% of 7-8-year-old children, 81% of 8-10-year-old children like physical education classes. At the same time, it should be noted that emotions change with age due to changes in the general nature of the child’s activities and his motives. With age, there is also an increase among 6-year-old children and a decrease among 7-8-year-old children in the motive of health, strength, and beauty. The results of observations of children allow us to assume that 6-year-old children are the oldest in a kindergarten, respectively, they strive to be strong, hardy, brave, able to protect the small and weak (the motive of health, strength, beauty – 50%), first-graders are the smallest in school, it is still very difficult for them to adapt to the school environment, therefore, compared with pre-schoolers, the play motive prevails in them (43%). At the same time, as children grow older, there is a tendency of increasing interest in physical education and a decrease in the number of children doing physical exercises under compulsion.

Thus, the emotional attitude of pre-schoolers to physical culture seems to arise from their practical activities and new emotions develop in the process of their sensory-objective activity. For motives to acquire motivating power, the child must acquire the appropriate emotional experience. With a certain organization, socially significant activity can bring the child the emotional satisfaction into which his initial motives can develop. An essential condition for motivating motor activity is the positive-emotional background of their motor activity, which is largely provided by appropriate physical activity and the availability of exercises offered to children. In turn, the teacher’s attitude to physical exercises and the form of his communication with children greatly influence the emotional state of children. Reminder, question, and encouragement of the educator contribute both to the formation of motor skills, and to the upbringing of child’s positive traits. The educator’s tactful assessment strengthens the child’s confidence in his abilities and capabilities. Good contact between the educator and the children contributes to their desire to understand the task and perform it as best as possible, which increases the effectiveness of learning and forms the prerequisites for learning activities.

Motives and emotions are closely related. The emotional attitude of pre-schoolers and younger schoolchildren to physical culture contributes to the formation of motivation for motor activity. The study (Vorotilkina et al., 2019) revealed some connections between the emotional attitude of pre-schoolers to physical culture and the motivation of motor activity.

Motivation is an active state of brain structures that encourages a person to perform actions aimed at satisfying his needs. The volitional effort is necessary as a form of emotional stress, which mobilizes the internal resources of the individual and creates additional motives for action to achieve the goal.

The study shows that motivation of motor activity contributes to the mobilization of volitional efforts. It is possible to teach a child only when the teacher manages to arouse interest and desire to do what he requires of him. To unite motivation and the mobilization of volitional efforts, the educator should not take the position of a cold-blooded observer of how the motivational sphere of a pre-schooler spontaneously develops, but it is necessary to stimulate its development with a system of pedagogically and psychologically thought-out techniques. The humane relationship between the teacher and the child influences the relationship between motor activity and the mobilization of volitional efforts.

The results of experimental studies allow us to identify forms of work that contribute to the introduction of a person to physical culture.

In preschool age, when a child has high spontaneous motor activity, such forms of influences are necessary, which are based on the psychophysiological features of this period:

- pronounced gaming activity;

- cognitive activity (the period is sensitive in cognitive activity);

- a good background for the development of independence in motor activity;

- an imitative feature of performing motor actions;

- imaginative perception of exercises (in this regard, the methods of work using visual aids that display poses, positions, individual elements of physical exercises will be effective).

The great sensitivity to educational physical culture techniques, which have a direct effect on the motivational level (cognitive education), is indicated by the high efficiency of the methodology of physical culture and cognitive classes, stimulating independence in motor activity, changing the hierarchy of motives towards greater awareness of the need for physical exercises to be 'healthy, strong, beautiful' and forcing the child to do physical exercises not only in organized groups of preschool institutions but also in everyday life outside a kindergarten.

The proposed methodology allows us to create an increased and persistent interest of the child in physical culture and sports activities, and this in the future can be fertile ground for the development of independence in motor activity and the child’s need for physical activity against the background of a decrease in spontaneous motor activity.

If at this stage the child is taught to feel the need for special motor activity, this does not mean that the child will be focused on this activity for the rest of his life, although a good base created during this period is the key to his further successful activity in this field. Continuous measures are needed to develop and maintain motivation for motor activity at subsequent stages.

A rather effective form of introducing younger schoolchildren to physical culture is a physical-cognitive elective course, which continues to develop in primary school students’ independence in physical activity, motives and interest in physical culture and sports, and a healthy lifestyle.


The use of various forms of work (physical education classes, morning hygienic gymnastics, walks, dynamic minutes and pauses, tourism, etc.), teaching methods (visual, verbal, practical), physical culture means (physical exercises, natural forces of nature, hygienic factors) are aimed at the development of a physical culture of the individual.

So, the formation of a person’s physical culture is a multifaceted, complex in structure, and time-consuming process. Adequate methods, means, forms should correspond to each age stage, then only a constant interest in this activity will be ensured, and on its basis the formation of the need for it.

A feature of the formation of the physical culture of the individual already at the early stages is the formation of an active and independent attitude to his physical exercises. At this stage of the child’s development, the family and the school should unite forces and help the child to join the values of physical culture.


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03 June 2022

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Vorotilkina, I. M., Nevelichko, L. G., Bogachenko, N. G., Prokopieva, M. M., & Kornilova, A. G. (2022). Current Problems Of The Personality’s Physical Culture. In N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), AmurCon 2021: International Scientific Conference, vol 126. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1062-1069). European Publisher.