Influence Of Labour Migration In The Labour Market In The Jewish Autonomous Region


This study examines several issues related to labour migration in the Jewish Autonomous Region. For the Jewish Autonomous Region, migration processes, and most significantly, labour migration, which is an essential component of these very processes, is a serious factor of economic and social changes in the region. Migration processes affect many life spheres in the Jewish Autonomous Region, and therefore, a combined study of labour migration is an important and urgent issue. This paper aims to clear up the matters of using foreign labour force and the impact of this process on the domestic labour market. On the one hand, the economy of the region needs to involve foreign workers. On the other hand, foreign migration can have a distorting effect on the employment structure, which inherently causes imbalances in the social sphere and can provoke inter-ethnic conflicts, in particular, exacerbate the crime situation. This article investigates such issues as a migrant and a migrant worker. The author assesses the problems of the current migration situation in the Jewish Autonomous Region, touches upon the issues of illegal labour migration and possible ways to prevent them, and examines the legal regulation of migration processes as well as the improvement of migration legislation.

Keywords: Labour Migration, migrants, migration policy, migration processes


Migration processes and labour migration are left important phenomena nowadays and one of the most important issues for the population of the Jewish Autonomous Region. Population migration has always been studied not only as of the physical movement of people from one country of residence to another but also as one of the most complex processes of social life, comprising all kinds of social groups and covering various fields of social life. The increasing scale of migration processes year by year is typical for such a multi-ethnic country like Russia and stands for the deep and important migration phenomena.

This scale of migration correlates with the transformation of social institutions of migration in the world. It also depends on personal changes that can be explained by the problems of those who integrate into the new society and the increase in their adaptation potential as well as the improvement of the relationship between the local population and the newcomers from foreign countries (Bedrina & Lazareva, 2021; Dyatlov, 2020; Helmer, 2017; Hewstone & Jaspars, 1982; Oleinikova, 2020; Rodionova & Balan, 2020). Within the article, we will identify the main problems of labour migration at the regional level, which are critical for the social and economic processes in the region.

Problem Statement

The scientific problem statement of the study is to identify many difficulties of migration processes in the region and to propose ways to address them.

Research Questions

The object of the study is the labour relations between immigrant foreigners, the local population and a potential employer. The subject of the study is the mechanisms for solving the problems of migration processes in the region.

The issues to be addressed for a comprehensive study of the stated problem are in using current notions (Balzer, 2017; Bliakher & Ivanova, 2020; Cieslewska & Biajet, 2020; Grigorichev & Koptseva, 2020; Kempf, 2020; Usloviya i tsena…, 2021), the laws and regulations, the statistics (Immigratsiya..., 2021) on the nature of problems of migration processes, in particular, in the field of labour migration.

Purpose of the Studу

The purpose of the article is to outline possible ways of addressing labour migration and inter-ethnic interaction in the region.

Research Methods

Some methodological principles were used in the article. They are a comprehensive analysis of elements and relations, the principle of systematic analysis, the identification of trends and intensity of the processes reviewed.


In a contemporary world, there are many distinctive problems. The subsequent development of the world community depends on their solution. Migration is not the least of these problems. More and more explorers and experts are taking up the study of such a complex process as labour migration. Interest in this process can be explained by certain changes, including:

the annual decrease in the working-age population of the destination country;

2) an increase in the recruitment of foreign workers;

3) development of an unregulated market of goods and services due to an increasing number of foreign workers

4) worsening of crime situation based on inter-ethnic incidents.

If there are such tendencies, the question of ‘us – them’ stimulates to look for the most constructive solutions to these problems. Labour migration can be considered one of them at present. It reflects both the social interests and is applied to the migrant population.

At this stage, the multinational population of the Jewish Autonomous Region is taking over the most difficult cultural changes, the transformation of the way of living, the period which has to do with the processes of interaction of different social and ethnic groups.

A large number of labour migrants arrive in the territory of the Jewish Autonomous Region every year. It results in their inevitable numerical increase. The number of registered foreign citizens arriving in the Jewish Autonomous Region since the beginning of 2021 decreased by 74 per cent against 2020 because of the pandemic of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 (Immigration to..., 2021) ripping around the world.

The population size of the region was reduced by 613 people because of migration movements in January-April 2021. The migration outflow equalled 1993 people in January-April 2021. It was due to a decrease in the number of incoming migrants. The number of migrants arriving in the Jewish Autonomous Region decreased by 186 people or 25.6%, including 168 people or 24.3% due to migrants from other regions of Russia (Immigration to..., 2021).

Nearly all migration movements of the population took place within the country. Residents of the Jewish Autonomous Region left for Khabarovsk Krai mostly. Among other things, migration losses were recorded while exchanging of the population with the Primorsky and Krasnodar Territories, Kaliningrad and Moscow Regions, St. Petersburg and other central, southern, far-eastern and north-western regions of Russia. Between January and April 2021, the number of people migrating within the subject area decreased by 61 people (28.9 per cent compared to the corresponding period in 2020) (see Figure 2..., 2021).

Numerous researchers dealing with issues and problems of migration processes in their scientific works argue that ethnicity is a necessary feature of labour migrants (Kempf, 2020; Olimov & Olimova, 2019; Oleinikova, 2020; Orekhovskaya et al., 2020; Prokhoda, 2014; Tashlykova, 2020; Lobanova et al., 2019; Voloshin, 2018). “The ethnic factor is not a myth but the nature of our sociality, spirituality and even nation-building. It turns into immediately ethno-political, nationalistic, and a flashpoint if neglected. And it takes decades to convert it into a post-conflict, evolutionary channel” (Nikolaeva et al., 2019, p. 843). It is worth noting that most foreign workers come to the Jewish Autonomy from the People’s Republic of China.

The common long border contributes to it. It creates for unhindered and simplified migration for Chinese citizens. However, due to the current development of means of transport and communication, migration processes and migrants themselves, in particular, have changed more than the migrants of the past. These days, however, foreign citizens keep in contact with their home country when they go to work in other countries. In addition, more countries (including the PRC and South Korea) have designed programs to support their fellow citizens who decided to move to other countries for work or permanent place of residence. Therefore, many migrants who enter the territory of another state keep being culturally and ethnically attached to their country of origin. Lastly, it obviously causes difficulty in assimilating them into the country of final destination.

The adaptability of migrants arriving to work in a new environment has always been high and has been a fundamental aspect of assimilation. Such foreigners, as a rule, stay in the country of arrival for quite a long time, creating for themselves conditions satisfying their needs. Human beings are social creatures, and labour migrants are no exception to this rule. So, everyone arriving at a new place of settlement is required to get integrated socially. Assimilation is a process that takes place in several basic stages.

During this process, the newcomers’ judgments, values and codes of conduct begin to change in their new environment. By adopting the standards of conduct from the changing society, a foreign citizen, in turn, interacts with his or her social surrounding and influences the individuals who live nearby to some extent. The process of assimilation is closely interconnected with various interethnic, interpersonal, kinship and other social relationships. Labour migrants get acquainted with new people, gather information necessary to deliver on the potential in the new social area.

Different regions of this country have different levels of tolerance for foreigners coming to work in Russia. The migration of foreigners and especially those who move with their families, most often come across problems related to linguistic and cultural differences that require newcomers to be adapted to immediately. This process implies learning the language of the local population, adopting historically accepted traditions, values and codes of the country of arrival and the region receiving migrants.

Among other things, labour migration is the source of a lot of problems that threaten the ethnocultural security of the country and, in particular, the Jewish Autonomous Region. The main threats posed by migrants are fears of increasing crimes motivated by ethnic hatred, an increase in inter-ethnic tension, and the number of unemployed locals.

Several researchers, conducting a sociological study of issues related to the problems of using labour migrants from far and near abroad countries, have found out that the natives of the country of arrival and the regions are cautious of migrants and, to some extent, reject their resettlement. Some respondents said that they “do not think it is necessary” - 40 per cent of the answers received, and “the region can make up for the shortage of labour resources on its own” - 41 per cent of the answers received. Only 21% of the respondents said that the region needed to hire foreign workers because of the small number of residents, to increase economic stability and to compensate for the shortage of labour resources in the Jewish Autonomous Region (Immigration to..., 2021).

This attitude reports that the local population is not prepared to accept foreign immigrants, as the community considers their arrival on the territory of the region to be the main reason for the growth of crime and lack of jobs for the local population. This is primarily due to the ineffective resolution of the emerging problems of providing adaptation assistance to internal refugees and forced migrants, as well as assistance in settling in migrants arriving for labour activities. The ineffective resolution of these problems finally results in an increase in criminal organizations and xenophobes (hate groups) among the local population. A competition between the local population and migrants for a few jobs at the companies in the region is not the least of these factors. Flows of labour migrants forced migrants and refugees from former Soviet republics, and resettlement in the same constituent entities are the main reasons for an increasing number of xenophobes, wrongful acts of the authorities, and causing the development of interethnic conflicts. In this situation, it is necessary to create an effective mechanism for regulating migration, change migration legislation and migration policy, establish inter-ethnic and inter-ethnic relations and create tolerance for foreign migrants in society and among the local population of the territorial subject.

Many migrants do not know the language of the host country or know it improperly, and poor knowledge of the national migration legislation is a major problem for foreigners and the main reason for problems with the authorities. The main problems of migration processes in society are discussed by the government of the JAR. Sessions of the JAR commission concerning the resolution of migration policy problems are held on current issues.

During these meetings, the issues of involvement of labour migrants from the CIS countries, and also the countries of near and far abroad are considered for attracting them to the development of economic, social and cultural institutions of the region. The Commission also addresses issues of improving migration law to reduce the number of illegal migrants who contribute to worsening the crime situation in the region as well as the economic and social fields of society, irritating both the local population and the regional authorities.

Illegal migration is a cornerstone issue, as many migrants do not properly understand the migration legislation and policies of the country and the region in particular, which causes disregard of certain regulations or their articles, resulting in the deportation (forced displacement) of foreign citizens illegally staying in the country of arrival.


Summing up this study, it can be concluded that there are several problems and conflicts (gaps) in this institution of society at the present stage in the development of migration law in the Russian Federation and the Jewish Autonomous Region.

So far, due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 coronavirus infection in the country and the region, there is a large shortage of labour force, but due to problems concerning border crossing, it is impossible to fill this gap, and there is less labour force from the region than in earlier years.

All things considered, it can be concluded that

The migration policy of the region and the country requires principal transformations and making amendments related to solving the particular problems of the migration legislation.

2. Migration has a direct impact on the Jewish Autonomous Region economically, socially and culturally, but it is also, unfortunately, the reason for worsening the crime situation in the region.

3. The Government of JAR is ready to make changes in the migration legislation and provide as much cooperation as possible between the local population and migrants who arrive to work and thus, overcome current disagreements.

Finally, by changing the available living principles and migration policy of the country and the region, in particular, labour migration will probably turn into a common phenomenon in the nearest future but will not cause rejection among residents, and thus, the hostilities caused by the inter-ethnic crisis of the ‘native-foreign’ relations will be overcome.


This study was carried out with funding from the Council for Awards of the President of the Russian Federation for the State support of young Russian scholars and leading scientific schools of the Russian Federation, Project No. MK-3204.2021.2.


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Titova, E. V. (2022). Influence Of Labour Migration In The Labour Market In The Jewish Autonomous Region. In N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), AmurCon 2021: International Scientific Conference, vol 126. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 975-981). European Publisher.