Features Of Teaching The Journalistic Text In A Multicultural Environment

Abstract

The article looks into the features of studying the journalistic text by foreigners. In teaching Russian as a foreign language, the journalistic text becomes one of the means of immersion in the language environment, moreover it’s a way to increase the interest and the motivation to study the Russian language. The use of authentic journalistic texts in all of their great diversity in the Russian language classes can help not only in learning new material but also in adapting to the natural language environment. It was revealed that the main problem in the learning process is the strong difference between the journalistic text and the traditional adapted educational text, which leads to some difficulties in learning. The author of the article describes the main difficulties in studying Russian language by foreign students. In teaching the journalistic text in a foreign audience, it is necessary to take into account the psychological characteristics of different types of thinking, which will help optimize the process of learning the Russian language, increase motivation for learning and create comfortable conditions for the formation of communicative competence in social spheres.

Keywords: Authentic texts, dialogue of cultures, language environment, language consciousness, speech equivalents, semantization

Introduction

In today's digital society, learning foreign languages it is necessary not only for self-education but also for the possibility of intensive intercultural communication. In order to get to know not only the "correct "classical foreign language, which is used in literature but also as colloquial, learn something new about events in the country of the language you study, itis necessary to learn to work with authentic texts of the journalistic style. When learning Russian as a foreign publicist text becomes means of immersion in the language environment, the way of increasing the interest and motivation to master the Russian language.

The use of authentic journalistic texts in RCI classes in their great diversity helps not only to assimilate new material but also to adapt to the natural language environment. The most suitable for that are texts that have an information load and include self-description of linguist cultural features and national traditions countries of the studying language. Printed and electronic media materials form a body of media texts that now becoming subjects of research by linguists, methodologists, philologists, cultural scientists, lingua didacts and others.

Bogomolov (2012) wrote that this journalistic text is an example of the national-cultural specificity of verbal communication, a fragment of the national culture, which gives a fairly complete picture of the socio-cultural processes that confirm the adequacy of the perception of the people involved in another language reality. It follows that the journalistic text at the classes of the RCT is most successful from the point of view of the bearer of the sociocultural function for the didactic material since it covers those topics of the life of society that allow studying the lessons of the relationship and interaction of socio-professional, territorial-regional and age-related communities.

Shelkunova (2004) believes that the journalistic text is a related sign complex focused on the interaction of the author and the mass audience to exchange relevant social information, ideas, opinions and maximally actualizing the potential of text dynamics

One of the features of the journalistic text is that it synthesizes scientific and artistic methods, combining both logical and figurative thinking. It follows that an important feature of the journalistic text is its syncretism, that is, the simultaneous use of scientific, rational-conceptual, artistic, emotionally-imaginative means. Journalistic text is the final product of the author’s activity, his work, his thought, which gives the right to assume that he used fantasy to create a picture of the world or its individual fragments. In such a text, reality appears before the addressee due to the combination of images and concepts. A journalistic text is usually aimed at establishing communication contact, which is why the specifics of functioning are related - its purposeful focus on communication with the audience.

Problem Statement

A multicultural language environment is the interaction and coexistence in a particular social environment of equal cultures, subcultures and their representatives. The main indicator of the multicultural environment is respect and tolerance for representatives of a different lifestyle or other culture, which implies an integrative quality - the ability to interact and collaborate with different cultures. In the multicultural environment, the so-called “Dialogue of Cultures” takes place, when foreign students adapt sufficiently to the multicultural language environment.

Students in a foreign audience can be divided into three groups:

1. Foreign students are those students whose families have recently migrated, they have different background knowledge. The Russian language is not native to them, so students speak it only at the threshold level, preferring to communicate in the family in their native language. 2. Bilingual students are those students for whom Russian has become the second native language. They write and speak competently in both languages and have no difficulties.

2. Many of these students have never been at their historical homeland. 3. Foreign students are those students who have come to study Russian for a certain amount of time (from several weeks to several years). For example, students of a summer language school or bachelors.

Learning the Russian language must begin with the study of vocabulary, since it is interacting with phonetics and grammar, that is a means of verbal and written verbal communication.

Vocabulary is inextricably linked with the grammar system of the language. In the process of interaction, they exert mutual influence, therefore, the study of vocabulary is an important step in learning the Russian language.

In the process of communication, when using words in colloquial speech, incorrect accentuation or violation of the word order will lead to a difficult understanding of the interlocutors. The simplest example - homonyms of a castle - a lock, squirels - proteins - are completely different in meaning of the word, if used incorrectly it will be impossible to understand the meaning of the statement.

Research Questions

Shcherba (1974) writes: “The basis of vocabulary as a kind of system is the concept of a single word, which plays, in the end, an equally important role in grammar” (p. 326). This means that vocabulary is the main aspect of the language on which speech communication is built.

In the process of teaching the Russian language, representatives of a multinational audience seek in various ways to comprehend the features of the material being studied, plunging into the language environment: they listen to Russian-language speech, read texts in Russian. Perfilieva et al. (2018, p. 2265) write: «The lack of basic linguogeographic information about the Russian language is typical both for non-linguistic students and for those students who declare the Russian language and the Russian literature their future specialty, which undoubtedly affects the quality of their perception of the Russian culture and the Russian language». And at the same time they are faced with vocabulary that allows you to understand the text without even knowing much more complex grammatical and syntactic rules. For training purposes, methodologists created lexical minimums that a foreign student must know in order to understand the Russian language and use it at the proper level. Kryuchkova and Moshchinskaya (2011) attributed the vocabulary that meets the following criteria to such minimums: the semantic meaning of the word and the need for the word to communicate; the ability of the word to be combined with other words; the frequency of use of the word; word-forming capabilities of the word. The initial data from these criteria, which are simple enough to understand, are necessary for daily communication, are easily recognized and combined with other words. Despite the fact that in the Russian language there are words that have synonyms, paronyms, homonyms or are ambiguous.

Despite this, students, for whom Russian is not native there are words that have synonyms, paronyms, homonyms or are ambiguous. In teaching Russian lexical and in the selection of the lexical minimum teacher-vocabulary takes into account the likelihood of difficulties, therefore just unambiguous words. Difficulties in learning, vocabulary is also associated with the fact that sometimes it’s even simple for understanding can lead to some difficulties to write or for the pronunciation. For example, words with «Ъ» и «Ь».

There are no such letters in foreign alphabets, this fact leads to difficulties in explaining to students the functions «Ъ» и «Ь» in Russian, correct pronunciation, in training of correct spelling and use of these signs. Another difficulty for a foreign may become fast-paced speaking or complexity of the journalistic texts. And if in the perception of speech by ear it is due to the fact that auditory memory is much weaker than visual, then words in writing become problematic that it’s not used in everyday life. For example, these are words from the professional field, jargon or outdated vocabulary that can be found in the colloquial speech of Russian speakers or in the journalistic texts to give a special effect. The text allows you to understand the unfamiliar word by association or context, but understanding is still difficult relevant information.

Difficulties in teaching foreign students vocabulary can occur both at the level of phrases, and at the level of sentences. Lack of exact structural-semantic correspondences between foreign language speech equivalents interfere with the correct use of foreign language words, the formation of correct phrases.

For an adequate understanding of lexical and grammatical elements students need to be able to

combine them in their speech. The main means of recognizing the meaning of a word in Russian becomes translation. However, translation as means of revealing the meaning of a word in Russian. Along with advantages, it also contains disadvantages. To the merits of this means of semantization, the fact that the translation has relative accuracy of the transmission of the meaning of a foreign word and probability instant selection of words that are adequate in meaning, which gives sufficient time saving.

The disadvantages of the translation include the fact that it, as means of semantization, is difficult in a number of cases and situations when choosing an equivalent word in the native language. That’s because the meaning of words differs in different languages. Often enough literally translating a word term is possible only in the presence of context, starting from him. The exception is those words that express the name of well-defined, specific objects. With absence equivalent in the mother tongue, the student has to either transform the word in order to better understand or select partially suitable synonym from the native language.

For example, the Russian national word "matryoshka" it is impossible to literally translate into a foreign language, so when explaining the meaning of this token to facilitate memorization, you can use the "doll" - "Russian doll", while foreign students adopt this word by tracing, that is, transliteration records. Also, it is difficult for students to study the Russian language due to the fact that students often translate text in the order in which the words stand in Russian, not thinking about what the meaning is in the end. Thus, when translating a text, only one word meaning is only used, excluding synonyms.

Another difficulty in learning Russian vocabulary is the aspect of the language, like the structure of a morpheme. It is difficult to understand and distinguish between suffixes and endings, since in many languages there is no such concept, for example, as a case. But the most time-consuming in the study of Russian vocabulary in the multicultural audience is an extensive vocabulary. And even if you reduce training to the assimilation of the lexical minimum, each new form of the word will be perceived by foreign students as a separate new token, even when the study of the modern Russian language spoken by others.

Despite this, students, for whom Russian is not native there are words that have synonyms, paronyms, homonyms or are ambiguous. In teaching Russian lexical and in the selection of the lexical minimum teacher-vocabulary takes into account the likelihood of difficulties, therefore just unambiguous words. Difficulties in learning, vocabulary is also associated with the fact that sometimes it’s even simple for understanding can lead to some difficulties to write or for pronunciation. For example, words with «Ъ» и «Ь». There are no such letters in foreign alphabets, this fact leads to difficulties in explaining to students the functions «Ъ» и «Ь» in Russian, correct pronunciation, in the training of correct spelling and use of these signs. Another difficulty for a foreign may become the fast-paced speaking or complexity of the journalistic texts. And if in the perception of speech by ear it is due to the fact that auditory memory is much weaker than visual, then words in writing become problematic that it's not used in everyday life. For example, these are words from the professional field, jargon or outdated vocabulary that can be found in the colloquial speech of Russian speakers or in the journalistic texts to give a special effect. The text allows you to understand the unfamiliar word by association or context, but understanding is still difficult relevant information. Difficulties in teaching foreign students vocabulary can occur both at the level of phrases, and at the level of sentences. Lack of exact structural-semantic correspondences between foreign language speech equivalents interferes with the correct use of foreign language words, the formation of correct phrases. For an adequate understanding of lexical and grammatical elements, students need to be able to combine them in their speech. The main means of recognizing the meaning of a word in Russian becomes translation. However, translation as a means of revealing the meaning of a word in Russian. Along with the advantages, it also contains disadvantages. To the merits of this means of sematization, the fact that the translation has relative accuracy of the transmission of the meaning of a foreign word and probability instant selection of words that are adequate in meaning, which gives sufficient time-saving.

The disadvantages of the translation include the fact that it, as means of semantization, is difficult in a number of cases and situations when choosing an equivalent word in the native language. That’s because the meaning of words differs in different languages. Often enough literally translating a word term is possible only in the presence of context, starting from him. The exception is those words that express the name of well-defined, specific objects. With absence equivalent in the mother tongue, the student has to either transform the word in order to better understand or select partially suitable synonym from the native language. For example, the Russian national word "matryoshka" it is impossible to literally translate into a foreign language, so when explaining the meaning of this token to facilitate memorization, you can use the "doll" - "Russian doll", while foreign students adopt this word by tracing, that is, transliteration records. Also, it is difficult for students to study the Russian language due to the fact that students often translate text in the order in which the words stand in Russian, not thinking about what the meaning is in the end. Thus, when translating a text, only one word meaning is only used, excluding synonyms. Another difficulty in learning Russian vocabulary is the aspect of the language, like the structure of a morpheme. It is difficult to understand and distinguish between suffixes and endings, since in many languages there is no such concept, for example, as a case. But the most time-consuming in the study of Russian vocabulary in the multicultural audience is an extensive vocabulary. And even if you reduce training to the assimilation of the lexical minimum, each new form of the word will be perceived by foreign students as a separate new token, even when the study of modern Russian the language is spoken by others. For example, sit-sit-sit-sit-sitting, the token became complicated when it was set in 1 person singular, since there was anterior lingual palatalization, preserved in the modern language in the form of alternations in morphemes t-h; d-f; s-sh; h-z.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the article is to accurately identify activities towards assisting in the optimization of the process of teaching the Russian language for new teachers and in adaptation in the language environment of foreign students

Research Methods

The main sources of this study were scientific papers examining the specifics of studying the journalistic text in the classes on Russian as a foreign language. Work on the article is based on a combination of the following methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis; observation method; experimental method; simulation method.

Findings

For a foreign student, learning the Russian language is a very difficult thing. Part of this difficulty is not only due to the discrepancy between phoneme systems. For example, in the Russian language there are sounds that are not in many other foreign languages - [sh], [shsc], [ts]; there is an emphasis that is put in different words in different ways, which leads to difficulties in expression thoughts by foreign students even in writing.

Shcherba (1974) identifies eight main tasks of teaching methods Russian as a foreign language: the ability to read and understand correctly, with dictionary help, book titles, addresses, labels; ability to express your desires and ask the simplest questions; ability to understand exactly non-fiction text of any difficulty, only occasionally resorting to help vocabulary (this skill is especially necessary for students); ability to support conversation on any topic, while speaking with minor errors; ability to correctly write scientific texts and business papers; skill free understand texts of varying complexity, for example, fiction or newspaper (This skill is primarily necessary for teachers and to translators); the ability to professionally write responsible documents and literary articles; skill correctly and correctly, in terms of pronunciation, speak in public The problems of learning Russian vocabulary are associated with the difficulty of memorizing words. Each lexeme is able to change according to the laws of language: verbs conjugated, nouns and adjectives bow. Also, including in speech, the word creates syntagmatic and semantic connections, and in native speakers, associative relationships arise at a functional level. Students should understand what the word: sounds, has a graphic image, has semantics, has different grammatical forms, is combined differently in other words, the sentence forms different associative connections. "The language consciousness of every lexical and especially grammatical consciousness the category is a set of values of all its forms represented in the natural languages are always limited and clearly related to certain conditions of its application." Divergence in perception appears in such an aspect of the Russian language as subject matter" (Galperin, 1977, p. 97). Definition, category of a genus of noun names can be taught by visual classification and practical Material. Thus, when using tables that clearly show a particular ending for a particular kind, as well as when Acquiring oral language skill, the student will be able to easily use the necessary kind to express thoughts. One of the modern solutions to the language barrier and lack of necessary oral speaking skills is a communicative method, developed by Passov. It describes that all exercises should be speech or conventionally speech. Conditional speeches by Passov (1989) calls those exercises that are organized to form separate speech skills. They are characterized by similarity and repetitiveness. For example, tasks to position objects in space to remember and be able to distinguish between right-left, top-bottom and prepositions over-under, front-back and many others, it is necessary to work out a conditional speech skill of use.

In the communicative method of learning a foreign language and RCT, preference is given to speaking exercises. This makes it a much easier challenge for listeners to overcome the language barrier and level the fear making a mistake in the conversation because from the initial stage the students are trained to speak in different situations using vocabulary and syntax structures that fit them to the level. The communicative method of its has disadvantages and disadvantages: students can make gross mistakes in vocabulary and grammar in the letter, as a priority in learning is given to developing colloquialism. Halperin believes that the main task of learning is to forming a foreign-speaking consciousness, as a foreign language is not formed and not a tool of communication, but content, and, therefore, language should be introduced to students as such. Currently, the RCT adhesive methodology defines the text as one of the main units of training. The journalistic text can be considered authentic, as it is a text created by native speakers for native speaker's language in a natural speech environment. That's why it's a good place to always in demand by a multicultural audience. But when you use journalism in THE RCT classes in front of the teacher can stand up a number of difficulties:

- Novelty - selected texts can lose too quickly relevance and novelty, as events described in the text have a time frame. This reduces students' interest in the subject, and hence their motivation. Therefore, the teacher is obliged to constantly update the journalistic texts used on the RCTs, it is preferable that it is always fresh and topical articles, interviews, reports, etc.

- The complexity of language - journalism involves the use and scientific terminology, and slang elements, and reduced emotional-expressive vocabulary, phraseology, bureaucracy, and professionalism, in addition to the usual Russian literary language, which itself is rich in complex stylistic figures and expressiveness (metaphors, epithets, allusions, synovectomy, etc.). In this regard, relevant from the position of lingua didactics there is a question of recognition, understanding and adequate interpretation of the metaphorical information of cultural Character. The culture of the country of the language studied is the basis sociocultural competence of a foreign student, sufficient level which gives him the opportunity to use language at the level of its speakers, i.e. to become a linguistic personality, who is able to organize their speech behavior according to the culture of its carriers.

  • Perception is the most appropriate and complete understanding the journalistic text will only be possible if linguistic analysis of language tools and international attitudes, strategies, and tactics that drive the choice of other means.
  • Cultural commentary is necessary from a teacher, so as the journalistic text itself is a bearer of socio-cultural information and cultural values, so, for example, in the context of the lack of a language environment depends on the teacher's work.

During the teaching of Russian to foreign students, a teacher must be taken into account that in order for students to understand communicative, publicist and advertising texts should draw the attention of students to the linguist-semiotic aspects of which verbal communication's a visualization. Familiarity with these aspects of the text allows students understand the pragmatic and semantic levels of the image, that are related to the worldview of the authors of the texts.

All of the above makes the language of the journalistic authentic texts are difficult enough for foreign students to understand, requires them to have a high level of language and sociocultural proficiency information, the constant development of the language. And the teacher is facing a difficult task of scrutinizing the journalistic text before presenting it to a multicultural audience and well-established organization work with text - pretext, text and after the text. The journalistic text is didactic material when learning to read. Reading refers to the pre-written types of speech activity, as it related to perception (acceptance) and understanding of information encoded graphic signs.

The purpose of reading learning is to develop students' ability to perceive graphic signs of foreign-language text and understand the content of the read. As a means of learning, reading helps to remember spelling, vocabulary, grammatical designs. Reading gives the ability to consolidate and retain language skills.

It should be noted that the journalistic text as a didactic material is best aligned with the ultimate goal of learning. It contains artistry that corresponds to generally accepted norms of literary language taught by foreigners and style spoken language, which helps to navigate the spoken language, and scientific terminology, and outdated vocabulary. Bakhtin wrote that our life-practical speech is endowed with other people's words: with one we can merge our voice, with others we substantiate our words, perceiving them as authoritative for us, the third we give our personal alien or unfriendly aspirations (Bakhtin, 1996).

Thus, the quotes that are taking out of context allow you to manipulate public consciousness, as there may not be truth in them, but there is always credibility. It follows that estimation is the leading a style-forming trait of the journalistic style. While reading the journalistic text of foreign students begin with the title in which the main point is always focused on the essence of the text. But linguistic and lingua-regional difficulties don’t allow students easily to read such a text. They perceive only the subject matter logical content of the text and read on a fragmented level. That's why at RCT’s lessons when teaching to read the journalistic text the teacher should teach students stylistic and compositional features genres and help to form understanding on a synthetic level to explain author's projection of the text, it's communicative intention. Without the analysis of emotional-evaluation units of the text and their role in the expression of intent the students will not be able to interpret the journalistic texts accurately, so that there may be inadequately understanding meaning, which will lead to a failed communication. Also, the communication failure is possible, if not to focus on taking into account the individual characteristics of students, for example, if you use an intensive communication method for students from countries with rigid, imperative national linguist traditions.

When addressing the journalistic text, it is important to remember that such texts are the most difficult to study in a foreign audience. This is due to the following factors: the journalistic text contains a huge array of unfamiliar vocabulary for a foreigner; the journalistic text is characterized by a certain genre diversity; high-speed speakers and correspondents are incredibly difficult to comprehend TV news. Publicist texts are a subject of attention in the communicative style of the text.

Becoming and developing the communicative style of the text, which has been gaining in recent years communicative-cognitive nature is associated with new trends in Russian, which is characterized by anthropocentrism and text-centricity... Exploring the patterns of the author's effective textual activities and is part of the communicative style of the text (Bolotova &Vasilyeva, 2009).

When choosing the journalistic text, you should pay attention to the topic, despite the fact that some researchers believe that the headline is the main one because of its function is advertising, it attracts the attention of the recipient. Although it is clear that it can often be to match the content, which is a problem in RCT classes, as even native speakers perceive information in completely different ways, so it is difficult for students with a different linguistic picture of the world to change the way of thinking on which the perception of information depends.

Conclusion

Problems in educating a multi-ethnic audience is not only the difficulty in assimilating individual skills, but also psychological - the restructuring of consciousness into a foreign-speaking the way is possible only assimilation of linguistic categories, which constitute a significant a sign of language in general and is peculiarly represented in each particular language. But to form a foreign-speaking consciousness in its purest form for a student is impossible, as a matter of fact, he had already formed the consciousness of the native carrier language. Some authors note that the individual whose picture of the world formed by his native language collides when learning a foreign language with double difficulty. One the one hand, his linguistic consciousness "doesn't want" adopt an alien language system, which often results in calculating from the native language. On the other hand, his cognitive consciousness does not accept that a foreign language conveys reality in a different way, in other words, and other supply structures. (Tsvetkova, 2002, p. 25). Thus, in the lessons of the Russian language in a multicultural audience psychological, personal and linguistic characteristics must be taken into account for foreign students to overcome possible learning language problems. It is also recommended to use authentic materials. For example, these may be texts that contain characteristics of speech behavior. Such texts will bring students closer to use language in natural communication. These texts should contain a non-verbal aspect and form the linguistic side of learning Russian. Teachers should remember when teaching Russian as a foreign language that non-verbal behavior depends on culture and traditions, which means that when learning needs to take this aspect into account. Every lesson is a crossroads culture, not only native but also the language studied. Obviously, mastering a non-verbal aspect when teaching Russian as a foreign it is necessary to adequately understand and implement cross-cultural contact. When choosing the journalistic text, you should pay attention to a topic, despite the fact that some researchers believe that the headline is the main one, because its function is advertising, it attracts the attention of the recipient. Although it is clear that it can often be to match the content, which is a problem at RCT classes, as even native speakers perceive information in completely different ways, so it is difficult for students with a different linguistic picture of the world to change the way of thinking on which the perception of information depends.

Acknowledgments

This paper has been supported by the RUDN University Strategic Academic Leadership Program.

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01 September 2021

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Irina Igorevna, M., Julia Andreevna, S., & Laura Ibragimovna, G. (2021). Features Of Teaching The Journalistic Text In A Multicultural Environment. In & V. M. Shaklein (Ed.), The Russian Language in Modern Scientific and Educational Environment, vol 115. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 246-255). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.09.27