Language Contacts And Elimination Of Lexical And Grammatical Lacunae


The article considers the lacunarity concept, clarifies the specific features of lexical and grammatical lacunae in the aspect of linguistic contactology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the lexical and grammatical lacunae elimination, considering lingual contacts. The following methods: comparative-typological method, comparative method, traditional inductive-deductive method, contextual analysis (including the "broad context of the situation"), system-functional method with elements of transformation and substitution, psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic experiments have been used for the research. Lingual lacunae, understood as a significant absence of an element filled in by various means, are a useful construct that makes it possible to focus on the specifics of language means at all its levels, both within the same language and in comparison to different languages. In the "classification grid" of lacunae, the following types of lacunae – lexical-grammatical, grammatical-stylistic, and grammatical-emotive - can be considered. The presence or absence of a particular grammatical category in the language is based on the peculiarities of the linguistic culture as a whole. Grammatical lacunarity is considered in correlation with such "adjacent "categories as implicitness, "hidden" grammatical categories, non-equivalence and zero signs. Lacuna is opposed to zero sign (zero morpheme) globally: zero sign is in a certain sense identical to the sign in general, but lacuna is the absence of a sign that requires elimination. In Russian, the elimination of intra-lingual lacunae is connected, first of all, with gender lacunae. Since meaning is encoded in grammatical categories, their differences in languages reflect the most significant notions for each society.

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