This paper details the transformational forms of employment in contemporary economic conditions of the Russian Federation. In particular, there is a comprehensive theoretical, methodological and practical study of the issue and disclosure of interrelated provisions. The authors have also analysed the problem of the strong correlation between the national economic system and the social sphere. They showed the transformation of the post-industrial system, running in parallel with profound modernization and technological renewal. The sectors, however, are subject to uncertainties, unsustainable development. Against the backdrop of economic instability, there is an environment pushing for the expansion of employment. The variability of such forms is a natural consequence of an ordered process. The issue of population adaptation to socio-economic conditions is a popular one in academia. Its study helps to mitigate the risks that arise. In the current economic context, the transformation of forms of employment requires new methodological approaches. The issue of enhancing the adaptive capacity and broadening the basis for a comprehensive study of the working population deserves special attention. It is revealed that employment in the Russian Federation is a priority for authorized state structures. In particular, this refers to maximizing the level of adaptation to the current socio-economic conditions. The effectiveness of the transformation process depends to a large extent on the quality of the methodological framework used and the practical recommendations made. The set of measures should aim to maximize the adaptation of employment. It is essential to consider the socio-economic context.
This paper details the transformational forms of employment in contemporary economic conditions of the Russian Federation. In particular, it provides a comprehensive theoretical, methodological and practical study of this issue, revealing the interrelated provisions, the close correlation between the national economic system and the social sphere. The transformation of the post-industrial system runs parallel to a profound modernization, a technological renewal. The sectors, however, are subject to uncertainties, unsustainable development. Against the backdrop of economic instability, there is an environment pushing for the expansion of employment. The variability of such forms is a natural consequence of an ordered process (Israilov et al., 2019). The issue of population adaptation to socio-economic conditions is a popular one in academia. Its study helps to mitigate the risks that arise.
This study drew on a large theoretical and methodological framework developed by domestic and foreign scholars. In particular, it used the works within the framework of socio-economic policy. Particular attention was paid to social and labour relations, professional employment and the unemployment process (Azieva et al., 2019). The paper used different methodologies in the form of scientific abstraction, systems and institutional approach. This also applied to structural-functional type analysis and economic-mathematical modelling. The study of phenomena used scenario forecasting, correlation and regression type analysis.
In the current economic context, the transformation of forms of employment requires new methodological approaches. The issue of enhancing the adaptive capacity and broadening the basis for a comprehensive study of the working population deserves special attention.
An increasing trend of instability in employment in the Russian Federation. The priority of the state is to mitigate adverse influences. This primarily concerns technological renewal in the economic sphere and the integration of the national economy into world markets, considering the peculiarities of the globalization process. We should also mention the in-depth modernization of the system, the reduction of informal sector growth, and the regulation of new forms of employment. With the transformation of the socio-economic system, there is a growing urgency to transform established concepts regarding forms of employment (Gurtuev et al., 2019). The development of new methodological approaches should follow the current conjuncture.
Employment in the Russian Federation is a priority for authorized state bodies. In particular, this refers to maximizing the level of adaptation to the current socio-economic conditions. Experts agree that the focus should be on developing high-productivity jobs with appropriate working conditions. The effectiveness of the transformation process depends to a large extent on the quality of the methodological framework used and the practical recommendations made. The set of measures should aim to maximize the adaptation of employment. It is essential to consider the socio-economic context.
Based on the above, we can argue that the standardization and expansion of the theoretical and methodological framework are of great importance in addressing the transformation of employment forms. It is also about practical recommendations that can be used in resolving these issues in the current economic context of the Russian Federation.
There is no doubt about the relevance of this topic in academia. Unfortunately, the current theoretical-methodological and practical framework does not fully reveal the specifics and prospects of the transformation of employment forms in different regions of the country.
Russian and foreign academics have previously studied the issue of social and labour relations and employment in detail. Forming the theoretical and methodological framework involved the work of John Keynes, Karl Marx, Alfred Marshall and Arthur Pigou. Particular attention was paid to studying the institutional approach to labour market regulation. In particular, this includes the scientific research of John Bates Clarke and Douglas North. The contractual paradigm has gained importance. The works of academics M. Jenson, Joseph Stiglitz and Oliver Williamson describe this system in detail.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to form a theoretical-methodological and practical framework that will characterize in detail the transformational forms of employment in the current economic conditions of the country.
It is practically impossible to realize this goal without the following tasks:
1) Identification of features that detail the transformational process of employment. Identification of the key factors that have an impact.
2) Standardization and classification of non-standard forms of employment The gradation is made according to the degree of influence of factors on human capacity.
3) Modernization of the theoretical and methodological framework towards the form of employment in contemporary economic conditions.
4) Establishment of a concept that characterizes the transformative process of employment in contemporary economic conditions.
5) Adoption of an assessment methodology within the framework of employment adaptation according to the characteristics of the current socio-economic system.
6) Detailed examination of the transformation vector within the forms of employment in different regions of the country.
7) Identification of transformational type risks, related to the form of employment in the current economic conditions of the country.
This study drew on a large theoretical and methodological framework developed by domestic and foreign scholars. In particular, it used the works within the framework of socio-economic policy. Particular attention was paid to social and labour relations, professional employment and the unemployment process. The paper used different methodologies in the form of scientific abstraction, systems and institutional approach. This also applied to structural-functional type analysis and economic-mathematical modelling. The study of phenomena used scenario forecasting, correlation and regression type analysis.
The results obtained in this study include:
- Identifying the specific nature of the transformation process within the form of employment. The analysis considered the current economic characteristics of the country and the differentiation of society. The work was carried out because of the symbiotic relationship between standard and non-standard forms of employment. There is strong evidence of expanding the organizational and legal ways and conditions of work against incomplete compliance with the standard form. This phenomenon is observed in terms of society, of the individual. The paper identified the main specific factors that influence the degree of employment. This is primarily a technological driver, digital and organizational. Particular attention is paid to the cultural-value and globalizational causes.
- Classifying non-standard forms of employment of the population. Human development is closely correlated with a number of progressive-regressive factors. The concept of decent work is the basis of the developed theoretical and methodological framework. It is used to standardize the classification criteria. It concerns conditions of labour activity, tariff classification of labour, social guarantees, employees' activity in the management process, personal development, the complexity of self-realization, etc. The study has proved that the form of non-standard employment is progressive if it corresponds to the provisions of the approved decent work concept. In all other cases, the organizational mode has a regressive status. It is possible to use the approved mechanism to maximize the adaptation level of employment considering socio-economic conditions. The set of measures aims to promote progressive forms of non-standard employment in all regions of the country.
- Establishing the main vectors for the modernization of the methodological framework, considering the active transformation of the forms of public employment. The proposed recommendations are reflected in a number of provisions.
This paper has a high level of theoretical and practical relevance in transforming forms of employment. The modernization of the methodological framework aims at a comprehensive study of the socio-economic process, considering the current situation in the country's regions. The validity of the conceptual provisions creates the preconditions for an increased degree of employment adaptation. It is also important to provide practical advice on ways of effectively adapting to the current economic environment.
Practice shows that the most important phenomenon of socio-economic reality is employment. This statement relies on the mechanism of satisfying human needs through work. Experts agree that this need is basic. The employment process is one of the main building blocks of modern society. It generates income to meet the material, spiritual needs. The modern system of social reproduction is constantly changing within the context of socio-economic transformations.
The phenomenon of employment is the functional basis for the smooth reproduction of the labour force. This process has three main functions of a social nature:
1) to create the optimum conditions for personal development;
2) to get an answer to the question about a person's attitude towards him/herself;
3) to divide society into special classes (strata).
Academics have a consolidated view that the employment system should be developed in accordance with the specificities of the socio-economic environment. The transformation process usually aims at improving the current situation, resolving the problem. It is almost impossible to understand the factors without a detailed study of the development of relations within the employment framework.
The study of this topic becomes considerably more complex given the multifaceted nature of the phenomena. Unfortunately, today's socio-economic environment has a high degree of variability, which makes it impossible to use narrow approaches. This paper argues for a systemic approach. The methodology allows for the most objective disclosure of the essence, the multifaceted nature of the process.
Scientists do not have a standardized approach to defining the essence of the term "employment". The interpretation proposed by Shuvaeva deserves a separate option. She believes that the evolutionary development of this concept should be seen through the prism of scientific works by domestic authors. In particular, this refers to 19th-century researchers – Arseniev, Herkner, Ziablovsky, etc. Representatives of science considered the phenomenon of employment as a distribution of workers in different spheres of labour activity. As early as the 20th century, the works of Strumilin and Chuprov provide an extended version of the definition. In their view, the employment category represents the involvement of the labour force directly in the production process. The interpretation that was actively used during the development of socialism is no less interesting. Its essence was to consider the category as an ordered socio-economic phenomenon. It was used to objectively reflect the relations between employees within the process of rational use of the labour potential of society.
Practice shows that much of the theoretical work is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of employment. Unfortunately, there is no standardized approach to defining the term in academia. Despite this, there are several common definitions:
1) Defining employment through the prism of the process of involvement in social production for the working-age population;
2) defining employment through the prism of different economic relations for the working-age population within the framework of public work.
The analysis of the above material shows that in most cases employment is treated as a consolidated economic relationship. In particular, this applies:
1) creating jobs for the labour force within the various economic activities;
2)organizing a balanced work process through the development and distribution of labour resources;
3)ensuring optimal conditions for the expanded reproduction of human resources.
We should note that the above-mentioned approaches most often treat "employment" as a phenomenon. There is no further elaboration of the concept. Experts agree that it is rational to consider the process as social, legal and economic categories at the same time.
Social employment aims at a person's self-expression and self-assertion. The earned income is generally used for the reproduction of the ability to work.
Social employment is an important condition for human existence and the development of social progress. The tool provides an all-around development of the individual and enhances his or her professional skills.
Labour activity aims at the formation and accumulation of material wealth. The structure of needs changes as the individual develops. This phenomenon was described in detail in the works of Karl Marx. The scientist was convinced that consciousness was the main difference between humans and animals. The production of the essentials of life automatically builds up the moral-will qualities of the individual. Based on this mechanism, we can argue that work plays an important role in human development, making the inner world richer and fuller. Labour activity is an important component for the development of society and the national economy.
The Federal Law No. 1032-1 adopted on 19.04.1991 provides more detail on the legal meaning of the term "employment". Article 1 of the legal act regulates the status of citizens' activities that aim to meet needs of a personal, public nature. One of the main aims of such activity is to generate earnings, an income. This type of legal category has a number of characteristic features. This applies in particular to the focus on covering personal needs. Within the framework of the current legislation, the individual is a full-fledged subject of relations within the framework of producing goods and satisfying personal needs. The legislation defines legal employment in terms of its content and formalization. The employed population includes persons who are active in various areas of work, within the framework provided for by law.
The profitability criterion for interpreting the term "employment" deserves special attention. Practice shows that there is labour activity that does not generate income. A clear example is training in special institutions (full-time/part-time), military service and so on.
Equally relevant is the definition of employment as an economic category through the prism of the essence. This approach has a philosophical direction and consists of a detailed study of the content of the subject. First, this refers to the unity of multiple properties and relationships. In academia, the essence is the antipode of the definition of the phenomenon. The latter category in turn represents the external discovery of an object, its form of current existence.
A more detailed examination of the economic essence of employment requires an examination of the totality of the relationships behind the phenomenon. Retrospective analysis can provide an in-depth look at this task. The methodology establishes that employment has not always been present in human society. However, work is the basis for the existence of the individual and society. The importance of expedient, socially useful human activity is quite high.
Researchers note that there is a correlation between the labour process and the transformation of society. During the development of industrial society, there was a strong emphasis on subordinating the way of social life to the needs of production. Today, the priority is to bring production into line with the social order. This relationship relates to the processes of demassification, globalization, individualization and informatization. The renewal of employment parameters is primarily due to the active development of post-industrial society. The transformation process of the economic system leads to a non-standard form of employment with various modifications. In practice, the employment sector is adapting directly to the external environment. This ensures the stable functioning of social reproduction.
The dynamic shifts in economic systems are affecting the diversity of employment forms. This kind of structure is in constant interaction. From this, we can argue that employment is a balanced structure that constantly adapts to changing socio-economic conditions.
Experts agree that the transformation of the employment system is a specific process. The development vector of this phenomenon closely correlates with the current state of the socio-economic environment. The most significant factors are the following:
- Technological factors. Advances in science and technology have a direct impact on production and consumption. The material renewal of economic actors is a natural process of development. The upgrading of functional equipment makes it possible to master new technologies and compete decently in a particular market segment. The theoretical works of domestic scholars provide a more detailed insight into the specifics of this process. The use of new approaches in the production sphere has a positive effect on society and the economy. Today, there is an active transition from one technological stage to another. The transformation process is not a momentary one, but extends over a long period. The current stage of development is closely intertwined with the technology of the past and the future. As a result, economic phenomena in the social and labour sphere have a number of individual characteristics. Advances in science and technology have had a positive effect on the transformation of society by changing the structure of the individual needs of the population. It also refers to the ways of achieving priority goals, the functional importance of the individual in the productive sphere. Expanding forms of employment indicate an increase in adaptive capacity. The population is opting for more adequate industrial relations.
- Digital factors (Digilina et al., 2020). The active transformation of the socio-economic system is primarily linked to the development of digital technology. The introduction of new solutions in economic activity has a positive effect on organizing the labour process and intensifying production. The result is an increase in the competitiveness of the business entity in a particular market segment. Practice shows that the demands on workers in such an environment increase considerably. This applies in particular to their professional skills, qualifications and level of knowledge. Digitalization allows the efficient organization of workflow and production in various sectors of the economy. The use of new methodological approaches has a positive effect on performance in adverse environmental conditions. An example is the difficult epidemiological and environmental situation. This also applies to man-made accidents and various disasters. Practice shows that digital technologies have a significant impact on expanding the list of employment forms. For example, the presence of an employee is not a prerequisite in some production areas. Remote working is becoming increasingly popular, saving money on renting commercial property. The workplace may be outside the employer's office (for example, in another country or even a continent).
- Organizational factors. Specialists note the high effectiveness of the adhocratic method of building organizational structures. It applies in particular to the matrix, modular approach. The toolkit considers the new forms of relationship between employees and the formal employer. This creates optimal conditions for applying new forms of employment.
- Cultural-value factors. Shaping the system of values of modern man closely correlates with transformational processes in social life. It is through work that an individual expresses himself and realizes himself. Success at work encourages people to travel, to explore the world. Against this background, there are changes in standard forms of employment towards more flexible forms (e.g. part-time and distance employment).
- Globalizational factors. Labour mobility is increasing with the globalization of the economy and the expansion of world markets. The removal of barriers creates the preconditions for forming and developing new forms of employment.
This paper presents the basic factors that characterise the employment trajectory of the population and the transformational forms of this process. In most cases, this economic category is examined through the prism of subjective-objective relations. Employment is a form of expressing labour that adapts perfectly to the turbulent conditions of the external environment. Experts agree that the economic relationship between the state, employers and employees ensures the reproduction of labour resources on a cost-recovery basis. Expanding the number of actors in the employment relationship is a natural process. Self-employed citizens are a prime example. Studying the employment process through an economic lens allows its adaptive properties to be identified with a high degree of accuracy. This property allows the transformation trajectory to change in the desired direction depending on external factors.
Scholars agree that transformational forms of employment are closely correlated with various factors of the socio-economic environment. This applies in particular to the phenomena of economic renewal. This plane distinguishes the following processes:
- Technological factors. The results of scientific and technological progress have a significant impact on the development of production and consumption. The renovation of the facilities allows the work process to be organized on a qualitatively new level. The practical application of modern technology has a positive impact on the competitiveness of the business entity. New forms of industrial relations have a direct impact on increasing the adaptation of employment.
- Digital factors. The rapid development of digital technology is having a significant impact on the emergence of social and economic processes. This results in new forms of employment. A special feature of such conversions is that there is no mandatory condition for an employee to be present on the premises. Remote working outside the office, the country or even the continent is becoming increasingly popular.
- Organizational factors. In most cases, organizational structures are designed using adhocratic methodology. This approach needs new forms of relationship that arise between the employee and the employer. This ensures a rapid increase in the number of new employment forms of the population.
- Cultural-value factors. Transformation processes in society have a significant impact on the shaping of the value system of the modern individual. Researchers believe that work is the instrument of self-realization and self-expression. Successful people tend to be keen on travelling, exploring the world and the laws of life. As a result, the standard form of employment is giving way to more flexible, part-time and remote options.
- Globalizational factors. The globalization of economic processes, the expansion of world markets, leads to the dismantling of barriers. This results in labour mobility and an increase in the total number of new employment forms of the population.
Experts note that the transformation of employment forms is a specific orderly process. It is also about the transition of society to a new stage of development. The driving force behind this phenomenon is the socio-economic environment. It also considers the value system in force and the interests of the individual. Many factors influence the trajectory of the process (Popov & Soloveva, 2019). This is particularly true of societal development and economic processes. With globalization, the underlying patterns are transforming and taking on newer features.
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29 November 2021
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Cultural development, technological development, socio-political transformations, globalization
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Chazhaev, M. I., Magomadova, T. L., & Barzaeva, M. A. (2021). Problems Of Transforming Employment Forms In The Context Of Economic Modernization. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in The Context of Modern Globalism, vol 117. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 364-372). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.11.49