The aim of the research is to characterize the typology of syntactic constructions of Russian business writing from the point of view of its reflection in the Arabic language tradition. The research materials were business letters of request in Russian and Arabic for 2016-2019, selected by the method of continuous sampling from Russian and Arabic-language open sources. Based on the analysis of syntactic structures typical for the Russian business letter-request, their specificity is revealed against the background of the Arabic language tradition, which is due not only to the grammatical structure of the language, but also to its cultural features contained in the semantics of the word and used in business correspondence. In Arabic culture, the absence of syntactic constructions with the inclusion of direct address by name is due to religious traditions, authoritarianism, and a clear hierarchy of relations, so a business letter appeals to the position of the interlocutor. Nevertheless, this is compensated for by the greeting structures, emotionality. In Russian culture, however, constructions with a direct address and the presence of a proper name in it are typical and are perceived as a manifestation of respect for the addressee, a sign of an individual approach. Moreover, there is a tendency to save language resources within the framework of syntactic construction. The absence of plural and interrogative sentences in both languages proves the authoritarianism of their cultures.
The era of globalization and active intercultural interaction has made it possible to study business correspondence in different languages at different levels (linguistic, cultural, and historical). The relevance of the study is since business relations between Russia and the Arab countries have a long tradition in recent decades began to develop actively, which allows us to speak about the relevance of the study of language features in business correspondence at different levels.
According to Rogotneva (2011), “business writing is an integral socio-ethical communication system that has universal and culturally specific characteristics” (p. 14).
Considering that the features of languages allow us to identify linguistic similarities, their nature (random or natural) and nature (genetic, areal, typological).
In the works of Kolesov (1998), Pimenova (2012), Pears (2017), Terkulov (2015) typological studies are of a comparative nature, which is associated with the practical value of clarifying the functions of structures, their similarities, and differences.
According to Gak (2000), "languages can be compared both at the level of the system and at the level of the language norm determined by cultural factors and language traditions" (p. 42).
" Typological characteristics of languages should be compared through the prism of language and culture” (Abdrahmanova, 2014, p. 28).
One of the system typologies of languages can be attributed to the typology of Sepir, who compared languages not by individual parameters, but as a whole (Matezius, 1989, p. 65).
Matezius (1989) noted that " the characterological characteristics of a particular language in the performance of a thematic function are primarily due to the specifics of the world perception and the type of culture “(p. 18).
Thus, it can be argued that the typology of languages contains features of the cultural and linguistic worldview of the people, respectively, the typological analysis of the features of the linguistic structure of languages in the ethno-linguistic aspect can reveal the cultural and linguistic foundations that led to the development of certain structures. The study of syntactic constructions allows us to determine the trends towards the universalization of business writing in the compared languages, and the trends towards the preservation of cultural identity (Rastamkhanova, 2016). At the same time, in terms of the content of the syntactic structure, communicative attitudes are reflected, which, according to the language tradition, are characterized by a certain semantics.
The variety of definitions of terms makes us once again turn to the analysis of initial concepts, as well as to the scientific foundations in solving the problem of using pedagogical technologies in Russia and abroad.
Among the main research questions, one should highlight the following:
- Characterize the typology of syntactic constructions of Russian business writing from the point of view of its reflection in the Arabic language tradition.
- Compositional characteristics of Russian business letter.
Purpose of the Study
We aim to study the available pedagogical technologies in Russia, England and China, since these countries have different approaches to teaching. England belongs to the countries where education is based on a liberal-democratic basis. China is a country where the educational process is influenced by the country's conservative traditions. The Russian education system is a combination of various approaches to the educational process.
The research materials were business letters of request in Russian and Arabic for 2016-2019, selected by the method of continuous sampling from Russian and Arabic-language open sources. The choice and timing of writing business letters of request for this period is due to the intensive development of computer technologies and the Internet, which allows access to open sources for obtaining research materials.
The aim of the research is to characterize the typology of syntactic constructions of Russian business writing from the point of view of its reflection in the Arabic language tradition.
The author's research of syntactic structures typical for the Russian business letter-request revealed their peculiarities against the background of the Arabic language tradition.
In Russian, business letters of request contain the following syntactic constructions, including:
- direct appeal Dear (s)+first name-patronymic or Dear + Mr. + position! (Dear Partners / Colleagues!);
- constructions with imperative verbs (For the question of debt, please contact the department for working with retail consumers);
- verbs in the infinitive with imperative semantics: specify, add, list, address (To ensure the proper implementation of quarantine measures);
- verbal nouns of imperative semantics (Please provide information on the company's financial obligations …);
- nouns with the semantics of support, request, consent (Due to the inability to come to the company's office to postpone the payment dates to a later date);
- combinations of the verb of the will "to ask" with the infinitive (Please help with the event);
- the modal verb "can" with the infinitive (We can make a refund);
- conditional offers (If it is more convenient for you to send us the European Diploma Supplement by express mail, our postal address is indicated below);
- indirect question (I ask you to give an official answer, whether such actions are lawful);
- the combination of verb + infinitive + vocabulary with the semantics of requests, opportunities (You can always count on the support of your partners!);
- farewell (We hope for... / Thank you in advance ... / We will be grateful…/ We hope for your understanding!).
In the Arabic documentary tradition, the following syntactic constructions are presented, including:
- address to the addressee Dear (oi) + Mr. (madam) + position (without name), for example, to the Esteemed Mr. President of the company;
- Direct address Dear + position/Degree + Name: Dear Professor Al-Jair ...;
- a verbal noun that refers to the name of an action or masdar:
a) a verbal noun that refers to the name of an action or masdar;
b) in situations of communication, giving, receiving, expressing gratitude without the verb " ask»: Please note make copies of this list and distribute it to employees. Report the completion of the task. With appreciation for the answer;
c) a request, permission, for example, We ask for your consent ( for example, we ask for your consent (for example, we ask for your consent) or We would like your assistance;
d) combinations of the verbs of hope and request ("to ask"), for example, We ask to participate in drilling wells by sending machines to drill them;
e) combinations of verbs of hope and request ("to ask") with verbal nouns: Please provide candidates for this vacancy;
f)in situations of asking for help with the verb " ask»: Please help us design the equipment in our corporate design;
g) in situations to provide / give something with the verb "ask" (Please + provide / Ask + give an exception, etc.), please send the documents in paper form to the admissions committee;
h) combinations of preposition with + adjective with volume semantics + noun with gratitude/respect/appreciation semantics, for example, with great appreciation and respect.
Based on the identified features of this type of business letter, it can be noted that the three-part syntactic structure is not typical for the Arabic language. The most frequent are syntactic constructions with masdar, most often presented in combination with the verb "to ask", the verbs of hope and request. A distinctive feature in comparison with the Russian language is the absence of conditional and interrogative constructions. The specificity of syntactic constructions in the Russian business request letter from the perspective of Arabic linguoculture is due not only to the grammatical structure of the language, but also to its cultural features.
In the Arabic business letter of request, syntactic constructions with verbs in the accusative case (nasb) and verbal nouns in combination with verbs of hope and request, constructions with verbs of will, hope and request with semantic verbs and verbal nouns are actively functioning, and there are no constructions with direct appeal. The combination of lexical, morphological, and syntactic means allows you to explicitly express the semantic content and achieve the pragmatic goal of a business letter-request.
The Russian business letter of request is characterized by syntactic constructions that include combinations of verbs of the will "to ask" with an infinitive and a verbal noun, and an infinitive with imperative semantics after the verb "to ask". At the same time, the use of conditional and interrogative sentences is atypical for both languages.
In Arabic culture, the absence of syntactic constructions with the inclusion of direct address by name is due to religious traditions, authoritarianism, and a clear hierarchy of relations, so a business letter appeals to the position of the interlocutor. Nevertheless, this is compensated for by the greeting structures, emotionality. In Russian culture, however, constructions with a direct address and the presence of a proper name in it are typical and are perceived as a manifestation of respect for the addressee, a sign of an individual approach. Moreover, there is a tendency to save language resources within the framework of syntactic construction. The absence of plural and interrogative sentences in both languages proves the authoritarianism of their cultures.
This paper has been supported by the RUDN University Strategic Academic Leadership Program.
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01 September 2021
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The Russian language, methods of teaching, Russian language studies, Russian linguistic culture, Russian literature
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Thamer Hasan, A. S. (2021). Typologies Syntactic Constructions Of Russian Business Writing In The Arabic Documentary Tradition. In & V. M. Shaklein (Ed.), The Russian Language in Modern Scientific and Educational Environment, vol 115. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 289-293). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.09.32