The research is devoted to the study of ideologization peculiarities of non-single-word names lexical meaning in the modern Russian and English languages. The relevance is determined by the necessity to study ideologization peculiarities of non-single-word names in Russian and English and to identify the factors that determine it. Two types of ideologized non-single-word names have been identified: the first were the result of secondary nomination (русские хакеры, Russian hackers, polite people, little green men) and the second were the result of secondary definition (русское оружие). The criteria for distinguishing between ideological evaluativity (polite people) and ideological connotation (русские хакеры) have been determined too. Communicative and semantic-cognitive methods of analysis allowed authors to describe the conceptual field of русские хакеры/Russian hackers ideologemes, as well as these compound names communicative meanings. Statistical method allowed authors to determine non-single-word names productivity in contexts of Russian National Corpus and the largest English-speaking electronic News on the Web Corpus. It has been also found that the Russian hackers ideologeme was highly productive in the English language picture of the world. In the end of research authors concluded about ideologization peculiarities of non-single-word names both in Russian and English.
The speed of life in the modern world leaves its mark on our language system. The process of creation and discovery of new things, phenomena, and processes, which does not subside for a minute, inevitably leads to the enrichment of our vocabulary. New words appear in production, science and technology, social and political spheres of people's life, and it often happens that the designation of a new concept does not fit into the structural and semantic framework of a word. In this case, in order to concretize the meaning of a new unit and highlight it from a number of similar ones, additional clarifying signs or characteristics are indicated by including attributes in the spectrum of tools that categorize the world and name objects and phenomena.
Compound names that arise in response to the inability of language tools to express a certain idea or describe a phenomenon using one-word units of the language, as a rule, do not have a clear fixation of meaning in explanatory dictionaries. In this regard, there is a necessity to define a strict algorithm, a model that allows scientists to step by step classify a compound name. The result of this process is the fixation of the communicative meaning of the linguistic unit in the studied applied area. In this work, the authors, based on the results of other researchers in this area, propose the research of ideologization peculiarities of non-single-word names in modern Russian and English.
The following question should be answered within the framework of this research: what the algorithm is for researching the ideologization peculiarities of a compound name, which allows scientists to fix its communicative meaning in the language.
Purpose of the Study
The main goal is to define the algorithm for researching the ideologization peculiarities of a compound name, which allows scientists to fix its communicative meaning in the language.
The conceptual field of a compound name is represented through thematic areas (=conceptual areas) and differentiation of compound name’s ambivalence explicators (=a figurative and a value component of the content plan (Vorkachyov, 2004). The semantic field is determined within the sememe and fixed by means of differentiating the semantic components of the ideologized compound name lexical meaning through the use of component analysis (Maklakova & Sternin, 2013, p. 30). The method of semantic description of meaning verifying (“cognitive verification”, when the reflection method was used to determine the inheritance of this seme to a given meaning in the linguistic consciousness of native speakers (Maklakova & Sternin, 2013, p. 6) was used too. The meaning acquired this way is communicative and fixes the components “which are communicatively relevant at this stage of the linguistic people consciousness development” (Sternin & Salomatina, 2011, p. 24). The ideologized names formation research method (Starodubets, 2010), communicative-semantic analysis (Sternin & Salomatina, 2011), the method of evaluation and connotation differentiation (Sternin, 1979). Corpus, statistical and comparative methods were used at the beginning of the linguistic data analysis.
Compound name and its features
New concepts nomination process can generate not only individual words, but also whole phrases built on the principle of spreading one word to another. Stable verbal complexes are the result of this process, and their meaning is initially formed from the components meanings they comprise, expands and transforms during their usage. As such, there are, for example, the following stable word combinations:, etc.
According to the definition of Shulezhkova, stable verbal complexes are a combination of two or more components of a verbal nature, built according to the known language laws, which is semantically permanent, reproducible and stable in lexical and grammatical structure with acceptable variation within certain limits (Shulezhkova & Korotenko, 2016, p. 5).
One of the varieties of stable verbal complexes is collocation. The concept of “restricted collocation” came to us from the English language and corresponds to the Russian term “phraseological combination”. Collocation is understood as a stable combination, usually consisting of two words, one of which is rethought, and limited compatibility with other words. Collocation should be distinguished from idioms. Collocations are devoid of a complex of phraseological properties: they do not have semantic integrity, their terms are units of the lexical-semantic system of the Russian language. (Macis, 2017; Onal, 2020).
Composite names are a subtype of stable verbal complexes (Bauer, 2019). There are many opinions and approaches to understanding the status of compound names in the language system in linguistics. The features and types of word combinations began to be discussed even in the first Russian grammars. Academician Fortunatov drew attention to a special type of phrases, homogeneous in meaning with fused words (Fortunatov, 2020), which he called "fused phrases". The main idea is that the semantic content of such phrases does not consist of an assessment of the words included in the combination separately, but follows from their consideration in aggregate. Examples of such phrases can be: railway, fuel tank, etc. At about the same time, academician Vinogradov uses in his works the concept of “integral verbal groups”, referring them to the category of semantically indivisible “phraseological units” expressing a single integral meaning (Götzsche, 2019; Vinogradov, 1972, p. 27). There was a tendency in further studies of linguists to define such concepts as “compound names”.
Based on it, linguists were divided in opinions regarding the status of such names in the language system. The basic understanding was in the non-idiomatical nature of compound names (cf. hearing aid, notebook, etc.). However, in further research, the viewpoints of scientists were divided. Some of them viewed compound names as the category of idioms in the Russian language like Arkhangelsky (1964), Kopylenko (1989), Götzsche (2019), the others viewed them as a special group of idioms, complicated terms or names which are characterized by the continuity of the phrasal structure (see, for example, the works of Abakshina (1982), Alefirenko et al. (2018), Sorokoletov (2011), Teliya (1996), Zhukov (2006) and many others). However, there is a different position of researchers and linguists, according to which compound names should be put into a separate group of stable phrases, delimiting them from idioms and other stereotypes of colloquial speech (proverbs, sayings, etc.). According to this view, compound name is a non-idiomatical unit. Albrekht (1999), Droga (2017), Kobozeva (2000), Kozhin (1969), Shmelev (1973) and others considered that compound names were only superficially like phraseological units, however, in the structural and semantic aspect, they were stable phrases of a different kind due to the absence of an emotional-figurative component and their exclusively nominative function.
When comparing compound names and idioms, it is necessary to understand that the last may be interpreted in a narrow and broad meaning in modern linguistics. The distinction between these approaches is due to the coexistence of two competing points of view: the theory of reproducibility and the semantic theory. Proponents of the broad approach, i.e., the theory of reproducibility (Arkhangelsky, Shansky, Kunin, etc.), view all combinations of words that are stable in language and reproducible in speech as idioms. Proponents of the narrow approach - the semantic theory (Zhukov, Solodub, Mokienko, Teliya, etc.) - are guided by the criteria of semantic integrity, imagery, expressiveness when identify idioms.
Teliya notes that idioms are characterized by semantic duality - they are able to designate a specific situation objectively (objective modality) and allegorically (evaluative and subjective-emotional modality) (Teliya, 1996). Since most phraseological units have expressive-colored meaning, this does not make it possible to use phraseological units as a neutral means of designation. Thus, in a specific context, along with the nominative function, idiom, as a rule, perform other functions, and is not used as a mean of pure, neutral nomination.
In this study, we follow the last-mentioned approach, within which the most successful and well explained, from our point of view, is the theory proposed by Kozhin and Shmelev. From this position, a compound name is a combination of words used to denote the phenomena of reality and has a semantic and structural-grammatical unity that equates it to a word (Kozhin, 1969, pp. 31-46), (Shmelev, 1973).
From the position of structural and grammatical properties, compound names are closer to variative phrases, and from the position of the usage, they are closer to idioms. Nevertheless, unlike idioms, which act as a characteristic, expressive-figurative means, compound names are essentially a means of naming, classifying and highlighting of designated, concretizing its subject orientation.
Compound names have the following basic characteristics: inseparability of phrasal structure, stability in composition and order of lexical units; constructing in accordance with the certain structural and semantic models of the Russian language; formal, but not semantic (in the works of the Russian religious philosopher Ilyin - “spiritual vision”: formally it is possible to admit the equivalency to the term “intuition”, but not semantically) equivalency to a word; in a number of cases, they contribute to the appearing of new words in the language, which is manifested in capability of the compound name to be transformed into a word, keeping the original meaning; the possible use of one of its components in a figurative meaning, reflecting a characteristic feature of the phenomenon itself.
On the distinction between secondary nomination and secondary definition
A special case of the non-single-word nomination is the ideologized compound name, which, in turn, originate from ideologized phrases through their transition to the category of stable, semantically indivisible structural units of the language. Ideologized phrases provide actualization in the structure of a compound name of certain semantic components (potential semes), which compile the basis of derived or refined meaning (Starodubets, 2010, p. 139). Starodubets identified two main ways of ideologized phrases formation: secondary nomination and secondary definition.
The secondary nomination is the use of nominative means of language in a new function of nomination (Teliya, 1996, pp. 129-221). It is carried out by means of derived lexical-semantic units. In the case of a compound name, the secondary nomination is the concentration of two conceptual components in one (Starodubets, 2010, p. 140), which means separation from the original subject correlation and transfer to a new reference basis (Zagrebelny, 2013). There are some phrases formed as a result of secondary nomination: (Starodubets, 2017, p. 37).
Secondary definition, according to Starodubets, suggests complication through the attribute of a given conceptual field (Starodubets, 2010, p. 140). There are some phrases resulting from a secondary definition: The secondary nomination is characterized by the expansion of the conceptual field, leading to syncretism of the linguistic unit content plan, while the "diffusion" of two components into one compound name determines the transformation of differential semes into semes, representing the components of the communicative meaning of a new non-single-word name. The secondary definition is characterized by the complication of the conceptual field (often through an attribute), as a result of which the evaluative component is updated. At the same time, as the author notes, an attributive phrase as a result of the secondary definition, may be transformed into a nominative phrase without changing the meaning [Ibid.], i.e., which cannot be said about phrases that are a result of the secondary nomination. We emphasize that there is no compound name in the secondary definition.
As an example, let us consider in Russian a non-single-word name (Timofeev, 2019), in English - the compound name. The semantic description of the meanings actualization of named lexemes presupposes the presence of contexts. Therefore, we use the Russian National Corpus (RNC, 2020) and the largest English-language electronic News on the Web Corpus (NOW, 2020) as materials for the analysis.
Representation of the lexical meaning of the non-single-word name русское оружие in modern Russian is defined by the communicative meaning: Russian weapon is a military weapon made in Russia, famous and recognized throughout the world for its reliability (Timofeev, 2019, p. 193).
The semantic structure of the communicative meaning of the compound name is represented by the hyperseme -; differential semes:,,. The "Russian" attribute specifies and complicates the meaning of the main word. Evaluating the semantic field by means of evaluative explicators, we are convinced of the material nature of the concept. There are some examples of the word usage:,. We define these as These attributive phrases can be transformed into nominative ones without changing the meaning of the statement. The phrase = /. If we replace with the last ones in the previous examples then get:,;
We note that the statements transformed into nominative, save the basic meaning known to a native Russian speaker. The "Russian" attribute complicates the conceptual field and leads to the actualization of the evaluative component. The result is a refinement, complication of the hyperseme through differential semes. In this regard, we state that this non-single-word name is a consequence of the secondary definition, and, therefore, is not a compound name.
As an example, in modern English, we analyze the compound name. The Oxford Dictionary gives the following definition of the phrase: (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 2020). We consider this value as primary.
Then we need to define the content plan of the lexeme. After analyzing a sample of contexts as the result of search in the NOW Corpus by the keyword we conclude that the representation of the lexical meaning of the compound name in modern English is defined by the semantic field that includes ambivalent semantic components, that is: hyperseme -; differential semes:,,. These differential semes of the compound name expand the meaning of the hyperseme, thereby there is the transformation of the phrase basic meaning. The modified meaning of the concept is. Thus, the ideologized compound name is the equivalent of the full concept and is a result of the secondary nomination.
On the difference between ideological evaluativity and ideological connotation of non-single-word names
The language of ideology implies words with a high degree of evaluativity. The question of differentiating the terms “evaluation” and “evaluativity” is in interest of many scientists. Various approaches to this issue have been analyzed and studied in the dissertation research by S.N. Starodubets (Starodubets, 1999). On this basis, the author proposes to consider the evaluation as the speaker's attitude to reality, the content of the message or the addressee, and evaluativity as “upgraded” evaluation, that is the result of the evaluation transformation into a fact of language (Starodubets, 1999).
A number of scholars consider evaluativity within connotation. V.N. Teliya defines this concept as a semantic entity, usually or occasionally included in the linguistic units semantics, expressing the emotive-evaluative and stylistic marked attitude of the subject of speech to reality when it is designated in the utterance (Teliya, 1986, p. 5). Goverdovsky defines connotation as the sum of meaningful components of value functioning in a real speech act (Goverdovsky, 1977, p. 13), and includes an ideological component in it. At the same time, according to Apresyan, connotation and evaluativity have not genus-specific relations, that is, connotation is outside the intension of the lexical meaning structure, evaluativity is within the intension (Apresyan, 1995).
Following Starodubets, we suppose that ideological evaluativity, as a rule, belongs to the denotative-significative component of the lexical meaning of a word; in some cases, it is possible to mean ideological connotation. Ideological evaluativity is invariant and can be expressed amelioratively or pejoratively in a context (for example, ("+"), ("-")). At the intra-semantic level, this phenomenon is characterized by evaluative enantiosemia. Mukhtarova says that it is typical for linguistic units that the emotional-evaluative characteristic presupposes the presence of negative and positive evaluativity in their meaning or its absence (Mukhtarova, 2008, p. 223). As for the concept of "ideological connotation", we emphasize that it is an optional component of a word lexical meaning (Elezi, 2018, p. 81; Starodubets, 1999, p. 38).
The way to distinguish between ideological evaluativity and ideological connotation is the criteria proposed by Sternin to distinguish evaluativity and connotation, in general: if the lexical meaning of a word may be defined with non-evaluative words, then connotation takes place, otherwise - evaluativity (Sternin, 1979).
As examples, analyze in Russian the compound name (), in English - the compound name. First of all, we should designate the communicative meaning of the compound name, actual in modern Russian:. Further, it is necessary to distinguish evaluative semes belonging to the compound name as a result of the analysis of the RNC contexts. These are:. Analyzing the meaning of the compound namementioned above, for the presence of an evaluative component in its definition, that means the search for evaluative semes in the meaning, we state its absence. Thus, the compound name is defined with non-evaluative semes, therefore, there is an ideological connotation.
As an example, in English, we analyze the compound nameThe communicative meaning of the compound name actual in modern English is. Distinguish evaluative semes belonging to the compound name as a result of the analysis of the NOW Corpus contexts. These are:. Analyzing the meaning of the compound namementioned above, we fix the next evaluative semes of meliorative type:andThus, we note that ideological evaluativity is explicated by means of these semantic components, the purpose of which is to emphasize a peaceful and friendly character of Russian soldiers during the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula to Russia. The ideologization peculiarities of the compound name is determined by the euphemistic metaphorization process of the attribute ‘, explaining the "semantic modification" of components toward the whole expression.
On the communicative meaning of compound name
Describing the communicative meaning of a compound name, we follow the approach proposed by Sternin. According to this approach, communicative meaning presupposes the structuring and generalization of the semes fixed in the context. To describe the communicative meaning of a lexical unit, communicative-semantic analysis is used. This type of analysis assumes a seminal description of actualization of lexemes meanings in contexts and formation of a generalizing definition of the communicative meaning, the identification of common and uncommon, modern, old and new meanings, semantic variation of meanings in the context and the semanthemes field modeling of these units in the modern language consciousness (Sternin & Salomatina, 2011, p. 25).
As examples in this section, analyze the compound name in Russian and its equivalent in English.
We consider it expedient to establish that the communicative meaning of a compound name as a “concept captured by a sign” (Kubryakova et al., 1996, p. 92), is determined by the conceptual field of the ideologeme (= ideological concept) and this is essentially its compressed result. We emphasize that in order to establish the communicative meaning of the ideologized compound name, it is necessary, using the method of semantic-cognitive analysis, to represent the conceptual field of the ideologeme, which we describe as a core-field structure, including thematic (= conceptual) areas in the core, at the periphery level - ambivalence explicators (neutral, pejorative and meliorative). In the article by Timofeev, in a similar way, the communicative meaning of the compound name is established (Timofeev, 2018). We use RNC and the largest English-language electronic NOW Corpus as materials for the analysis.
First, we analyze the English-speaking compound name. At the first step, we compose a selection of contexts from NOW Corpus, selected by the key expression. At the second step, we group the resulting contexts by thematic areas and fix semantic components in each of its.
Let us view some examples of describing thematic areas and its contexts.
The thematic area "spheres of interest of Russian hackers":
the most talented work for groups that carry out big financial heists (17-03-16, NZ,New Zealand Herald); have been suspected of meddling with political events in the United States, Britain (19-12-18, US, Reuters); …with his private medical records being leaked in a cyber attack by on the World Anti-Doping Agency (16-09-15, KE, The Star); …the Ivano-Frankivsk region of Ukraine lost power in December of 2015, after attacked its power girds (17-02-15, US, Jalopnik).
The thematic area "interference in the US political system":
still posed a threat to America's elections (20-06-30, US, slate.com); …interference by in the 2016 US presidential election (18-07-05, GB, The National); …Mr Trump said his comment during a 2016 political rally asking to help find emails scrubbed from Mrs Clinton's private server (19-04-18, GB, Daily Mail); had sought to influence the US election by hacking the Democratic and Republican parties (16-12-13, IE, thejournal.ie); multiple agencies have confidently concluded that intended to hurt Clinton and help Trump (17-01-06, US, The Atlantic).
The thematic area "Putin's Russian hackers":
working for Putin's government (16-12-14, IE, Irish Times); A group of working for Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) (19-10-22, uawire.org); the recent spate of embarrassing emails and other records stolen by is President Vladimir Putin's splashy response to years of what he sees as U.S. (16-09-16, NDTV); many intelligence experts say it came from, and Putin made it clear that he favored Trump's win (16-11-14, GB, The Guardian).
Further, we determine evaluative explicators included in the periphery of the conceptual field of the ideologeme, these are. In the English-language picture of the world, we note the predominance of pejorative contexts. The negative attitude towardsis associated with the resonant and controversial topic of the US political elections in 2016, when hackers from Russia were suspected of meddling in the election process, which, as foreign analysts suppose, determined the elections outcome. However, at the same time, they do not deny the talent of abroad, as evidenced by the explicator ‘ in the conceptual field. We fix the communicative meaning of the compound name, actual in modern English:. As we can see, it is the direct reference to the ‘concept. Based on the selected semes, we define the hyperseme and differential semes that characterize the semantic field of the compound name.
The compound name Russian hackers: hyperseme: hackers from Russia, carry out big financial heists, cyber attacks; differential semes: working for Putin's government”, threat/influence the US election, cyber attack on the World Anti-Doping Agency, cyber attacks on foreign banks.
Thus, the meaning of the compound name, actual in the contexts of modern political and mass media discourse, reflects the diffusion of the content plan of components in the structure of whole concept.
The next one is the compound namein Russian. We compose a selection of contexts from RNC, selected by the key expression. We group the resulting contexts by thematic areas and fix semantic components in each of its.
The thematic area "spheres of interest of Russian hackers":
...the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) suspects in an attack on one of the country's largest banks, Citigroup, as a result of which tens of million dollars were stolen (Russians under surveillance by FBI // RBC Daily, 2009.12.22); screenshot of the Wired website with an article about attacking the infrastructure of Ukraine (Sergey Golubitsky. If cyberwar tomorrow ... What will it be and why is it not at all about “Russian hackers”, as they think in the West // Novaya Gazeta, 2018.11.05); the activation of law enforcement officers from Russia in the issue of suppressing cybercrimes was also influenced by the fact that, who until now hunted for money from Western banks, began to act against Russian companies as well (Olga Panfilova. Russian hackers who stole $9 million from the Royal Bank of Scotland were caught // New Region 2, 2010.03.22).
The thematic area "interference in the US political system":
the desire of some American publications to shift responsibility to immigrants from Russia is in a sense natural - constantly appear in crime reports (Denis Podolyak. Russian hackers attacked American banks // Izvestia, 2013.01.09); the Russian Embassy in Spain published a commentary due to publications in Spanish media about alleged new cases of interference by alleged in the US elections that have not yet taken place (The section “Technologies”. The Russian Embassy in Madrid compared Russian hackers to UFOs // gazeta.ru, 2018.08.23); American journalists and officials claimed that allegedly stole Democratic correspondence and published it on the Internet, as well as tried to penetrate the electronic vote counting system (Trump was praised for a good translation of the speech from Russian // lenta.ru, 2018.01.31).
The thematic area "characteristics, "achievements" of Russian hackers":
but, given thatare generally considered the best in the world, I think there are cyber troops and cyber weapons in some form in Russia (Evgeny CHERNYKH. Reagan is the father of the first cyber war. Against the USSR // Komsomolskaya Pravda, 2014.03.20); the script, dedicated to, was included in the prestigious Hollywood blacklist, reports Deadline (Culture Section. The script about Russian hackers was included in the prestigious "black list" of Hollywood // gazeta.ru, 2017.12.12); others thought it was all about the ubiquitous who had hacked this machine too (The network envied the one who hit the jackpot in the food vending machine // lenta.ru, 2017.06.15).
Further, we determine evaluative explicators included in the periphery of the conceptual field of the ideologeme, these are. In the Russian-language picture of the world, we note the predominance of neutral and meliorative contexts. This fact can be explained by the feeling of patriotism of Russian people and pride in any victories of their compatriots. At the same time, the possible negative sides or qualities of an object are smoothed out, omitted, and it is the merits and achievements that come to the fore. In modern Russian, the communicative meaning of the compound name is defined as follows: are. Based on the selected semes, we define the hyperseme and differential semes that characterize the semantic field of the compound name.
The compound name русские хакеры: hyperseme: hackers from Russia, carry out big financial heists, cyber attacks; differential semes: threat/influence the US election, cyber attacks on Russian and foreign banks, ubiquitous, the best in the world, cyber troops, cyber weapons.
In the Russian-speaking picture of the world, the understanding of the ideologeme differs from the English-speaking one. Based on the semes of evaluativity and their analysis carried out above, we fix in the Russian-language discourse the presence of a potential semantic component "pride in world famous hackers".
Based on the contexts, we also note the expression of doubt about the involvement of in interfering in the political system of the United States, as well as confirmation of the vulnerability of Russian financial companies along with foreign ones from cyber attacks by.
So, the new meaning of the compound name, actual in the contexts of modern political and mass media discourse, is complicated by the expansion of the conceptual field, leading to the diffusion of components within a non-single-word name.
On the productivity of ideologized non-single-word names
The productivity of ideologized compound names can be due to a number of reasons: necessity of society for nomination of new concepts, processes or phenomena of a certain sphere, frequency of usage in any applied sphere, the necessity for a clear structuring of generic relations in a paradigm, influence of extra-linguistic factors that act as relevant for the emergence and functioning of compound names (the tendency towards semantic regularity (uniformity) and expressiveness; language's striving for motivation, accuracy of designations; tendency towards analyticity, manifested at different levels of the language (Ashurova, 2011, p. 105). A compound name itself is itself is productive, because is a "fallback" method of nomination used for a more accurate and differentiated designation of objects and phenomena. An important advantage of compound names is that they contain an extended message internally. According to Kolesov, analyticism in the Russian mentality, i.e. the identification of a concept through an image is a Russian conceptual feature (Kolesov, 2006).
In modern socio-political discourse, the ideological confrontation between the Western and Russian worlds is actually obvious in the context of the socio-political discourse. An increasing number of emotionally and ideologically colored vocabulary is used in context of social and political discussions. Among the productive ideological nominations, the following can be distinguished: etc.
In this section, we analyze the aspect of compound names () productivity, as well as the non-single-word name.
The compound name is a relatively new concept fixed in the language, which became popular since 2014. In the context of modern Russian political discourse, the compound name means (Turkova, 2020). The compound name was fixed not only at the official level in the form of word phrase, productively used by high-ranking officials with the aim of registering as a trademark by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, etc., but also on the social one (that is expressed in the interactions, as well as in the form of naming various communities, accounts, etc. in social networks, and various brands of food and consumer goods). As a result of search with the key expression "" in RNC, we fixed 207 references in political and mass media contexts. Consider that the compound name is highly productive in the Russian language.
Analyzing English mass-media texts, we noticed that the main equivalent of the Russian compound name is English. This compound name in its basic meaning, established in the English-speaking culture, means an imaginary or hypothetical being from outer space (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2020). Comparison of Russian soldiers in Crimea with is justified. = is equivalent to =. As a result of secondary nomination process, this compound name acquires the new meaning:. As a result of search with the key expression in English-language NOW Corpus, we fixed 185 references in political and mass media contexts. We noted an obvious shift of the mode of meaning to negative. Here are some examples of pejorative explicators:. Thus, we conclude about the differences in vision of the same concept in different cultures. In the English-language view of the world, the compound name is to became fixed at the level of media and politics, which is confirmed by a big enough amount of articles in the media, reflected in NOW Corpus contexts, and therefore is highly productive.
As a result of search with the key expression in newspaper corpus of RNC, we fixed 205 references in political and mass media contexts. Basically, the contexts with ideologized semantic components "reliable", "quality", "the best in the world" are in dominance. In the basic sense, means. As the key explicators representing the fame and glory of in the world, we single out the following: "Katyusha", "T-34 tank", "Mosin rifle", "Kalashnikov assault rifle", "C-400". Thus, the ideological meaning of the non-single-word name is. Consider that influence of the attributive component in this case does not cause the "diffusion" of the conceptual fields of two phrase components, but there is an expansion of the conceptual field of the reference component due to "addition" of actual characteristics. We consider this non-single-word name is highly productive in the Russian language. The compound nameis an ideological concept popular in the media, both in Russian-speaking and English-speaking cultures. The equivalent in English is the compound name. As a result of search with the key expression "русские хакеры" in RNC, we fixed 194 references in political and mass media contexts. In the English-language NOW Corpus, we fixed about 1000 mentions. This concept became popular because of the events in the USA in 2016, when Russian hackers were accused by American side of meddling in the US political system and rigging the results of the presidential elections in the country. This event became widely discussed in all media and caused many conflicts and contradictions between Russia and the United States. When we analyzed NOW Corpus we fixed contexts which claim the connection of with the government or FSB of the Russian Federation. For this reason, in the English-language picture of the world, we noted a hostile, extremely negative perception of this concept by native speakers. In the Russian-speaking picture of the world, we note the manifestation of feeling of “pride” by Russian native speakers to hackers recognized as the best in the world. Thus, in the basic sense, are hackers from Russia who carry out cyberattacks on banks and large political and financial campaigns in order to obtain monetary gain. Based on the results of the study of NOW Corpus contexts, we define the actual understanding of this concept in English:. Based on the results of the study of RNC contexts, we define the current meaning of this concept in Russian:. Thus, we state that the compound names and are productive units in both languages.
As a result of the study, we have found that ideologization peculiarities of a compound name in the Russian language were characterized by: Russian mentality which determines categorization of the world through the structuring of concepts through new analytical words and phrases (Kolesov, 2006); the extralinguistic tendency of polarization of society, when the same concepts are assessed diametrically in different ideologies (Sternin, 2004, p. 9); the intra-linguistic tendency of language to economy linguistic efforts, and appearing of compressed models for new language units, which include ideologized non-single-word names; the meliorative hypersemantisation ofandattributes.
Ideologization peculiarities of a compound name in the English language were characterized by: the English-language mental and conceptual picture of the world; the extralinguistic tendency of polarization of society; the intra-linguistic tendency of language to economy linguistic efforts, and appearing of compressed models for new language units; the pejorative hypersemantisation of and attributes.
The publication was funded by RFBR, project number 19-312-90031.
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01 September 2021
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The Russian language, methods of teaching, Russian language studies, Russian linguistic culture, Russian literature
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Timofeev, S., & Starodubets, S. (2021). Ideologization Peculiarities Research Of Compound Names In Russian And English Languages. In & V. M. Shaklein (Ed.), The Russian Language in Modern Scientific and Educational Environment, vol 115. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 368-382). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.09.41