Communicative Disciplines In Modern Science, Pedagogical And Public Speech Practice
The article presents the classification and description of speech and communication disciplines in their historical evolution and current state. The twentieth century can be called the era of communication, but it is obvious that communicative interaction ideas were described earlier in disciplines associated with practical speech. The normative sciences of speech should include grammar, rhetoric, logic, poetics, which originated in the "ancient cradle", and in the Russian cultural and historical tradition acquired an original image that cannot but be interesting to a foreign reader. Moreover, the Russian speech sciences have learned a lot from the European experience. At the same time, such original scientific directions have developed in Russia, the specificity of which comes from the very nature of the Russian language: literature, speech culture, functional stylistics. Since the 70s of XX century in Russia, not only restored the classic disciplines but prevalent are science communication by different names: the theory and practice of communication, Communicology, communication study, intercultural communication, etc. In parallel, analogues of Western sciences with an original national interpretation arose: pragmatics, imageology, public relations. Special mention should be made of the communicative teaching methods established for the practice of teaching foreign languages (and Russian as a foreign language), together with the original theory of describing the Russian language in order to teach it to foreigners. Many theories of Russian and Western scholars, in particular, general philology in Russia and Media Ecology in the West, which developed in parallel with similar communicative ideas, deserve attention
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