New Political Borrowings In Russian Dictionaries Of The Early 21st Century


The article deals with a lexicographical representation of neologisms referring to political discourse in two types of dictionaries: an explanatory dictionary of actual vocabulary and an annual neological reference book. The comparison between the lexicographical sources related to the turn of the century and the recent ones showed a decrease in borrowing intensity. Although the actual vocabulary dictionary reflects only single neolexemes, it states complex semantic processes occurring to the meanings of actualized words previously acquired by the common language. The material unification made it possible to reflect the diversity of paradigmatic relations within the field “Politics”. The analysis revealed the following two trends: the tendency to reduce the number of borrowings and the trend to provide the lexical core of the newest Russian political discourse with neologisms which arose on the basis of Russian derivational affixes. The updated series “New in Russian Lexicon” based on the electronic neological database contains complete and timely information about the latest borrowings. It was shown that in the first decades of the 21st century, political vocabulary incorporated into Russian tends to correlate with other countries’ political realities. Lexemes of the type mentioned are usually borrowed in groups, frequent and widely used in journalism, but quickly become obsolete and are not included in dictionaries with long-time frame coverage. Representing all yearly neologisms (including the occasional ones) in the annual neological reference book enabled us to collect the data that reflect cultural appropriation, a rare and interesting mechanism observed in the development of political loanwords.

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