The article is devoted to the structural-semantic analysis of complex sentences with adverbial clauses in analytical Germanic English and agglutinative Turkic Kyrgyz languages. The presence in the compared languages of full-constituent subject-predicate structures is shown, which express complete predication at the level of the constituent parts of the complex sentences. It is noted that semantics of clauses in both languages depend not to a small extent on their location relative to the main sentence: in a preposition, i.e., before the main sentence, or in the post position, i.e., after the main sentence. There is a general tendency in both compared languages: in analytical English, more than two-thirds of the adverbial clauses, on average, of the most various modifications, are in the structure of a complex sentence in postposition, i.e., after the principal clause; in the agglutinative Kyrgyz language, more than three-quarters of the adverbial, on average, of the most various modifications are in the structure of a complex sentence in the preposition, i.e., before the main sentence. It was also revealed that the Kyrgyz complex adverbial clauses could have an incomplete subject-predicate structure in one of its constituent parts, and, accordingly, express a reduced predication – and at the level of the entire content of the complex subordinate: the Kyrgyz complex adverbial clauses can explicate a complete proposition in this case. The content structures of English and Kyrgyz complex sentences with adverbial clauses are motivated by a similar modality.
Compound sentences with adverbial clauses are not a homogeneous group with identical linguistic characteristics, and these sentences are instead a heterogeneous group consisting of different-order linguistic units. The subordinate adverbial is an analog of a minor member of a circumstance's sentences, but an analog extended and extended in linguistic-syntagmatic reality. As a simple circumstance, it is a syntactic unit “designating the conditions in which the process takes place” (Smirnitsky, 1957). English and Kyrgyz complex sentences with a subordinate adverbial have one common feature that correlates them with a minor member of the sentence by a circumstance, being a heterogeneous group, i.e., a diverse group.
Syntactic constructions of English and Kyrgyz complex sentences with adverbial clauses.
Study of factors influencing the formation of different types of predication in a reduced and complete form, as well as the analysis of the manifestation of a proposition.
Purpose of the Study
Identify the structural and semantic features of complex sentences with adverbial clauses, determining the subject-predicate structure, by which they are expressed in the form of an elementary sentence.
The research material is English and Kyrgyz complex sentences collected by means of continuous analysis of the texts of works of fiction and journalistic literature.
Semantic methods of conceptual and semantic sentences analysis, comparative description, contextual study, transformation analysis, verification of the results obtained in a similar semantic-grammatical zone.
Composite sentences with adverbial clauses in analytical germanic English and agglutinative Turkic Kyrgyz – coincide in their primary functional basis – their subordinate clauses are broad predicative correspondences of the minor member of the circumstance sentence; as a functional-extended equivalent of a circumstance, subordinate clauses can divide into subordinate clauses: 1) place; 2) time; 3) manner; 4) reason; 5) aim; 6) consequence 7) concession and 8) condition. They express the entire content of a complexly subordinated complete predication at the level of the constituent parts of the complex and, accordingly, the event proposition (Manaenko, 2010) at the level of the whole range of the complex. We will give some examples and explain our opinion based on illustrative material:
1) I dreamed, almost since birth,
To live free on this sacred earth,
In my own homeland here,
Where two clever leaders stand clear –
Abai, and Auezov, both grand … (p. 60).
2) “While I was ill, an Idiot that strolled about the village chanced to stroll into my chamber."
3) “Ols as he works with great energy and enthusiasm” (Wilde, 2014, p. 121).
4) “Кулубай балдары менен мергенчиликке бардыгы чогуу кийик уулачу эмес, кайберендер батырлачу жайларды жакшы биле турган” – “Kulubay baldary menen mergenchilikke bardygy choguu kiyik uulachu emes, kayberender batyrlachu jaylardy jakshy bile turgan” (Medetov, 1986).
5) “Табийгат кимге берсе сезим, жүрөк,
Махаббат жүрөк менен бирге жүрөт” –
“Tabiygat kimge berse sezim, jürök,
Mahabbat jürök menen birge jüröt“
6) Эгерде бек баштаса кумар, шарап,
Өлкө иши өөрчүбөй артта калат
“Egerde bek bashtasa kumar, sharap,
Ölkö ishi öörchüböy artta kalat”
(Balasagyn, 1993, p. 203).
Example 1) uses an English compound sentence with adverbial clause of place; the latter is introduced into a complex subordinate's structure through the connective word. Both constituent parts of this English complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of place have a complete subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, express full predication; the latter, concentrating in the semantic contents of both components of the complex, determines the action of the event proposition:
In another English example 2), a complex sentence with an adverbial clause of time is used; the subordinate clause is entered using the connective word. Both constituent parts of a complex sentence exhibit a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and express complete predication accordingly. With all its content, this complex sentence expresses an event proposition:
In the English example 3), a complex clause is used with a subordinate adverbial clause of concession. The subordinate clause is subordinated to the main clause utilizing the subordinate conjunction as in the meaning "." Both constituent parts of this complex sentence contain a complete subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, express full predication; the general content of the entire complex sentence represents the eventual proposition:
In the Kyrgyz example 4), a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of time is used; the subordinate adverbial is attached to and obeys the postpositive main clause through a personal nominal affix with the meaning of the time "" in the lexeme "барга". Both constituent parts of a complex subordinate exhibit a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, complete predication. The entire content of a complex sentence with a subordinate tense expresses an event proposition:
In the Kyrgyz example 5), a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of concession is used; the latter is attached to and obeys the postpositive main clause through an interrogative pronoun with the dative affix "ким" in combination with the auxiliary verb affix "бер". Both components of the complex subordinate possess a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, complete predication, which, at the level of the entire content of the complex subordinate, determines the event proposition:
In the Kyrgyz example 6), a complex sentence is used with a subordinate adverbial clause of condition; the latter is joined and subordinated to the main one through a conditional subordinate union in combination with the conditional grammatical form of the verb "баштаса", the grammatical meaning of the convention is given to this verb by the addition of the verb subordinate-conditional affix "-са" to it. Both constituent parts of this complex subordinate possess a full-constituent subject-predicate structure, respectively, full predication. At the level of the entire content of the complex subordinate, they exhibit an event proposition:
However, in the Kyrgyz language, there are such complex sentences with subordinate adverbial clause of condition, which differ from the original English complex sentences with subordinate clauses in their full-constituent subject-predicate structure, which determines the reduced predication at the level of the constituent parts of the subordinate clause and a complete proposition at the level of the entire content of the complex sentence. For example:
7) “Пахта жөнүндө ушундай таттуу ойлор менен жүргөнү, эмгек ветераны, пенсионер Асранкулов Бөрүбай аке жолугуп калды” – “Pahta jönündö ushunday tattuu oylor menen jürgönümdö, emgek veterany, pensioner Asrankulov Börübay ake jolugup kaldy”(Miyashev, 1974, p. 22).
8) “Ал көзүн жум, тасмадай түз жолдо машина айдап бараткан учурун элестетти” – “Al közün jumup, tasmaday tüz joldo mashina aydap baratkan uchurun elestetti”(Mansurov, 1984, p. 348).
9)“Сөздөн нөшөр төк,
Чымчым чындык таппайсың”
“Sözdön nöshör töksö dagy,
Chymchym chyndyk tappaysyng”
10) “ кар өто оор түшүп, жатканы жаткан” – “Egerde kar öto oor tüshüp kalsa, jatkany jatkan” (Sultanaliev, 1974, p. 101).
In the Kyrgyz example, a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of time is used; simultaneously, the subordinate clause of time is attached to and obeys the main one with the help of the affix "-мдө" in this example shows the meaning of time. The subordinate tense in the preposition has a full subject-predicate structure – there is no grammatical subject, but the character is implicitly present: the personal affix "-үм" in the lexeme "жүргөнүмдө" indicates the 1st person, the singular. "The subject, or rather, the character, indefinite personal sentences is meant through the predicate form, which is in the personal affixes of the I and II person" (Zhapar, 1992, p. 98).
The main sentence in the complex subordinate 7) has a full-constituent subject-predicate structure with full predication. Still, the incomplete subordinate time conditional clause determines the reduced predication, and together with this reduced predication at the level of the entire content of the complex subordinate defines the proposition:
Let us recall the contents of the symbols we use:
In the Kyrgyz example 8), a complex sentence is used with a subordinate adverbial clause of manner; the subordinate of the adverbial clause of manner obeys the main one through the adverbial affix "-уп"; the subordinate clause of manner has a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, expresses full predication; while the main clause has a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, therefore, expresses a reduced predication. In this main sentence, the so-called indefinitely personal sentence is realized, the structure of which "... is based on the expression of the predicate by the personal form of the verb III of the present, future or past tense" (Zhapar, 1992, p. 134). It is the curtailed predication of the main sentence, coupled with the complete predication of the subordinate adverbial clause of manner, that determine the action of the complete proposition at the level of the entire content of the complex sentence:
In the Kyrgyz example 9), a complex sentence is used with a subordinate adverbial yielding conditional clause; this subordinate clause is attached to the main clause through a conditionally concessive verb form with a conditionally subordinate affix "-s-" – "tөksө", coupled with the amplifying particle "dagi". The subordinate yielding conditional clause in example 9) has a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, full predication. However, this example's main clause has an incomplete subject-predicate structure and, therefore, shows a reduced predication. In this main sentence in example 9), the type of generalized personal sentence is implemented, "the predicates of these sentences are expressed by the conjugated form of the verb with personal endings of I and II persons or the main verb, i.e., an imperative mood of the II person singular" (Zhapar; 1992, p. 178). It is the reduced proposition of the main sentence, in conjunction with the complete predication of the subordinate clause, that determines the emergence of a complete proposition of the level of the entire content of the complex:
In the Kyrgyz example 10), a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of condition is used; this clause of condition is attached to the main one through the conditional conjunction "эгерде" in conjunction with the conditional form of the verb form with the conditional affix “-са” – “кал”. The subordinate adverbial conditional clause has a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, therefore, expresses complete predication. This reduced predication, expressed by the main clause, coupled with the complete predication of the clause of condition in example 10), determines the complete proposition at the level of the entire content of the complex sentence:
Predication, or predicativity, is the basis of the conceptual and semantic side of the sentence. Predictivity is realized at the level of a simple common elementary sentence as a complex sentence component.
By an elementary sentence, we mean such a simple common sentence, which performs, firstly, the function of a constituent part of a complex sentence, and secondly, it contains at least two obligatory elements: subject- подлежащее + predicate-сказуемое, – one of which it can have an implicit implementation; and, thirdly, the presence of a predicate-сказуемое, explicit or implicit, is its necessary attribute (Ivanova et al., 1981). However, on a predicate-сказуемое in the composition of an elementary sentence in linguistics, there is a more categorical opinion, which considers an elementary sentence to be such a syntactic unit in which a "verb sentence" is realized(Abramov; 1972, p. 67).
However, each elementary sentence has its own modality: "... a different type of attitude of the reality statement, as well as different types of subjective qualifications of the communicated"(Yartseva; 1990, p. 452). Or, in other words, the modality of an elementary sentence is understood as a particular attitude (possibly objective, but not devoid of subjective nuances) of the speaker to the message that he produces (Dzhusaev, 1975; Ilebaev, 1997; Zainullin, 1986).
Based on the above, it should be concluded that at first glance, it seems that the phenomenon of modality inherent in a simple elementary sentence at the level of a component of a complex sentence undergoes some changes at the level of the entire content of a complex sentence, in our case, complex sentences with adverbial clauses at the level of the whole scope of a complex sentence. But it seems that the phenomenon of modality is the same linguistic phenomenon both at the level of a simple elementary sentence as an integral part of a complex one and at the level of the entire content of a complex sentence as a complemented semantic-syntactic unit. The same manifestation of modality as part of a complex, i.e., in an elementary sentence, and the entire structure of a complex sentence as an integral syntactic unit, in our opinion, is due to three prerequisites. Firstly, for the phenomenon of grammatical modality, the linguistic volume of a sentence, simple or complex, is indifferent, since the primary function of modality in language is the expression
… the speaker's attitude to the content of the utterance from the point of view of its reality or unreality, the possibility and necessity of performing actions, presumption and the likelihood of their commission, as well as the expression of motivation and intention to take actions, wishes for their implementation. (Zainullin; 1986, p. 68)
Secondly, the category of predictiveness of the level of an elementary sentence and its highest level of the category of propositivity function "... in accordance with inherent modal meaning, regulated by the modality category, create the structural structure of the sentence according to the existing grammatical rules of this particular language and thereby ensure the relevance content of the proposal to reality" (Dzhusaev; 2000, p. 20). And, thirdly, the concept of "elementary sentence" applies not only to a simple common sentence, but also to a complex sentence, because such sentences, being syntactic units related in their meaning, "... can also be called elementary sentences. The relation of composition interconnects elementary sentences of a compound type; elementary sentences of a complex subordinate type, in its simplest model are reduced to the main and subordinate clauses, are concerning subordination" (Gulyga; 1971). And therefore, the concept of linguistic modality, in the same way, finds its realization both in a simple elementary sentence and in a complex sentence, which also explains "elementary."
The linguistic modality phenomenon is inherent in all complex sentences with a subordinate adverbial, both in analytical English and in agglutinative Kyrgyz, which is an essential and defining feature of a predicative sentence, but not the only one relevant. We compared English and Kyrgyz complex sentences with clauses by the nature of their clauses: 1) place; 2) time; 3) manner; 4) reason; 5) aim; 6) consequence; 7) concession; 8) conditional, – since such a division of them based on classification of subordinate clauses has a real linguistic basis.
A conceptual and semantic comparison of the content structures of English and Kyrgyz complex sentences with a subordinate adverbial shows that in both of these languages, on the one hand, they can coincide: they can have a full-constituent subject-predicate structure and, accordingly, express complete predication at the level of the constituent parts of the complex, and at the level of the entire content of the complex, to explain the event proposition; on the other hand, they can differ both at the level of their constituent parts: the Kyrgyz complex subordinate can have an incomplete subject-predicate structure in one of its constituent parts, and, accordingly, express reduced predication, – and at the level of the entire content of the complex sentence: the Kyrgyz complex sentence can be explained when this is a complete proposition.
The content structures of English and Kyrgyz complex sentences with a subordinate adverbial clause are motivated by a similar modality since the attitude of an English-speaking, and objective-subjective conceptual nuances characterize Kyrgyz-speaking speakers to the message expressed by himself the same way.
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29 November 2021
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Cultural development, technological development, socio-political transformations, globalization
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Kozuev, D. I., Beksultanova, G. A., & Jumalieva, G. E. (2021). Structural-Semantic Features Of English And Kyrgyz Complex Sentences With Adverbial Clauses. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in The Context of Modern Globalism, vol 117. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 871-878). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.11.117