Sufism In Spiritual Culture Of The Peoples Of The North Caucasus


Sufism in the North Caucasus has a long, contradictory history, which is associated with the spread and establishment of Islam. It formed new social relations, an appropriate type of worldview that differs from the pagan values prevailing in the region, which were predominant for many centuries. Only the establishment of Islam in culture of the peoples of Dagestan and Chechnya formed a new way of life and mental characteristics. In contrast to pagan, syncretic elements inherent in the worldview of the peoples of the region, Islam gave their worldview a more orderly, systemic, holistic character. Islam forms spiritual, cultural, moral and humanistic values that correspond to provisions of the Koran, aiming believers at a qualitatively different solution to everyday, spiritual and social problems. Sufi values among the peoples of Dagestan, and later the peoples of Chechnya, are formed episodically, starting from the 11th century. It was associated with the city of Derbent, which was considered a city of Sufis. However, such Sufi tariqas such as Naqshbandiyya and Qadiriyya arose in Dagestan and Chechnya at the beginning and then at the end of the Caucasian War. These tariqas were associated with the activity of Shamil's movement, its fading, and appearance of Kunta-Khadzhi Kishiev, who opposed the ghazavat, for ending the war of the mountaineers with tsarism. The militant Naqshbandiyyatariqat, which received the name of Muridism, adhered to by Shamil himself and his closest supporters, is giving way to the Qadiriyyatariqat, which was considered a peaceful, anti-war doctrine, preached by Kunta-Haji.

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