An Overview on Strategic Communication to Handle Pandemic: Health Communication Crisis Covid-19


Health communication research has experienced a rapid growth in recent years worldwide. Health communication is able to facilitate the way of uncertainty and fear with truthful and well-developed strategies in promoting and coming across people’s anxiety and raise courage in facing the crisis situation. Communication is a significant element especially providing effective response between governments, health care professionals, scientists, the media, as well as the public during this COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Truthful and strong health communication can enable how people handle insecurity and fear, encourage and undertake faithfulness to essential behaviour change, and meet persons’ fear and nurture anticipation in the face of a crisis. As coronavirus massively spread on a global scale, there are countries and public that are not aware on the reliable information about the pandemic. Ineffective communication has caused high rates of infection, health threat, suffering and deaths. In this pandemic situation, there are some critical challenges faced by the governments due to ineffective communication with the public. This article reviews the role of strategic communication in responding and reacting to the pandemic.

Keywords: Health, communication, pandemic, strategic, crisis, communication


The World Health Organization (WHO) is still managing and planning on strategies to react to the coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic since this virus (COVID-19) was declared on 30 January 2020. Countries over all around the world are requesting their residents to follow various rules and order for example “Lockdown” during this COVID-19 pandemic through execution of activities from the obligation to wear face masks and staying away from each other, isolates (isolation) and terminations of instructive organizations (Jong, 2021). The researcher expressed that during this COVID-19 pandemic, emergency communication can be connecting with general wellbeing inclusion to refresh and control people in general on fundamental cycles to lessen the impact of coronavirus. Another study showed that COVID-19 is the third significant episode of COVID-19, trailed by China's SARS-related Covid (SARS-CoV) which arose in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) starting in 2012 (Zhang et al., 2020). Throughout the year 2020, COVID-19 pandemic has been a worrying issue, globally. Number of studies in health care field in the past one year was largely about the pandemic. Furthermore, studies showed that infection began to spread on February 19, 2020 and had grown to a rate leading to 1,158,384 affirmed cases and 53,625 death cases in December 2020 (Heydari et al., 2021).

Health communication is well-defined as the practice of communication to encourage healthy behaviours that keep nations and public from illnesses and contaminations (Bulunmaz, 2019). Health communication aims to facilitate and support public by providing essential health information and associate behaviour change and reducing health discrepancies (Freimuth & Quinn, 2004). Literature specified health communication as a central social process in reacting to overwhelming pandemics, which mandate appropriate, precise, and ethnically thoughtful communication that importantly updates organized and operative reactions (Kreps, 2021). Health communication also is perceived as essential and crucial elements in saving lives during crisis, especially the current pandemic COVID-19. Health communication is able to facilitate the way of uncertainty and fear with truthful and well-developed strategies in promoting and coming across people’s anxiety and raise courage in facing the crisis situation. The author perceived that health communication professionals are responsible in educating public and changing health behaviour, disseminating brief and effective information in diverse healthcare contexts especially during COVID-19 pandemic.

Global COVID-19 Epidemic Condition

As for now, the world is confronting an unsafe communicable infection influenced by serious intense respiratory condition SARS-CoV-2 named as COVID-19. Literature pointed Thailand was accounted for the first COVID-19 case on January 13, 2020, two days after China announced its first demise on January 11, 2020 (WHO, 2020). In the United States, the principal case was accounted for through an individual who returned from Wuhan on January 20, 2020 (Sauber-Schatz, 2020). The US government marked nCoV as a Public Health Emergency, on January 31, 2020 after WHO announced Global Public Health Emergency as a flare-up (Sohrabi et al., 2020; World Health Organization [WHO], 2020; Worldometer, 2020). Simultaneously, it was pronounced in Sweden and Spain on January 31, 2020while Russia and the United Kingdom revealed their two initial cases independently in a steady progression (Department of Health and Social Care, 2020; Sofiychuk, 2020; Worldometer, 2020). SARS-CoV at least 2 generally COVID-19 kept spreading around the world.

Enormously, advanced media worldwide through sites started to transfer and broadcast the most recent reports on the expanding number of cases. There were five additional nations driving in surpassing records of cases after China from where the infection started and factors due to the populace and size of the individual nations. Clearly, every country’s specialist would have their own methodology and capacities in overseeing disease cases depending on all the passing out and recuperated cases. Study has shown that individuals with an undermined resistant framework, for example, the older individuals and individuals with health background are more defenceless against COVID-19 (Carlos et al., 2020; Lu et al., 2020b; Xia et al., 2020). Furthermore, this lethal infection stays alive longer and spreads forcefully and faster in a cool environment and subsequently, higher populace nations with elderly individuals and those with cold airs have revealed progressed instances of death cases and lesser quantities of recuperations.

COVID-19 Epidemic in Malaysia

In the beginning, the danger of COVID-19 in Malaysia, turned out to be progressive when its neighbour country Singapore revealed its previously imported COVID-19 case from Wuhan, China on January 23, 2020 (Abdullah, 2020a). It was the previously announced positive case in Singapore and from this first case, around eight close contacts were recognized as being in Johor, Malaysia (Abdullah, 2020b). Not long after the main case was revealed in Singapore on January 25, 2020, Malaysia detailed its first certain instance of COVID - 19 within 48 hours. Study showed that it was an imported case from Wuhan, China (Abdullah, 2020c). Within six days, eight positive cases were accounted for and they were imported cases from China (Abdullah, 2020d). On February 3, 2020, a Malaysian was tested positive for COVID-19 and this individual had a travelling record to an adjoining for a professional meeting in China (Ahmad, 2020). The primary wave was adequately constrained by February 27, 2020 with 22 announced cases were released from clinic (Abdullah, 2020e). Researcher additionally pointed out that announced cases in the principal wave were from China and their nearby contacts; only two cases came about due to neighbourhood transmission (Abdullah, 2020f). A sudden acceleration in certain cases were accounted for on March 4, 2020, and these new cases begun from contacts who had joined five different congregations or social occasions. The expansion of cases trailed from the cases which involved movement to Shanghai, China (Abdullah, 2020g).

On March 11, 2020, the condition turned out to be more awful after the International Health Regulations (IHR) Brunei educated Malaysia that one certain case was found in Brunei. From February 27 to March 1, 2020 there was a strict get together held in Seri Petaling Mosque, Selangor involving more than 10,000 members whereby half of them were from Malaysia (Abdullah, 2020h). Subsequently, the COVID-19 new cases rapidly increased to more than 100 cases per day with more and more cases either with background of joining in the get together in Seri Petaling or classified as a close contact. (Abdullah, 2020i). On March 9, 2020, new group set apart as greater danger of COVID-19 in Malaysia further number or basic cases in the emergency unit expanding every day, with the initial two basic cases being accounted for (Abdullah, 2020j). On the 17th March 2020, two passing cases due to COVID-19 were affirmed and revealed. The two patients who died are a 63-year-old man from Kuching, Sarawak, who had a background of persistent infection; and a 34-year-old person from Johor Bahru, Johor, who attended the strict get together in Sri Petaling, Kuala Lumpur (Ang, 2020). On 16 March 2020, the Prime Minister of Malaysia declared Movement Control Order (MCO) due to the high number of COVID-19 cases which surpassed 553 cases. The public authority limited individuals from travelling to different states or COVID-19 influenced regions just as to keep a friendly distance for 14 days from 18 to 31st March, 2020 to diminish the expedient spread of COVID-19 (Bunyan, 2020a; Jun, 2020; Sukumaran, 2020). By March 31, 2020, around 2766 positive cases, 537 recovered cases and 43 deaths were revealed. Simultaneously, 2186 dynamic cases were given treatment in medical clinics (Abdullah, 2020i).

The development control request permitted just one individual from a family to go out to shop for essential items. The MCO was extended for another 14 days from 14 April 2020 due to the continuous increase in the number of COVID-19 positive cases (Bunyan, 2020b; Tee, 2020). An alternate report recognized the fight against COVID-19 was yet to finish as the Malaysian government's response to the pestilence was epic. The public authority executed various operational emergency plans in the nation to show the criticality to diminish new cases and a higher level of recuperations cases. Besides that, on 20 April 2020 (34th day of the MCO), the nation revealed there was no COVID-19 related death and the nation announced the least daily increment of new cases (Umair et al., 2021). The Star announced, that Malaysia was one of the countries which responded promptly to COVID-19 pandemic. Malaysia likewise, was a model for nations that have unreliable lines, critical portable and uncovered populaces, and bigger families in more profound everyday environments. An investigation by Singapore research office expressed that Malaysia ranked fourth for government's endeavours in managing the COVID-19 episode (Tang, 2020).

The Malaysian government took a proper lockdown measure as conquering difficulties by discovering bunches in affirmed cases and claimed territories, and cases ought to be rigorously noticed. Study has showed the public authority ought to teach individuals suitable about the meaning of lockdown and the essential cycles to be set up during this time (Liu et al., 2020). Malaysians are adjusting to new guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to stop extra rush of diseases in the nation just as to gain ground in economical area. Notwithstanding a huge number of Ringgits misfortune during MCO and restrictive MCO needed to be executed, whereby the specific economy areas have been allowed to operate its business with necessary principles; nonetheless, travelling on the highway and to abroad was not allowed. Locations which were classified as red zone were rigorously investigated. In line with this situation, online teaching and learning has been introduced by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. There were limitations on legislative meetings, gatherings, diversion centers, film shootings, social exercises, games, unwinding clubs, amusement parks and weddings. The SOPs announced by Majlis Keselamatan Negara (MKN) occasionally had been battling with difficulty to endure this pandemic and to rebuild the nation's economy. Notwithstanding, Malaysia's medical services response legitimizes credit for restricting the spread of the infection and limiting death cases.

Strategic Communication and Pandemic

As a rule, communication approaches arranged ahead of time to manage likely circumstances detail purposes, key messages, target crowds, apparatus or channels and activity procedures. Communication methodologies are known as key component to execute all plans practically, and these methodologies are developed on known rules for powerful emergency communication (Reynolds et al., 2002; World Health Organization [WHO], 2005). Communication scholar acknowledged risk communication is repeatedly well-defined in ways related to the process of exchanging information among interested parties about the environment, degree, importance, or control of a risk to the meaning of passing on trustworthy data which needs the public to know and as such that they need to get it and the need of directing mass research (Covello & Peters, 2002). Interchanges researchers conceded to the meaning of passing on dependable data which needs the public to know and as such that they need to get it and the need of directing crowd research (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2005; Sandman & Lanard, 2004; Vanderford, 2004; WHO, 2004). Communication with people in general, companions, inside the wellbeing framework, schools, and various others during a general wellbeing crisis is basic to control any emergency. An adaptable communication technique must be adjusted in a proactive way to deal and handle all friendly, social and monetary moves identified with the pandemic (Ratzan et al., 2020). Systems in heath communication act to course data that impacts individual wellbeing practices and decisions to be more dedicated to appropriate wellbeing methods (Basch et al., 2020; Gaasterland, et al., 2019).

In the mid-2004, WHO started to build proof based, field-tried communication direction that would advance the general wellbeing objective of fast flare-up control with the most un-conceivable disturbance to society (World Health Organization, 2005). There are quantities of systems, qualities and methods of compelling danger communication techniques and strategies. Researchers expressed concern about crowd contribution, specialized instruments, hazard appraisal strategies and assessing dynamic interaction. (World Health Organization, 2004). Additionally, crisis communication procedures are emphatically connected with danger sense, perspectives and conduct change (Reynolds & Seeger, 2005). Consolidating of public's contribution into communications plans would be wise to expand the proficiency of the messages and, ideally rise acknowledgment of suggested control, avoidance, and treatment proposals given by wellbeing authorities. Comparative investigation showed that coordinating the public's inclinations for getting the data into communication plans is particularly basic as new advancements play an always developing job in interchanges (Krewski et al., 2006).

Lockdown during COVID-19 has put nations worldwide and their residents under different types of rules and regulations in order to measures from the impulse to wear face masks and keep a safe distance from each other, to isolation and school terminations. Overall, emergency communication methodologies are utilized as a general wellbeing association to refresh and train people in general on fundamental activities to lessen the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, as COVID-19 develops everywhere in the world, communication endeavours are additionally required regarding residents' adaptability, public administration and in speaking with partners whose organizations are shut or experiencing lockdown circumstances. Albeit the COVID-19 immunization is currently progressing as a pivotal advance concerning to end the pandemic be that as it may, there are nations not prepared to contact individuals’ insusceptibility. A consistent general wellbeing informing about the significance of social separating and other COVID-19 alleviation measures is critical to controlling the spread of the infection and forestalling carelessness.

A superior communication system may have to impact human conduct one that includes hurt decrease and a feeling of compassion. Interchanges during emergency alerts that while dread can be rousing as it tends to be insufferable and said sensations of frailty can diminish individuals incapable to make moves that could profit themselves. Forestalling the brief ascent in COVID-19 cases and passing will require joint activity, what begins by convincing country to receive careful basic cycles, for example, staying away from get-togethers, washing hands frequently, opening windows, and wearing a face mask can have a genuine effect. Wardman (2020) highlighted the viability of government guidelines which cover necessities and forbiddances on social affairs, which can be confounded to execute rely upon people's adherence and clarifying communication about danger of disease is significant. The significant focus on communication during the pandemic ought to be to illuminate individuals' choices as opposed to trigger discovering approach to fault on people groups' conduct. This training may prompt emergency in general wellbeing which will influence all partners, including patients and their families, representatives, financial backers, clients, accomplices and controllers.

All around, the COVID-19 pandemic has furnished and proceed with immense difficulties to general wellbeing framework. One of the significant objectives of general wellbeing communication is to support hazard decrease practices through successful general wellbeing data. Wanting to convey powerful medical care messages to support hazard decrease practices is at the head of general wellbeing communication. In this situation, speaking with the public productively about COVID-19, should likewise comprehend from where individuals get the COVID-19 data, what is the reason, the cycle to look and interface with such dependable data. Studies tended to these issues are inquisitively during the beginning phases of the pandemic when there was a lot of uncertainty about the infection (Nan & Thompson, 2020, 2021).

Problem Statement

The COVID-19 health crisis has stood an extraordinary challenge worldwide in managing and communicate about the pandemic efficiently. The understanding and practice of public health crisis communication are enhanced through the previous study of responses to past crises, but require restructuring for the current challenges facing. Strategic communication is a key component of public health interventions during an outbreak. As the coronavirus pandemic unfolded in late 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was at the forefront in the development of strategies communication elements in order to handling COVID-19 pandemic.

Research Questions

In the context of facing pandemic, what are the communication strategic elements used by the authorities especially Malaysian Government in managing COVID-19 and how information on COVID-19 delivering to public.

Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is to review the communication strategic elements used by the authorities especially Malaysian Government in managing COVID-19 and how information on COVID-19 delivering to public.

Research Methods

This review article was applied Content analysis method by analyse media statements which retrieved from online articles, online newspapers such as Berita Harian and The Star. The statements online media collected ever since beginning of the pandemic COVID-19. The media statements were analysed according to Malaysian Government strategies employed in communications related to COVID-19 crisis.


Strategies by Malaysian Government in managing COVID-19

Obviously, the management of diseases classified as pandemics by WHO can vary from country to country and requires specific strategies that can lead to effective management of the disease or create challenges (Rassouli et al., 2020). Malaysian citizens are vigilant and aware on the hazard from the virus and its infection. On January 25, 2020, Malaysia showed no objective of forbidding wayfarers from China, notwithstanding the way that China had adequately disconnected the entire people of 11 million in Wuhan due to the damaging disease (The Star, 2020). Malaysians were similarly not firmly prepared to fight the pandemic, generally taking into account the political crisis that was going on all the while and besides because they were ensured that the disease would not spread successfully in Malaysia. In any case, with the amount of positive COVID-19 cases in Malaysia extending in less than seven days from 99 cases on March 8 to 200 cases, with an underlying 2 death cases declared in mid-March, Malaysians began to freeze (Majid, 2020). In this manner, the public position discovered various approaches to alleviate the mass craze and secure the strength of Malaysian inhabitants. The Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysia expected a fundamental part in ensuring most noteworthy arrangement to contain the spread of the disease. Among the soonest attempts taken by MOH to hinder disease transmission was the prerequisite of prosperity screening at all signs of entry.

The COVID 19 pandemic is a complex issue that presents a variety of decentralized challenges. Research shows that leadership needs to adopt a variety of strategic mechanisms and processes to improve substantive understanding and decision-making, support collective resilience, and build adaptability as the crisis continues (Wardman, 2020). It is likewise the expectation that public of administration insights, extremely public policymakers, media, specialists, public oversight establishments and common society gatherings can utilize this direction. These entertainers need a scope of administration information to discuss and shape both the prompt reaction to COVID-19 and medium-term recuperation techniques. Those needing to take part in policymaking regarding the COVID-19 reaction in their nation can utilize this Guidance Note to request more administration insights and to consider the public authority answerable on its reaction plan and recuperation methodology, when numerous ordinary oversight and responsibility measures have been seriously upset. It ought to be noticed that the estimation direction assembled in these briefs is relevant not exclusively to the current COVID-19 pandemic, yet in addition to other multidimensional emergencies that may emerge later on, and that will require a likewise hearty administration reaction.

As shown by the Director-General of MOH, Datuk Dr. Noor Hisham Abdullah, one of the strategies was the crisis plan of warm scanners (Bernama, 2020). This was never truly improving the disclosure of fever among explorers just as neighbourhood individuals returning from abroad. Malaysians who returned from Wuhan were screened, perceived, and detached in outstanding disconnect districts for COVID-19. This activity included transporter groups similarly as the staff of MOH (Kaos, 2020). The subsequent key development taken by the MOH close by the public position to overcome the spread of COVID-19 was to increase the facilities that could treat COVID-19 cases. There was similarly an aggregate undertaking among public and private centres to oblige the creating amounts of cases of tainting, including school facilities and Ministry of Defence centres (The Edge Markets, 2020). To update the MOH tries in checking the spread and mortality, Movement Control Order (MCO) was implemented on March 18, 2020. The MCO related to the constraint of improvement of people into or out of a space.

The Director-General of MOH highlighted that the solicitation executed went under the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 and the Police Act 1967 and would help with controlling the spread of the contamination (Bernama, 2020). This movement was basic, as the situation in China had shown that by isolating the corrupted assembling of individuals and practicing social isolation, the pandemic could be contained (WHO, 2020). Likewise, a plot including 38 master clinical social orders was set up on March 1, 2020 to help the MOH in the space of clinical consideration (Malaysian Health Coalition, 2020). The point of this collusion was to keep the neighbourhood much taught and to ensure that information made available was legitimate and exact. Another activity taken by MOH to mitigate impact of COVID-19 was setting up of a remarkable resource known as COVID-19 fund, to gather pledges to be coordinated to patients, particularly those affected fiscally as a result of the detach framework. This resource from the outset received RM 1 million from public position and private regions. NGOs and individuals were welcomed and requested to facilitate their responsibilities.

Additionally, the money assembled was used for the clinical costs such as buying fundamental equipment and various supplies. To also invigorate responsibilities, the Inland Revenue Board (IRB) requested cash charge determinations for cash and in-kind endowments to help the affected organizations in get-together their principal prerequisites and help manufacture their adaptability (The Star, 2020). The sponsors assembled were used by MOH to restock clinical supplies similarly as fundamental clinical benefits to control COVID-19 (Landau, 2020). MOH in its work to manage COVID-19 set up a brief. The low-risk COVID-19 quarantine and treatment centre in the Agro Exposition Park Serdang (MAEPS) in coordination with The National Disaster Management Agency. This makeshift crisis centre, which was from the outset Malaysia's greatest meeting corridor, is outfitted with PCs, TVs, Wi-Fi affiliation, a parlour domain, and some other central workplaces for use by patients and clinical staff. This quarantine centre equipped with 604 beds is used as a local treatment area for low-risk COVID-19 patients.

Additionally, as a segment of the MOH movement plan, public hallways and indoor fields will be utilized if the number of cases hit 1,000 consistently. 3,000 surrendered retired clinical guardians will return as volunteers to fight COVID-19 along with the country’s front liners (Ang, 2020). Besides that, to further reduce transmission of the disorder, the MOH requested the individuals who attended the tabligh gathering at Seri Petaling mosque to come forward to be tested or screened. The MOH has been taking intense measures by eagerly working with the police force to discover likely carriers of the disease, recognizing them, doing testing, and undergo 14-day self-quarantine (Bernama, 2020). These undertakings can be seen through the collaboration of the MOH with certain sharing of clinical consideration expert communities that offer swab testing and the combination of tests from individuals and associations inside their premises, similarly as drive-through test objections (Landau, 2020).

According to Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, RM 500 million would be utilized to buy ventilators and individual cautious equipment (PPE) and another RM 100 million would be used for clinical guardians on an arrangement premise (Yusof, 2020). On 27th March 2020, while announcing the RM250 billion PRIHATIN Package to help smaller than expected, close to nothing, and medium-sized endeavours endeavouring to hold their agents, the Prime Minister announced an extra monetary arrangement of RM1billion to provide food for clinical necessities, for instance, obtaining of equipment and organizations to beat COVID-19. The Ministry similarly received support from the assurance regions, both normal and Islamic insurance, whereby a RM 8 million resource was set up to build COVID-19 testing. Each policy holder could go for a screening test worth up to RM300 in private centres and labs. Other than that, holders with money related issues were approached and aggravation to their compensation due to the MCO and Covid erupt were given a 3-month suspension on their procedure portions. The public authority moreover showed its appreciation to clinical consideration agents by extending their monthly settlement from RM400 to RM600 every month beginning April 1, 2020 to be continued until the plague closes (Bhaskar et al., 2020). In addition, the MOH engineered distinctive disinfection activities to be coordinated by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, close by trained professionals, and the DBKL (Kuala Lumpur City Council). This technique has been coordinated prevalently in high-peril districts (Bernama, 2020).

The MOH has also attempted to be direct in dealing with the pandemic by giving satisfactory and ground breaking information to everyone through three online platforms, i.e. the Official Portal of the MOH, creating a Facebook accounts of Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre (CRPC), Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM), and CRPC KKM Telegram (Shah, et al., 2020). The Ministry has given care programs on major cautious and tidiness measures to restrict transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in fundamental framework construction to show up at people in general with no issue. This consolidates hand-washing methodologies and the usage of hand sanitizers and face covers. In addition, diverse infographics related to COVID-19 have been frequently masterminded and moved onto the site. The MOH has moreover coordinated daily press briefings, meeting accounts, and has disseminated material news on COVID-19 to extend public responsibility and assurance public care and induction to correct information.

Public Awareness About COVID-19

At these circumstances, any convincing treatment and with the clearly perceived strategy for transmission, cognizance of major information of the contamination is the most mind blowing resource that individuals can have against the disease. This study reported on the epidemiology, symptoms, and treatment of patients infected with the new coronavirus 2019 (2019nCoV) in Wuhan, China as it believed the transmission of virus through the eyes is overlooked (Lu et al., 2020a). Being instructed about the reasons for COVID-19 and the way in which it spreads is the ideal techniques for avoiding it and lessening transmission rates (CDC, 2020). The essential admonishment from the WHO to thwart the spread of COVID-19 is that people should remain at home, ensure social eliminating measures are being taken, wash their hands regularly with cleaning agent and water and a significant part of the time clean articles and surfaces that are tended to a typical reason (WHO, 2020); thus, practical care getting ready in workplaces will be principal in the fight to stop the spread of the ailment. COVID-19 website was made, which records all powerful and recovered cases in every city reliably and online media used to send messages and raise levels of public experience with COVID-19.

As for general care of COVID-19 around there, basically every part, whether or not a clinical benefit capable or a person from the general populace, considered the infection and the viral expert that causes it (Mabrouk et al., 2021). This is unsurprising with the way various media affiliations, in view of the pandemic status of the COVID-19, have frequently disseminated additional information to create general public awareness (WHO, 2020). The most elevated level of mindfulness appeared in their insight of the wellspring of data and indications of COVID-19. Nonetheless, there was mindfulness shortages in the example bunch with regards to the entanglements of COVID-19 and the instruments of transmission. Other than China, an investigation from Saudi Arabia showed that individuals had a high consciousness of transmission courses and clinical manifestations of MERS-CoV, however a low attention to its hatching period (Almutairi et al., 2015). Youthful grown-ups showed up as being more dynamic as far as information was concerned. To improve the attention to self-security among everyone, the National Health Commission had delivered six forms of the new coronavirus pneumonia anticipation and distributed rules for public, suggesting limiting trips, wearing face mask, and keeping hands clean (Han et al., 2020).

Effective Responses to Pandemic

In the midst of emergency, for example, the current COVID-19 pandemic and its monetary and social repercussions, public administration matter like never before. Administration game plans have assumed a basic part in nations nearby reactions, and will keep on being essential both to the recuperation and to structure additional usual scenario when the emergency has passed. It is additionally an administration emergency. Governments face overwhelming duties as they configure, carry out and authorize new measures to forestall the spread of the illness. On the off chance that all around adjusted, these actions can reaffirm an administration's obligation to the standards of equity, responsibility and support as spread out in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16 – even in the midst of emergency (Sachs et al. 2020). Coronavirus reactions that are moulded by these standards additionally bring about better results in beating the pandemic they help moderate the possible effects of the emergency on individuals' lives, and abstain from making new or compounding existing issues, like food weakness or abusive behaviours at home.

Above all else, this direction expects to help NGOs and other administration information makers in gathering the administration data needs well on the way to emerge during this pandemic or comparable emergencies, while remembering the operational and monetary imperatives put on conventional field-based tasks. It is additionally expectation that clients of administration insights, eminently public policymakers, media, specialists, public oversight organizations and common society gatherings can utilize this direction. These entertainers need a scope of administration information to discuss and shape both the prompt reaction to COVID-19 and medium-term recuperation procedures. Those needing to take part in policymaking around the COVID-19 reaction in their nation can utilize this Guidance Note to request for more administration insights and to consider the public authority answerable on its reaction plan and recuperation system, when numerous typical oversight and responsibility measures have been seriously disturbed. It ought to be noticed that the estimation direction incorporated in these briefs is appropriate not exclusively to the current COVID-19 pandemic, but also to other multidimensional emergencies that may emerge later on, and that will require a comparably vigorous administration reaction.

The spread of pandemic data and individual security information assumes a significant part in forestalling and controlling the episode. Close by of COVID-19 pandemic, it has been challenged of "Infodemic" or "false information" about COVID-19. At the end of the day, bogus data is quickly flowing via online media, and countering counterfeit news is probably going to proceed as long as the COVID is spreading. These ideas, just as every day flare-up data, are sent to general society through TV, cell phones, the web, and different methods. Individuals have talked about the outbreak and communicated their perspectives in "media" period during the spread of the pandemic. Since quick spread of the outbreak and the control exercises, some groups created tension and fear (Albott et al., 2020). Direction on crisis mental emergency intercession was distributed for patients, clinical experts, and the overall population to forestall the mental harm brought about by the episode and advance social dependability. Subsequently, the WHO is working with web-based media, for example, Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, and TikTok to distribute the confirmed news about COVID-19 (Chukwuyere et al., 2020). Understanding the public information, practice of counteraction, and mental status can improve adequacy of wellbeing hazard interchanges, and investigating their segment contrasts can help stay away from inconsistent assurance across society.


Crisis risk communication is a basic part in crisis arranging and reaction. It has been perceived as huge for getting ready for and reacting to general wellbeing crises. Right and convenient communication at all levels can save lives in general wellbeing crises, and recognizing the empowering influences and obstructions can influence lives of staff and administration clients (Escuyer et al., 2019). While powerful crisis communication isn't a panacea for the difficulties presented by any crisis general wellbeing dangers, it is vital to assist individuals with keeping up certainty and provide them with the important information and disposition to adapt to the circumstances. While standard updates were reasonable and significant, exact, brief, opportune, as well as clear and supportive, there was a need to consider fragmenting populace inside the medical clinic and tending to them depending on their sociodemographic attributes, for example, jobs. Specifically, it will be imperative to draw in the specialists, younger staff and non-married staff to create more grounded organizations with them to advance activity in battling COVID-19. Utilization of secure content informing in communication to give ongoing updates might be more helpful than messages. Communicating more compassion and care for staff and supporting nearby pioneers to convey and make an interpretation of updates to noteworthy plans would be relevant. As the COVID-19 circumstance advances, there is a need to persistently assess the crisis hazard communication. Medical services frameworks and clinics should be touchy to the elements that may empower or go about as boundary to compelling emergency and crisis hazard communication to lessen and limiting coronavirus.


A sincere thanks to my Co-Author Late Mr Kamalakannan Kunachagaran for his assistance throughout writing this article by providing useful points during discussion as well as funded this conference.


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Communication, Media, Disruptive Era, Digital Era, Media Technology 

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Govindaraju, V., & Kunachagaran, K. (2022). An Overview on Strategic Communication to Handle Pandemic: Health Communication Crisis Covid-19. In J. A. Wahab, H. Mustafa, & N. Ismail (Eds.), Rethinking Communication and Media Studies in the Disruptive Era, vol 123. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 430-444). European Publisher.