Urgent Issues Of Bilingual Training In The Context Of Global Education


Nowadays globalization process covering many spheres of human activities is one of the key directions of the society development at its present stage, that has a great impact on educational systems among which institutions of higher education play a prominent part. Trying to meet modern realities domestic universities set a foreground aim to train professionals of a new format who possess special competences allowing them to be really competitive and demanded on the world market. Integration processes make obvious the fact that successful professional and personal fulfillment of domestic university graduates in a foreign society is mainly stipulated by their fluent foreign language. That’s why an educational paradigm of a modern higher education institution of Russia is directed to creating specific training system that ensures not only the development of a foreign language competence but also fosters the synthesis of peculiar cultural cognitive styles, social behaviour and communication codes while preserving a personality’s unique identity. This task is successfully solved by means of bilingual training designed to make a strong technological and methodological basis for internationalization and unification of knowledge in two-level training of a future professional. In modern conditions more and more domestic universities are implementing training on a two-language basis into their educational process, the results of which are shown on the example of the bilingual students doing their Bachelor’s degree in Economics at North-Caucasus Federal University.

Keywords: Academic mobility, bilingual training, competitiveness, curriculum


Reflecting on the essence of significant socio-economic processes at the turn of the 21st century, academician Sakharov noted that convergence is the only way to save humanity. This statement by a major thinker and intellectual gives reason to believe that the modern vision of the further development of national educational systems should go beyond the usual notions of the correlation of such concepts as "tradition" and "innovation", "conservatism" and "creativity", "individual" and "common".

The point is that in the global understanding of the essence of scientific knowledge the idea of the need for a qualitative breakthrough in the educational policy of large and small regional formations, as well as the transition from "discreteness" in approaches to the cognition of objective reality to convergence and rapprochement is becoming truly relevant.

In the opinion of the majority of researchers, a new methodological key to understanding the social and educational vector of the development of modern educational processes is global education, which is the most important fundamental value not only of European but also of the world culture as a whole (Sakharov, 1982).

It should be noted that the idea of global education, which began to take shape back in the early 1960s, in 1970 served as the basis for the creation of the non-governmental organization “The American Forum for Global Education”, which initiated the movement for Global Education both in the USA and on the international arena as a whole. From the Forum members’ point of view, global education is not just a collection of many national educational spaces and systems; it is a special "megasystem" in which the goals of national and world education policy are set and realized, and specific relations between states and their educational systems function with the aim of continuous expansion of personality development opportunities.

It is no exaggeration to say that global education is in the focus of close attention of Russian and foreign researchers engaged in the development of modern educational methods and techniques. For example, Robert Hanvey ( 1982) proposed the following main dimensions of global education:

  • consciousness of the world dissimilarity;
  • state of the planet' awareness;
  • cross-cultural awareness;
  • knowledge of global dynamics;
  • awareness of human choices.

In other words, the postulates put forward by Robert Hanvey (1982) focus the person of the new global generation on the establishment of conscious harmonious relations with the world in all its manifestations and the activity for their preservation, namely, on the following:

  • rejection of the modernist meta-narrations and of the desire to impose common models of development;
  • knowledge of the state of nature, its processes, changes and the place of man in it;
  • unbiased attitude to different cultures and focus on the dialogue;
  • understanding of the main processes taking place in the world;
  • ability to make a deliberate decision and bear responsibility for it.

In addition to the provisions of Hanvey (1982), described above, Botkin emphasizes that a special significance in the process of such communication with the world belongs to conscious anticipation, i.e. the requirement of foresight and prediction of events and their consequences in making responsible decisions by each person, as well as personal participation (focus on active cooperation, dialogue and interaction).

Thus, the priority task of global education is the formation of a view of the world as a single whole, where everyone's well-being depends on the well-being of the others. Consequently, the goal of such education is to overcome such important contemporary problems as the division of the world into warring societies, the discord between man and nature, the separation of the concepts of mind and soul (Markov, 2003).

The globalization of education at the stage of training of future professionals presupposes the need for training in various countries, expanding the potential choice of the set of disciplines and the teaching staff. In these conditions, particularly urgent is the development of a valid universal system of credits, which creates the basis for the accumulation of mastered disciplines and the recognition of the results of their study by various international educational institutions (Brazhnik, 2001). Numerous academic mobility programs (Erasmus +, Eranet, Marie Curie, Fulbright, Youth, Citizenship, Gruntdvig, DAAD, etc.) provide students and teaching staff with great opportunities for training, internships and experience exchange in foreign universities. Along with academic growth, participation in such programs ensures the personal development of future professionals, as it forms the ability to choose ways of interacting with the surrounding world, develops the ability to think in comparative terms and change self-perception, enriching one’s linguistic and socio-cultural experience, and improving general and professional competences, which allows students to become truly competitive on the world labor market (Erasmus + 2019; EU program for education, training, sport and youth).

In other words, the globalization of education contributes not only to strengthening the individual positions of the future professional and provides opportunities for all-round development, while broadening the choice of conditions and places of application of one’s creative forces, but also allows to concentrate human capital of high quality and stimulate competition between countries in the struggle for carriers of intellectual resources.

Problem Statement

The need of a modern society for a professional of a new format stipulates an active transition of domestic universities to bilingual training which gives future graduates not only a wide access to knowledge in different subject fields and the way of getting new information according to their requirements but also enlarges the possibilities to realize their professional and personal potential in a foreign environment. To a large extent the effectiveness of this training depends on an appropriately-built two-language curriculum and creating specific conditions for educating a specialist competitive on the world market. At present many Russian universities face difficulties in successful implementing bilingual training into their academic process as there is some lack of didactic and methodological foundations in this area. So, the problem of training students on a bilingual basis requires a more thorough analysis and further development.

Research Questions

The study of bilingual training in the context of global education covers the following questions:

3.1. analyzing the significance of bilingual training in the context of global higher education;

3.2. determining the possibilities of bilingual training in educating a competitive professional.

3.3. presenting the results of implementing a developed didactic and methodological approach to teaching a foreign language (English) to bilingual students on the example of a modern domestic university.

Purpose of the Study

The article is aimed at analysis of global education in its development dynamics, as well as at identifying the opportunities of bilingual training in educating a competitive professional. The purpose of the article is to reveal the essential characteristics of bilingual training and to revise the didactic and methodological foundations for creating effective bilingual curricula.

Research Methods

In the study of this problem, the competence approach was chosen as the leading one, which makes it possible to reveal the degree of formation of key competences as a result of education in the aggregate of its value-motivational, cognitive and activity-behavioral components. Due to the application of this approach it was revealed that bilingual students possess a higher level of formation of foreign language communication and professional competences and have a deeper knowledge of intercultural communication, compared to the students trained on the regular curricula. In addition, bilingual students successfully participate in academic mobility programs, as well as in joint international projects in the field of education.


At the present stage of the development of society, both in Russian and foreign science, the study of the problem of bilingual training is becoming increasingly relevant in connection with the need to revise the educational needs of the world community and develop effective ways to meet them. In the context of globalization, intercultural interaction is rapidly expanding and a single scientific and economic space is being formed, which necessitates the accumulation and practical application of world best practices in the educating of professional personnel on a bilingual basis.

The multidimensional issues of bilingual training are the subject of close attention of researchers around the world. In particular, such researchers as Baur, Wenderot, Bausch, Butzkamm, Christ, Baker (2006), Skutnab-Kangas, et al. have been engaged in the development of the conceptual foundations of bilingual education models in a modern foreign school. Among Russian scientists, this problem was reflected in the works of Brazhnik (2001), Plieva, Sorochkina, et al. The studies of Bobrova, Galkovskaya, Svetenko, Smirnova and others are devoted to the analysis of the foreign experience of bilingual education and the possibility of its adaptation in Russia taking into account the socio-cultural conditions.

It should be emphasized that most of the research in this area is devoted to bilingual education in primary and secondary school. However, in the context of globalization, there is a growing trend towards bilingual training at the tertiary level, that is, in the academic paradigm of a modern university. In Russia, the theoretical basis for designing bilingual educational programs (curricula) in higher education as a means of multicultural education of students and increasing their motivation to study a foreign language was mainly developed by such researchers as Aleksashenkova (2000), Krysanova, Kucherova, Pevzner, Shapovalov, Shubin (2000), while abroad such issues were studied in the works of Huber, Wildt, et al.

As for competitiveness, the focus on this concept of the representatives of different scientific fields is conditioned by the desire to identify the social activity of a person in all areas of life activity. It should be noted that some aspects of competitiveness are the subject of interest for foreign researchers, including Hesselbein et al. (2001).

Equal attention is paid to the development of the concept of "competitiveness" by Russian scientists. In particular, Fatkhutdinov (2000) devoted their works to the study of competitiveness as an indicator of the quality of training of a professional. In the studies of Mitina (2002), the psychological aspect of a competitive personality development is described. Titova (2016) makes an emphasis on the formation of a competitive personality in the conditions of modern education.

However, despite the extensive theoretical base in the field of training qualified personnel on a bilingual basis and the continuing interest of researchers in the notion of "competitiveness", the problems associated with the influence of bilingual training on the formation of the competitiveness of a future professional in the academic paradigm of a Russian university need a more profound research.

In the context of the problem under study, it becomes quite obvious that the globalization of education leads to the strengthening of the role of bilingual training. This is primarily due to the fact that bilingual training is designed to provide a solid technological and methodological basis for the internationalization and unification of knowledge in the context of the transition to a two-level system of training – Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. Being an integral part of multicultural education, bilingual training contributes to the motivation of students (especially of non-linguistic specialties) to study a foreign language, which gives a unique opportunity to take advantage of an open society and is the key to the students’ competitiveness, allowing them to realize successfully their personal and professional potential in a foreign language environment.

Bilingual training is understood as a specific organization of the educational process, in which it becomes possible to use more than one language as a language of instruction. Moreover, the second language in this case is not only an object of study, but it also acts as a means of communication and the language of instruction (Khabarova, 2011).

According to the modern approach, the basic components of training on a bilingual basis are:

1) teaching the subject and obtaining the subject-relevant knowledge in a certain field on the basis of the interconnected use of two languages (native and foreign) as a means of educational activity;

2) teaching a foreign language in the process of obtaining a certain subject-relevant knowledge through the simultaneous use of two languages;

3) and, finally, mastering a foreign language as a means of educational activity.

It should be noted that in the conditions of bilingual training at a higher education institution, students (especially non-linguistic ones) have a special motivation for mastering a foreign language. Its peculiarity is that cognitive motivation (i.e., the desire to master another linguistic picture of the world and to enrich one’s background knowledge) is joined by professional motivation, which forces to really rethink and realize the importance of a foreign language for a future career. In other words, bilingual training creates prerequisites for the development of a specific component of the motivation for mastering a foreign language - the so-called bilingual motivation, which is based on the need for self-actualization. The structural elements of bilingual motivation are the motive to use a foreign language, creative and communicative motives. (Shubin, 2000)

Some researchers, for example, Zimnyaya and Matyukhina, believe that in a specifically structured learning system, there is a close relationship between the motivation of the goal and the motivation for achieving it. One cannot but agree with it, because the goal is exactly the link through which one can manage the process of forming motivation. The characteristic feature of bilingual training, in which professional knowledge is acquired through a foreign language channel, is that during bilingual training the student's need for achievement of the goal is increased and, as a result, cognitive motivation turns into bilingual motivation (Zimnyaya, 2005).

It is also important that in the course of bilingual training within the educational process of a university bilingual motivation develops in case of presence in the motivational sphere of non-linguist students of real cognitive motives that eventually transform into professional ones. In addition, there are significant differences in the structure of motivation of non-linguist students with different levels of foreign-language communicative competence. Students with a high level of communicative competence mostly have bilingual motives for mastering a foreign language, those with an average level have predominantly cognitive motives, while students with a low level have mostly utilitarian motives. However, despite the diversity of linguistic competences, bilingual training provides an obvious qualitative increase in the value-motivational level of the personality, which in many respects causes an increase in the motivation for achievement, which is the guarantee of the students’ academic and professional success in future.

Another undoubted advantage of bilingual training in the process of educating competitive professionals in the academic space of the university is that under its conditions a rapid and effective formation of the communicative competence of future graduates takes place. Communicative competence is understood as a special quality of a “speech personality” acquired in the process of natural communication or specially organized training (in this case bilingual). This competence is complex and consists of several components, including language, subject, pragmatic and linguistic competences. Language competence means the knowledge of the units of language and communication, i.e. rules for their connection. Due to its dual nature, this competence unites language and speech and characterizes the individual as a person who can speak a foreign language and is able to use it on the basis of grammatical rules. Subject competence is formed on the basis of an active use of general vocabulary, as the language reflects in words the objects of the surrounding world and the relationship between them, forming a picture of the world in the mind of the speaker. As for pragmatic competence, it presupposes the selection by the speaker of linguistic material (necessary forms, type of speech) and an ability to use the variational forms, taking into account the conditions of the speech act, the status of the addressee, the object of discussion and the functional-style varieties. And, finally, linguistic competence has the character of knowledge related to linguistics as a science, and is characteristic of people specially engaged in linguistics (Izarenkov, 1990).

Analyzing bilingual training in the education of a competitive professional in the context of the globalization of education, it should be noted that the role of bilingual training in this case cannot be overestimated, since it is intended to synthesize cultural-specific cognitive styles, as well as social models of behavior and communication codes in order to create a unity of formal-abstract, independent thinking while preserving their unique identity. In other words, training on a bilingual basis provides not only professional, but also profound personal development on the cognitive, value-motivational and activity-behavioral levels.

Thus, in the process of bilingual training on a cognitive level the future professionals study the samples and values of world culture, the cultural, historical and social experience of different countries and peoples.

On the value-motivational level, the formation of socio-institutional and value-orientational predispositions of students for intercultural communication and exchange is carried out, as well as the development of tolerance towards other countries, peoples, cultures and social groups.

Finally, on the activity-behavioral level, active social interaction with representatives of different cultures takes place while maintaining the students’ own cultural identity (Danilova, 2014; Danilova, 2016).

It should be noted that in the educational paradigm of a modern university, the key to the high-quality education of a competitive professional on a bilingual basis is a well-designed bilingual curriculum, i.e. an educational program, which is aimed at solving not only a whole set of educational tasks, but also to ensure the inclusion of trainees in the values of both world and home culture.

Obviously, being inherently a kind of educational program, the bilingual curriculum features its main characteristics, namely:

1) the complexity and integrity of all components of the curriculum;

2) the presence of taxonomy of real and achievable goals of different levels;

3) the adequacy of the forms, methods and means to goals and content;

4) a high degree of transparency.

It is necessary to emphasize that, in responding to the essential characteristics of traditional educational programs, the bilingual curriculum has a number of specific features, which include:

1) its multicultural orientation;

2) the diversity of goals aimed at overcoming the boundaries of subject monoculture;

3) a high level of inter-subject integration;

4) a combination of event-instance, comparative and integrative approaches in constructing the content of a program;

5) taking into account the individual trajectory of students' development and their motivational readiness for mastering the bilingual program;

6) professional interaction of the teaching staff who jointly develop and implement the program;

7) use of open training technologies (Aleksashenkova, 2000).

In other words, training on bilingual curricula in university conditions allows future professionals to acquire the appropriate level of multicultural education, has a high value for them, ensures the high-quality of formation of their general and professional competences, and, therefore, provides qualitative transformations on the cognitive, value-motivational and activity-behavioral levels. All this is a solid basis for the formation of bilingual students’ competitiveness, which, being one of the goals of bilingual training, implies a complex, dynamic personal quality that includes a set of internal instrumental and integration motives aimed at high quality professional activities, including activity in a foreign environment; knowledge of the specialty and of a foreign language, a high level of communicative competence, as well as important personality traits that determine the success of intercultural interaction.

It’s important to mention that at the present stage of integrating into global educational paradigm more and more Russian universities are modelling their educational process using bilingual curricula. Among them there is the North Caucasus Federal University (hereinafter NCFU), which has been successfully implementing bilingual training for a number of years in some specialties and areas, providing the instruction of competitive professionals capable of effectively solving problems both within their country and abroad, quickly and competently responding to changing production situations taking into account the socio-cultural and behavioral specifics of the business community, that is, ensuring an equally high quality in professional activities both in the domestic and a foreign language environment (Melnikova, 2008).

It should be emphasized that in NCFU the teaching staff of the Institute of Economics and Management has the most extensive practical experience in the field of professional training on bilingual curricula. In the formation of curricula and work programs designed to ensure effective bilingual education of bachelor students in such economic areas as "International Management" and "World Economy", the discipline "Foreign Language (English)" has rather a large share in terms of credit units and implies studying the language for four semesters. The large amount of academic hours allocated in the bilingual curriculum for this subject is, firstly, due to the fact that mastering a foreign language is the main condition for teaching on a bilingual basis, and also because it occurs under conditions of artificial bilingualism, which requires additional efforts for effective formation of communicative competence of trainees.

As noted above, one of the aims of bilingual education in the context of global education is the training of a competitive professional, who is distinguished by high personal development on the cognitive, value-motivational and activity-behavioral levels. To ensure positive dynamics at these levels, the work program of the discipline "Foreign Language (English)" for economic students trained on a bilingual basis is enriched with linguistic and sociocultural modules that are introduced in addition to the recommended textbook in each of the subsequent semesters.

Thus, in the first semester, bilingual students master professionally-oriented vocabulary using the basic textbook with economic content, and improve their grammar skills within the subject "Corrective foreign language course", using as a teaching methodical support an author's manual "English grammar for university students" developed according to the modular principle and including the linguistic phenomena necessary for the correct speech production in a foreign language. Such an approach not only promotes the development of students' grammar skills, but also helps them to understand the importance of a foreign language for their professional activities, providing qualitative transformations at the value-motivational and cognitive levels.

In the second semester, the development of verbal and communicative skills aimed to ensure the high quality of future professional activities in a foreign language environment occurs both at practical classes in the basic foreign language and within the mini-course "Topical Economic Issues". The learning of the material under study takes place in the form of an interactive discussion and includes the preparation and discussion of current economic events, as well as the presentation of abstracts and reports on professional topics. The increase in the volume of speech activity in a foreign language at this stage gives a positive growth not only on the value-motivational and cognitive levels of the student's personality, but also provides an obvious dynamic on the activity-behavioral level.

One of the important elements of the bilingual curriculum is the use in the third semester at practical foreign language lessons of the author's training manual "The Basics of Strategic Management", developed on the authentic English sources and including the following topics: 1) Defining Strategic Management, 2) Key Terms to Strategic Management, 3) The Strategic-Management Model, 4) Benefits of Strategic Management, 5) Factors Important in Strategic Decisions Making. Each topic is structured as a separate module consisting of such sections as: Reading Skills, Word Power, Grammar Focus, Communication Workshop. At the end of the semester, students consolidate their knowledge and improve their skills by participating in a video seminar on "Strategic Management in Action". The material for the seminar is a video about the company "Nuga Medical Co., Ltd." in the English language. The exercises of the training manual graded according to the level of complexity, as well as practical interactive tasks performed at the seminar, allow students both to enrich their foreign language and professional knowledge and to improve verbal and communicative skills, that ensures positive growth of the students' personality on the value-motivational, cognitive and activity-behavioral levels.

At the final stage of studying (the fourth semester) the discipline "Foreign Language (English)" as a supplement to the main textbook, which helps to continue the developing professionally-oriented vocabulary, bilingual students study a mini-course in English entitled "The Competitive Professional", consisting of three main blocks on the following topics: "The Basics of Inter-Cultural Communication", "Body Language", "Successful Presentation". The course content is intended to update and enrich the social and cultural knowledge of future professionals, as well as to teach them the psychological peculiarities of public speech.

Continuous monitoring of the academic progress of economics students trained on the bilingual curriculum indicates that by the third semester they reach the level of communicative competence sufficient not only for the successful studying of special subjects in a foreign language, but also allowing to participate in webinars on professional topics, conducted by foreign colleagues, listen to lectures of visiting professors and participate in academic mobility programs initiated by NCFU’s university-partners (La Sapienza, Rome, Italy; University of Lisbon, Portugal; Changzhou University, China, etc.) as well as various foreign foundations.


Modern society has entered a completely new stage of its development, when the globalization of socio-economic and cultural processes in the world is recognized as the leading trend. In the context of education the processes of globalization are manifested in convergence, the main characteristic of which is the convergence of ideas, institutional models and practices of universities. In the existing conditions the leading role belongs to the ideas of internationalization of education, aimed at convergence of national systems, as well as finding and developing common universal concepts and components in them, i.e. those common grounds that form the basis of the diversity of national cultures, contributing to their mutual enrichment. One of the main instruments of internationalization is the academic exchange of students, teaching staff and researchers, universal recognition of diplomas and academic degrees, common standards of education, etc.

Striving for an open society and integration into the global scientific and economic space dictates the increased demands placed on today’s university graduates, and therefore there is a need to revise the existing content of Russian higher education towards enhancing its practical, personal and multicultural orientation. Such realities determine the social need to train a professional of a new format who possesses not only highly developed competences, but also can be competitive on the world market. In this regard, an increasingly important role in the educational paradigm of a modern university is played by bilingual training designed to provide future graduates with not only a wide access to information in various subject areas in accordance with their individual needs, but also to expand the opportunities for continuing education by giving them additional chances to successfully realize their professional and personal potential in a foreign environment.

In the conditions of the university bilingual training is the interrelated activities of the instructor and students in the process of studying special disciplines or subject areas by means of native and foreign languages, as a result of which a synthesis of certain competences is achieved, ensuring a high level of foreign language proficiency and profound mastery of the professional discipline content. The peculiarity of training on a bilingual basis in higher education is, first of all, manifested in the fact that the acquisition of professional knowledge through a foreign language channel enhances the need of students (especially of non-linguistic specialties) to achieve the goal, as a result of which their cognitive motivation transforms into bilingual one.

Along with this, even under the conditions of artificial bilingualism, bilingual education facilitates a more effective formation of the communicative competence of future professionals, aimed to ensure the success of the interaction in a foreign language.

The significant role of bilingual training in the formation of a competitive professional in the educational paradigm of a modern Russian university is also manifested in the fact that it ensures a profound personal development of students on the cognitive, value-motivational and activity-behavioral levels. This is due to the fact that in the process of educating on a bilingual basis, there occurs a synthesis of social behavior patterns, communication codes and culture-specific cognitive styles of students, resulting in the formation of a unity of formally abstract, independent thinking while preserving the unique identity of the individual.

The success of forming the competitiveness of a future professional in the context of bilingual training depends to a large extent on the content and modeling of the bilingual curriculum, which is an educational program that, along with the solution of a complex of educational tasks, ensures the inclusion of students in the values of the world and national culture. Possessing all the characteristics of traditional educational programs, the bilingual curriculum has its own distinctive features including a multicultural focus, a high level of interdisciplinary integration, a variety of goals aimed at overcoming the boundaries of subject monoculture, etc.

The content of the bilingual curriculum, aimed at the formation of the competitiveness of a qualified professional, is formed on the basis of the event-exemplary, comparative and integrative approaches, as well as the individual-personal trajectory of students' development and their motivational readiness for mastering the program on a bilingual basis. The success of this process largely depends on both the professional interaction of the teaching staff who jointly develop and implement the curriculum and the use of open learning technologies.

The globalization of education and the need of modern society for competitive professionals of a special type explain the increasingly active transition of Russian universities to bilingual training programs. The practical implementation of the bilingual curriculum in the process of training qualified personnel provides future graduates with not only wide access to information in various subject areas and obtaining new information in accordance with their individual needs, but also expands opportunities for continuing education, improves their communicative competence for special subject purposes, the qualitative improvement of vocational training, the development of intercultural skills, as well as increases the motivation for learning a foreign language, which role can hardly be overestimated in this case.

The importance of a foreign language, which main function in the process of bilingual training is to introduce the students to special knowledge, largely explains the high amount of academic credits in modeling the bilingual curriculum. The accumulated practical experience shows that in the conditions of educating on a bilingual basis, supplementing the working program in a foreign language with additional linguistic and socio-cultural modules ensures the rapid positive dynamics and qualitative transformations at the cognitive, value-motivational and activity-behavioral levels of the personality of future professionals, that contributes to the effective formation of their competitiveness in the educational paradigm of a modern Russian university.


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Cultural development, technological development, socio-political transformations, globalization

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Danilova, T. A., Erina, L. S., Simonova, N. A., & Shcherbinina, O. V. (2021). Urgent Issues Of Bilingual Training In The Context Of Global Education. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in The Context of Modern Globalism, vol 117. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 433-444). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.11.58