The article studies theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation of managerial competencies of students in the process of vocational training at a university; it considers the following theoretical and methodological approaches: technological approach, communicative-activity and competence approaches. It concludes that the managerial competence of a specialist is a personal quality, a model of behavior that helps effectively solve the assigned managerial tasks and achieve high performance results, managerial competencies that include the ability to give orders, the ability to resolve conflicts between employees, the willingness to make decisions, focus on the result, teamwork, delegation of authority, employee motivation. The ability and readiness of a university graduate for organizational and managerial, analytical, research, pedagogical activities, including a set of managerial competencies, as a prerequisite for his professional training. Various interactive forms of organizing the activities of students are used for the formation of managerial competencies in the educational process at the university. It could be a conference, a methodical seminar, a round table, a brainstorming method, game techniques, case-study approach, a workshop, a focus group, a project method, a training, etc. They create conditions for the formation and improvement of a set of managerial competencies: motivation, goal-setting, planning, organization and control. Taking into account the specifics of the technological support of students in the formation of managerial competencies at the university environment allows to optimize the essence and structure of interaction in the pedagogical process.
The educational system of modern higher education is currently constantly supplementing approaches to teaching, adjusting the established traditions and generally accepted stereotypes. Special attention should be paid to the ability of students to professionally and critically assess the problems of management of educational organizations and institutions, to find the most appropriate ways to resolve emerging contradictions, to master the culture of management of an educational organization since the modern labor market needs trained qualified managers.
The need for professional training of heads of educational organizations and institutions is currently very urgent. Management of an educational organization is currently a type of professional activity, which includes the features of the field of activity and characteristics of objects and subjects, conditions, tools and expected results, the formation of labor functions, personal qualities and competencies of the leader and employees, requiring special professional training.
The article deals with the problem of the formation of managerial competencies among students in the process of professional training at a university.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the work is to study the process of forming managerial competencies in students in the process of professional training at a university.
In the process of working on the article, the following research methods were used: analysis of information and educational and methodological resources, analysis of recommendations, practices and experience in the formation of managerial competencies in students in the process of professional training at a university.
A modern leader is a person who is fully capable of providing the educational institution or organization entrusted to him with highly qualified competitive specialists, which means that he himself must have the necessary professional competence, including a set of knowledge, abilities and skills, to determine the expected results from the goals set; combination of personal and professional significant qualities; the ability to combine theoretical and practical readiness to lead an educational institution, to target a team of employees to achieve success in educational and professional activities (Alieva et al., 2020).
In the event that a leader in his professional activity is aimed at self-development, self-education, self-improvement, i.e. on the controlled process of the formation of professionalism, we can talk about the desire to form his professional competence, the criteria of which can be the social significance of the results of his work as a specialist, the presence of authority, social and labor status in educational and managerial activities.
Considering the competence of a person as an evaluative category, a number of researchers characterize him as a subject of special activity in the system of social labor; presuppose experience in a specific area, active use of meaningful results; the ability to choose means and methods of action commensurate with the circumstances of time and place; responsibility for the results achieved; learn from mistakes and adjust further ways to correct them.
The managerial competence of a specialist, which can be considered as a special type of professional competence, characterized by a set of assessed characteristics of a specialist, which allows him to be effective in professional activities in the competitive environment of the surrounding educational institutions.
Federal state standard of higher education level of higher education Master's degree in the direction 44.04.04 "Professional training (by industry)" The master's program "Management of professional and pedagogical personnel" determines whether a graduate of a university has the ability and readiness for organizational, managerial, analytical, research, teaching activities, including a set of managerial competencies, as a prerequisite for his professional training.
Since the formation of managerial competencies occurs within the framework of the master's key competencies in the learning process based on methodological approaches, in our study we turn to the concept of “approach”, which, according to the definition of the Big Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language, is a set of methods of attitude towards something, considering something or influencing something (Kuznetsov, 2000). In the opinion of Kornetov (2001), it is a way of conceptualizing knowledge, given by an idea or concept, centered on the main categories for it.
Along with a significant range of approaches existing in the theory of pedagogical science, this study uses technological support of students in the conditions of a university to the management of an educational organization based on theoretical and methodological approaches: technological, communicative-activity, competence.
Technological approach is a direction of the methodology of scientific knowledge, implying such an organization of the educational process of students (master program students) in the management of educational organizations, which guarantees the achievement of the set educational goals while observing the algorithm of block-modular learning. According to Slastenin, it is strict scientific design and accurate reproduction of the pedagogical actions that guarantee the success (Slastenin et al., 2013).
The modern approach to teaching at the university is based on a technological basis, where the basis of the technological approach is pedagogical technology. Pedagogical technology as an ordered system of actions, the implementation of which leads to a guaranteed achievement of the result, where the system, according to Afanasyev (2010), is defined as a complex of interrelated objects, implying the presence of components, structure and functions, as well as factors that ensure the integrity of the system, its relative independence.
The foregoing allows us to assert that the essence of the technological approach is to consider the process of forming the managerial competencies of students in managing an educational organization as a component of an integral system that is interconnected and interdependent, which makes it possible to combine a number of organizational and pedagogical conditions necessary for the formation of the qualities of a future leader of an educational organization.
The introduction of a technological approach for this research is characterized by the solution of a number of tasks: to develop the main provisions, to define the theoretical and scientific-methodological bases; to plan and to design work with students; to find out how information technology resources can be used optimally to provide students with consistent scientific and pedagogical guidance of their application; to include students in research activities.
To form managerial competencies in students and effectively prepare them for professional activities, it is advisable to involve students in this activity. The activity where the ability to interact with other people, to build long-term relationships, which contributes to the development of the leader's personality is very important. In this regard, it is necessary to rely on the communicative-activity approach presented in the works of Vygotsky, Zagvyazinsky, Leontiev, Rubinstein et al., which presupposes a rather active independent communicative activity of students that is constantly becoming more complicated in the educational process of the university; it allows to form and develop personal qualities, contributes to the student's awareness of himself as a subject of the educational process, and the activity-based nature of training predetermines such an organization of classes in which the student performs the roles of the leader, methodologist, deputy director of the complex for preschool education assigned by the teacher, as well as various types of communication with teachers, among themselves, cooperation of all participants in planned events. Such collective interaction contributes to the formation of important personal qualities of the head of an educational organization, such as: independence, initiative, efficiency, responsibility, readiness for self-education, etc.
The communicative-activity approach in the formation of the managerial competence of students, interactive teaching methods and technologies are often used to develop quick response skills in the process of communication with a predominance of problematic, creative, game tasks that prepare for real communication with partners in future professional activities, including dealing with conflicts in the team, developing personal point of view and the ability to evaluate the opinions of fellow students. In this case, the communicative-activity approach complements the competence-based approach.
In the domestic education system, the term “competence-based approach” coincides with Russia's accession to the Bologna Process in 2003 – the strategy of creating a unified educational space of European countries and Russia.
The competence-based approach sets a group of tasks for the teacher, such as to solve problems associated with educational activities; explain the phenomena of reality, their essence, causes and relationships; navigate the main problems of modern society and the world of spiritual values; cope with problems associated with the implementation of certain social roles and in various types of professional activities; solve the problems of professional choice. Summarizing the presented material, it can be argued that the head of an educational organization, when forming managerial competencies, should combine them both with organizational and interpersonal ones.
Based on the aforementioned approaches in the formation of managerial competencies of students in the learning process, practicing teachers pay attention to those methods that encourage the involvement of students in active actions, initiative, involvement in the proposed situations, communication between members of the study group and the teacher. These requirements are best met by interactive teaching methods, which allows each student to engage in the exchange of views on work experience, their knowledge, individual vision of solving a problem as the head of an educational organization, they present the possibility of mandatory feedback, mutual assessment and control, and the teacher plays the role of a coordinator, assistant. It is this group of methods that presupposes the creation of conditions under which the ability to work in a team develops, the skills of establishing interaction with fellow students in a working group are improved, and respect for their personality is cultivated.
In accordance with the constantly growing demands of society for specialists who have received higher university education, the requirements for students are also changing. This way of improving the professional training of students, as future leaders of educational organizations, is the technological support of the actual educational process of the program “Management of professional and pedagogical personnel.” Like any educational program, it has its own specifics.
A characteristic feature of the organization of the educational process at the university at the present stage is the continuous process of students acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities in the course of the studied disciplines, focused on the formation of a worldview, value orientations, allowing students to continue to actively function in a professional socio-cultural environment, and the main task of the teacher is accompanying this educational process aimed at creating a cognitive, creative atmosphere, stimulating the independent acquisition of knowledge, providing support in building cooperation among students to jointly search for solutions to the problems posed by the teacher.
In this study, we adhere to the point of view of researchers who consider support in the conditions of a university as an orientation of the educational process towards achieving a certain result, i.e. mastering by students of managerial competencies. It contributes to the formation of professionalism, competitiveness and mobility of the future head of a preschool educational organization. Since the achievement of goals is possible only on the basis of knowledge of modern theory and practice of management of a preschool educational organization, it is necessary to agree to use by all teachers supporting and correlated courses of disciplines in a single educational program, and the accompaniment of students in this process can be called “technological”.
The stage of technological support aimed at the formation of managerial competencies in the conditions of a pedagogical university and ensuring the achievement of the set goals is the technologization of the educational process, the products of which are socially and professionally significant algorithms of behavior that contribute to the success and competitiveness of future leaders.
The technologization of the educational process, as indicated above, occurs at all structural levels: in the educational program as a whole, in the blocks of disciplines of each module, individual courses of disciplines, forms and methods of teaching, in the interaction of teachers and students studying in a specific program. Hence, technological support is a process that has a clear algorithm (sequence) of steps in accordance with the educational standards of higher education, the implementation of which will lead to the achievement of the planned result, is carried out through special forms of interaction between the accompanying and the accompanied (Levites, 1998; Selevko, 2005) and can be presented as an accompaniment of the person and accompaniment of the process.
For our research, we pay special attention to supporting the personality of future leaders of an educational organization, and the purpose of technological support in this process is the purposeful formation of managerial competencies in students in an integral educational process at a university, including for the student the awareness of himself as a subject of his own life position and the realization of his preferences in the professional sphere, in the formation of the orientation of one's own field of development as a modern leader and the responsibility for the action in which is borne by the accompanying person. The indicated component of technological support allows creating situations of immersion of students in the real professional sphere of their upcoming activities, removing the barrier in communicating with colleagues and representatives of the surrounding society, as partners in solving the indicated problems.
Noting the above, the specifics of technological support can also be presented as elements of joint activities of a teacher, student and employers:
The main place in the specifics of technological support is occupied by the substantiation of the idea of an interactive form of teaching students within the framework of the taught courses of modules, the development of which is aimed at developing students' managerial competencies.
Creation of the educational environment of the university, which is formed by the corporate community of teachers, students and heads of educational organizations, creates a psychological, professional, social environment for students and is considered by us as a component of the space with which students constantly interact in the process of studying at the university. It is this environment that meets the personal meanings of students, which motivates them to have a responsible attitude to their chosen profession, educational program, and contributes to self-education as a factor of effective self-realization and self-identification.
Educational program “Management of professional pedagogical personnel” (course “Professional training (by industry”) and teachers who train students within the disciplines: “Personnel management” and “Management of educational systems’, “Quality Management in Education”, “Management of Innovations in an Educational Organization”, “State and Municipal Administration in the Field of Education”, as well as heads of educational organizations in Makhachkala and Grozny, interacting with undergraduates in various activities (practices, exams, master classes, conferences, seminars, round tables, etc.).
Such cooperation, based on the exchange of views and experience in the management of educational organizations, makes it possible to more effectively form managerial competencies among students, incl. expands the range of their professional interests, orientates them in the variety of types and types of preschool educational organizations in which, possibly, they will have to further realize themselves as leaders.
3. Expansion of space is the next element of the specifics of technological support, which is considered, according to Manuilov as a resource, reserve, potential for the formation of an integral and large-scale means of the formation of a human personality (Nesterenko, 2012).
Actually, the space of technological support is a set of areas of activity related to the educational environment; it includes the information and thematic content of training students of a pedagogical university in the direction of “Professional training (by industry)”, the profile “Management of professional and pedagogical personnel”, creating a synergistic effect of interaction of all disciplines studied by students within the framework of the designated program.
The space of technological support for students of the above-mentioned modules includes disciplines directly related to the activities of the head of an educational organization, in which the main attention is paid to the formation of managerial competencies. Each module includes a list of basic disciplines, optional disciplines, research work of a master's student and industrial practice, which are aimed at forming not only general cultural, but also general professional and professional competencies, where managerial competencies are also presented.
In addition to the above disciplines in professional modules, expanding the space implies attracting employers from educational organizations, incl. additional education, providing methodological support of the educational process in the process of passing industrial practice, as well as seminars, round tables, master classes, discussions on modern issues of management of preschool educational organizations. Students talk about the topics of their projects, scientific research, etc. which also contributes to the formation of management competencies of students.
4. The next element of the specifics of technological support is the implementation of interactive teaching methods, when students are sequentially included in cooperation based on teacher-student, student-student-employer interaction.
The results of practical classes, as well as pedagogical practice, show that students experience certain difficulties in the communicative sphere, which requires the ability to freely communicate professionally with fellow students, heads of educational organizations on the designated topics. In such a situation, the teacher builds technological support for students in the learning process as close as possible to the conditions of reality, i.e. giving the student the opportunity to show the degree of formation of their managerial competencies in solving the tasks set by the teacher. The teacher, with minimal personal intervention, contributes to the building of two-way communication (teacher-student, student-student, student-leader), which removes the barrier of students' uncertainty in communication.
This form of interaction is considered as the ability of learners to interact or to be in a dialogue mode. Such a position can be considered as an interactive form of learning, built in a dialogue mode, when in the educational process all students are involved in the learning process and have the opportunity to express their opinion without prejudice that it may not be perceived by others, as well as evaluate their proposals.
5. The analysis of the results is the final element of the specifics of the technological support of students in the formation of managerial competencies. The assessment of the degree of formation of the designated competencies can be tracked according to the results of student learning: changes in behavior, self-presentation of oneself as the head of a preschool educational institution at final conferences on pedagogical practice in educational organizations, speeches at professional seminars, conferences, pedagogical councils, where university teachers can track the need for possible correction of ineffective constituent elements of technological support.
The formation of managerial competencies among students in the educational process at the university requires various interactive forms of organizing the activities of students. It could be a conference, a methodical seminar, a round table (discussion, debate), brainstorming method, “Decision tree”, game (business, role-playing games) techniques, a case-study approach, a workshop, a focus group, a project method, a training, etc. All of these methods contribute not only to the ability to interact with various participants in the framework of professional activities, but also to the development of leadership qualities, create conditions for the formation and improvement of a set of managerial competencies: motivation, goal-setting, planning, organization and control.
Taking into account the specifics of the technological support of students in the formation of managerial competencies in the university environment allows to optimize the essence and structure of interaction in the pedagogical process, increase the motivation and interest of students in studying in the program “Management of professional and pedagogical personnel”, contribute to the formation of managerial competencies, and educate future competitive professionals.
Afanasyev, V. G. (2010). Socio-pedagogical technologies. Textbook. Litera M.
Alieva, R. R., Martazanov, H. M., & Magomedov, I. A. (2020). Formation of managerial competencies of students in a university environment. The world of science, culture, education, 3(82), 236–237.
Kornetov, G. B. (2001). Pedagogical paradigms of basic education models: a tutorial. Publishing House of the University of the Russian Academy of Education.
Kuznetsov, S. A. (2000). The Big Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language. Norint,
Levites, D. G. (1998). Practice of teaching: modern educational technologies. Institute of Practical Psychology.
Nesterenko, V. V. (2012). The essence and tasks of a student-centered approach in education. Modern problems of science and education, 6, 34–38.
Selevko, G. K. (2005). Pedagogical technologies based on the activation, intensification and effective management of educational institutions. Research Institute of School Technologies.
Slastenin, V. A., Isaev, I. F., & Shiyanov, E. N. (2013). Pedagogy. Publishing Center Academy.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
29 November 2021
Print ISBN (optional)
Cultural development, technological development, socio-political transformations, globalization
Cite this article as:
Rezvanovna, A. R., Edilsultanovna, M. K., & Muhadinovna, A. Z. (2021). Formation Of Managerial Competencies Among Students In The Process Of Professional Training. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in The Context of Modern Globalism, vol 117. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 67-74). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.11.10