Economic crimes are understood as socially dangerous actions or inaction that threaten the financial security of the country and entail responsibility in accordance with the Criminal Legislation of the Russian Federation for violating the procedures established in accordance with the law for the distribution, consumption and production of goods and services. The fight against this type of crime is one of the main tasks. This type of crime violates the economic integrity of the country, promotes the development of corrupt relations and shadow markets, thereby undermining the economic stability of Russia. The fight against economic crime and ensuring economic security are at the heart of the activities of law enforcement agencies. This is confirmed by the materials of the expanded meeting of the Board of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia held in 2020. According to the data of the meeting under consideration, in 2019, almost 89 thousand crimes in the economic sphere were recorded by the internal affairs bodies in our country, which accounted for 85% of the total number of this category of crimes detected by all law enforcement agencies of the country. Law enforcement and supervisory authorities take measures to protect against crimes against budgetary and extra-budgetary funds, the implementation of national and state plans corruption.
The legality in the field of combating economic crime is under the special control of the Prosecutor of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Coordinating the efforts of law enforcement agencies to combat crime in this area remains a priority (Borenkova, 2015).
“The objectives of the state policy in the field of ensuring economic security are: ensuring economic growth; maintaining the scientific and technical potential of economic development at the world level and increasing its competitiveness (Turekulova, Turgaeva, 2015).
The main directions of state policy in the field of ensuring economic security are: ensuring sustainable growth of the real sector of the economy; creating economic conditions for the development and implementation of modern technologies, stimulating innovative development, as well as improving the regulatory framework in this area; ensuring the safety of economic activity (Fartygina, 2016).
Economic security is one of the most relevant and dynamically developing sections of economic science, which gives a holistic view of the problems, risks and threats that society solves at a given level of socio-economic and technological development. Economic security is one of the most important characteristics of the economy. Ensuring the safe functioning of the economy is a necessary condition for its competitive and sustainable development. Since the economy is the basis of the life of any society, the achievement of economic security becomes one of the priorities in the activities of the state. Economic security is a necessary condition for ensuring the progressive development of the country, strengthening its independence and independence. Crimes in the economic sphere infringe on Russia's strategic interests, undermine the basis of the functioning of the state and pose a real threat to the development of economic, political and social reforms carried out in the country (Konovalenko, 2021).
With regard to the Russian reality, the problem of security acquires special significance also because the formulation of national interests creates the basis for seeking consent in the country, feeds the formation of civil society. The security problem is multifaceted. In modern conditions, economic security contributes to socio-economic development and is an important element of the national security of the state (Kuznetsova, 2021).
The effectiveness of countering economic crimes depends on the developed and implemented in concrete actions of the policy of combating crime. To do this, it is necessary to implement a set of interrelated measures: political, legal, organized, preventive, aimed at directly suppressing the conditions that contribute to the formation and activity of criminal structures. The economic and social validity of such a policy should be carried out within the framework of the law. However, it is quite obvious that it is impossible to successfully resist financial and economic violations by means of criminal prosecution and administrative penalties alone (Gavrilov, 2015). The fight against these violations is a complex legal problem. In order to increase the efficiency of the economic security units for the prevention of economic crimes in the Nizhny Novgorod region, special measures should be taken (Federal Law, the Criminal Code, 2015, Federal Law, the Criminal Code, 2021).
The dynamics of economic crimes in the Nizhny Novgorod region for 2019-2020 by the severity of crimes is reflected in Table 1 (The official website of the State Prosecutor's Office of the Nizhny Novgorod Autonomous Region, 2021).
As follows from table 3, fewer offenses against the person were registered (-5.3%; from 4532 to 4292), mainly due to acts of "double" prevention (-6.3%; from 2374 to 2225). The number of facts of causing moderate harm to health (-9.4%; from 501 to 454), beatings (-41.6%; from 245 to 143), tortures (-18.2%; from 22 to 18), facts of death threats (-3.4%; from 813 to 785) decreased. At the same time, more cases of intentional infliction of minor harm to health were registered (+3.3%; from 673 to 695) and involvement of adolescents in committing crimes and anti-social actions (+21.4%; from 28 to 34).
The majority of all encroachments (58.7%) are crimes of a property nature, namely, their absolute value increased by 0.7% (from 22,739 to 22,888). This dynamics is primarily associated with an increased array of thefts (+52.0%; from 2046: 3109) and fraud (+71.0%; from 2392: 4091) committed using the Internet and mobile communications (Statistics of the Russian economic, 2021; the official website, 2021).
Purpose of the Study
Based on the data in table 04, we can propose a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of the prosecutor's office in the field of economic crimes.
The integral indicator of the effectiveness of the prosecutor's office in the field of economic crimes is proposed to be calculated using the following formula: n
I = ∑ Ваi* хi /Х (1) , i = 1
where I is an integral indicator of the effectiveness of the prosecutor's office in the field of economic crimes;
Ваi – level of significance of an economic crime by the level of severity;
n - number of types of economic crimes;
хi – number of crimes of the i – type;
Х - number of crimes, total.
Table 02 shows the dynamics of economic-oriented acts by the severity of crimes.
The array of acts of economic orientation amounted to 1958 (-1.4%; 2019-1986), including serious and especially serious compositions – 1290 (+4.3%; 2019-1237). The number of investigated cases has increased (+22.4%; from 817 to 1000). 739 persons were brought to criminal responsibility (+18.6%; 2019 – 623).
Another priority area remains the fight against. Table 3 shows the dynamics of crimes in this direction. (The website of the main special Department of economics of economic consumer security and countering exporters of corruption, 2021).
In 2020, according to the year of Kuznetsov's crime, 500 resource crimes were detected against this type (-8.1%; 2019 – 544). Goncharenko has 11.6% more financial resources, the work of heavy and especially heavy police squads has been documented (from 284 search teams to 317).
407 counteraction acts were recorded by organizations against the region of the state executive power, the general interests of the criminal state social service and also the service in the local investigation bodies of the local self-government service (-18.6%; 2019-500) (Turekulova, Turgaeva, 2015). In 2020, 220 new facts of bribery were revealed, which is 14.1% less than last year. The main method of influencing the number of crimes is the investigation of crimes. Police officers revealed 19928 crimes in 2019, in 2020 – 20027 crimes. Total 54.1% of crimes were solved in 2019 and 54.2% in 2020. (Kiseleva, Simonovich, 2016; Yakunina, Krutikov, Posypanova, 2015; Kuznetsova, 2021).
According to table 4, the Prosecutor's Office of the Nizhny Novgorod Region took measures to create security conditions in places of mass residence of the population, which led to a reduction in the number of crimes. The number of crimes decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 by 10.3% (from 14372 to 12888). The number of crimes on the streets decreased by 8.6%. There were fewer thefts in places of mass residence of citizens – by 16.2%, robberies – by 5.4%, brigandage – by 13.2%, fraud – by 13.7% and hooliganism – by 29.3%.
Thus, despite the fact that the dynamics of economic crimes in 2020 decreased in comparison with the data of 2019, the integral indicator of the effectiveness of the prosecutor's office in the field of economic crimes decreased from 0.180 to 0.173 or by 0.007, which indicates a decrease in the effectiveness of the prosecutor's office in the field of economic crimes.
It is possible to apply the proposed method for evaluating the effectiveness of the prosecutor's office for any groups of economic crimes. The method will allow you to evaluate the main directions of crime detection. In addition, the use of the method will directly have a positive impact on the field of economic research and the security of the region's funds (Greshnov, Nekrasova, 2016).
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31 March 2022
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Nagaeva, E. A., Borodin, V. A., Prokhorova, E. S., Ustinkin, S. V., & Galushkina, A. I. (2022). Assessment Of The Effectiveness Of The Prosecutor's Office In Economic Security. In I. Savchenko (Ed.), Freedom and Responsibility in Pivotal Times, vol 125. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 506-511). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.03.61