Problems Of Implementing Of The Housing Renovation Program In Russian Federation


The article provides a terminological analysis of the concepts of renovation, modernization, reconstruction, emphasizes the practical importance of the correct use of these terms in the calculations and economic analysis of ongoing activities, gives the author's definition of the term "renovation". The article analyzes contradictions that have arisen between two approaches to the reproduction of the housing fund. The article contains a critical analysis of the renovation changes made to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of Federal Law No. 494. It is noted that in connection with the adoption of the concept of integrated development of territories, the content of the previously adopted concept of sustainable development is getting deformed, there are objective prerequisites for violation of property rights on land and housing, the risks of doing business by owners of territories increase, it is emphasized that the scale of the renovation measures being carried out denies more rational forms of its implementation. The article concludes that it is necessary to critically assess the domestic experience of renovation and carefully analyze and take into account the experience of European countries.

Keywords: Sustainable development of the territory, comprehensive development of the territory, expanded reproduction of the housing fund, renovation, reconstruction


The experience gained in Moscow and St. Petersburg in carrying out the renovation of the housing fund, and then the adopted course of spreading this experience to all regions, is becoming more and more universal. But along with the increase in the number of accepted renovation programs throughout the territory of the Russian Federation, the volume of problems arising in connection with this is growing. Scaling up the negative aspects of renovation in the regions is not only about copying the problems identified in Moscow and St. Petersburg. On the territory of other constituent entities of the Russian Federation, regional features appear, as well as difficulties in taking into account the specifics of the state of the housing fund, its structure, economic, historical, ecological characteristics of the region.

But, in our opinion, deeper methodological problems lie at the heart of the ever-growing flurry of difficulties arising during renovation. In the process of developing regulatory documents, implementing renovation programs, different terminology is used - restoration, rehabilitation, modernization, renovation, reconstruction of the housing fund, especially without distinguishing these concepts, and applying them to the same subjects of activity. Of course, the general methodological basis for defining these concepts should be considered the problem of reproduction of the housing fund.

Problem Statement

Currently, there are several scientific directions that study the reproduction relations of the housing fund. They are presented in sufficient detail in the works of Grabovyi (2019), Vladimirova and Fokin (2015), Asaul et al. (2008), Asaul et al. (2019). Many authors, for example, Grabovyi (2019), Sokolov (1986), Blech (1985), Ovsyannikova (2020) admit the existence of various forms of expanded reproduction of the housing fund, including renovation. Blech (1985) believes, "... that the solution to the housing problem is associated with a constant increase in the housing fund, with its expanded, and not simple reproduction” (p. 108). Sokolov (1986) points out that "for the development of urban economy is necessary an optimal combination of both forms of expanded reproduction - the construction of new and reconstruction of existing buildings and structures in operation” (p. 248). According to Ovsyannikova (2020), the reproduction cycle of the housing fund is a somewhat confusing and cumbersome scheme, where both legal and economic elements are located, but which from an economic point of view deserves attention. She suggests under the reproduction cycle to understand the production of housing fund, exchange, consumption and renovation. Renovation, in her opinion, should be represented by the following elements: reconstruction, modernization, overhaul, restoration, liquidation. Indeed, at present, in practice, during renovation, these concepts are identified, although they contain completely different documentation and organizational support, which introduces serious confusion in the analysis of renovation.

The general message for defining the essence of renovation will be to ensure the renewal of the existing housing fund in accordance with modern requirements for the efficient operation of housing, improving housing quality standards for energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, comfort and other indicators. The cost of housing has a strong upward trend, which is associated with an increase in requirements for the quality of housing. Despite the existing problems, there is a significant increase in the volume of the housing fund. But it should be borne in mind that more than a third of urban residents live in houses that are 40 years old or more, that is, every third resident lives in outdated housing fund, and in some cities, every second resident. Therefore, the expansion and qualitative improvement of the housing fund is the most important socio-economic task in providing the population with modern housing.

Research Questions

In this article are considered modern aspects of renovation of Russian Federation residential fund. It is given analysis of terminology, which discover meaning of extensive reproduction of residential fund and single residential object. It was made conclusion, that term “renovation” is applied to those methods, where renovation operations include innovation component. It was made conclusion, that fact renovation measures in Russia, more correctly should be call “reconstruction”. It was analyzed positive and negative experience of renovation operations in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg and gave recommendations of use this experience in whole Russia. The article is content critical analysis of renovation changes, which made in Civil Code, because of accept Federal Law №494-FZ (2020). It is remarked, that in cause of accept of territory’s complex development conception, there were appeared objective background for residential owners’ violation of rights and rise of business risks by territory owners.

Purpose of the Study

Purpose of the study is search ways of resolution controversies in the scope of task of extensive reproduction of civil residential fund in Russia.

Research Methods

Authors used the universal scientific research methods as well as methods for comparative and statistical analysis.

Renovation as an innovative reconstruction of the housing fund and residential building

After the transfer of the capital's experience of the so-called "renovation" to the all-Russian level, and assessing the content of the large-scale development in this area of activity, in our opinion, it is more suitable to be called "reconstruction" of the existing development. Moreover, it would be necessary to distinguish between the concepts of "reconstruction of the housing fund" and "reconstruction of a residential building". Reconstruction of the housing fund may include the demolition of dilapidated and unsafe housing and the development of new neighborhoods. The reconstruction of residential buildings could include the modernization of facilities, strengthening of load-bearing structures, improvement of energy efficiency of buildings, major repairs and a number of other areas of activity. The term "renovation" should be used both in the reconstruction of the housing fund and in the reconstruction of a residential building in the case of using innovative technologies. Because the concept of "renovation" in its meaning presupposes an expanded reproduction of the object of activity, and in the modern view it cannot be without an innovative component. Eco-conceptual design of urban development, the implementation of the concept of creating intelligent buildings - these are examples of renovations in both directions of reconstruction.

Reasonable and effective reconstruction of the domestic housing fund is impossible without taking into account the Russian and foreign experience of its implementation. There are a lot of negative examples of renovation in two capitals and regions, when, for example, a demolished residential quarter with a dilapidated, emergency, or still quite habitable five-story buildings turns into an area with built-up standard high-rise buildings, with all the arising problems that we analyzed earlier (Vlasov et al., 2010, 2020). It is unlikely that such a solution can be called a renovation one.

Integrated development of territories and renovation of the housing fund of the Russian Federation

The tectonic impact on the processes of reproduction of housing fund, and of course on the so-called renovation, makes changes to the urban planning legislation adopted by the State Duma in December 2020 in the Federal Law No. 494 (2020). This law raises a lot of questions in the scientific community about its implementation, taking into account the experience of renovation in metropolitan agglomerations, adjusting the property relations of the housing fund and a number of other fundamental problems.

First of all, the adopted changes in urban planning legislation, in our opinion, are in contradiction with the previously adopted and enshrined in various Russian projects and programs, and in the UN program, concept of sustainable development of the territory, and replace it with the concept of "integrated development". The need of mechanisms for the implementation of sustainable development of territories have been considered by us before in works devoted to these issues (Gorbaneva et al., 2017; Meshcheryakova et al., 2017; Umyvakin et al., 2010; Vlasov et al., 2010). If earlier the Civil Code provided several mechanisms for the development of territories, now these mechanisms do not work, the tenth chapter is introduced, providing for one mechanism - the Integrated Development of Territories. This can lead to degradation of the urban population's habitat, deterioration of the ecological situation, and overcrowding of urban development.

The concept of sustainable development suggested ensuring the integrity of biological and physical natural systems, the viability of ecosystems, including the human-created environment, for example, cities. The adopted amendments make it possible to demolish both five-story buildings and new multi-story buildings, they do not take into account the acquired negative experience of Moscow renovation. Previously, the territory where integrated development was planned to be implemented, had to be recorded in the Land Use and Development Rules (LUDR), and the owners of the territory and all interested persons could find out in advance what the authorized authorities intended to develop in this territory. Now this territory can be withdrawn for state or municipal needs, even if there is no information in the Land Use and Development Rules that this territory is within the boundaries of integrated development. The adopted decision on the integrated development of the territory (IDT) is now an independent basis for changing the rules of land use and development. Thus, in accordance with the new amendments, all types of permitted use of facilities and types of construction will be determined by decisions on IDT. This situation significantly undermines the rights of the owners of the territory and increases the risks for their business.

The right to demolish the existing residential developments as whole districts, blocks- is a kind of redistribution of property, national assets in favor of large developers, where the participation of small and medium developers is practically excluded with such a large-scale activity. This is, in fact, the appropriation of land rent by large developers due to the high cost of highly liquid urban land, and not by market, but by administrative methods.

Problems associated with the resettlement of residents during the renovation

Renovation changes in regards to resettlement of tenants are also highly controversial. The decisions to resettle two-thirds of the owners in an apartment building infringe the minority's right of disposition of land and apartments. Due to the compaction of buildings, an increase in the height of buildings, the land share of landowners is decreasing several times, and large developers acquire the functions of management companies. All these unresolved problems of the ongoing all-Russian renovation cause serious social discontent among the population. The level of urban planning conflicts during the renovation of the housing fund from 2018 to 2020 in the Moscow’s and St. Petersburg’s agglomerations has doubled. The reasons of the conflicts that are being taken to courts to be solved are an increase in the density of buildings and various violations of the rights of residents. At a government meeting at 16 September 2020, Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin (2020) noted that it is important that the possibility of participation of local residents during the all-Russian renovation is clearly spelled out (Meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation, 2020).

International experience in renovation

Unfortunately, when carrying out such a large-scale reconstruction of the housing fund, which has colossal socio-economic significance, we practically do not take into account foreign experience in solving such problems. The Baltic republics - Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia - have developed and are implementing attractive projects for the reconstruction of five-story residential buildings of the Soviet development of the sixties with the replacement of engineering infrastructure aimed at increasing energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, improving the comfort and aesthetic appearance of the building. The main directions of the reconstruction of the housing fund in European countries are the management of the quality of reconstruction, the use of various forms of its subsidies, the participation of residents in its planning, taking into account national, cultural, historical, natural, climatic characteristics.


In the article are given a clear definition of term “renovation”, which economic meaning is innovation content. It was descript practical significance of right terminology.

It were discovered main controversies between government agencies in civil and land relationships, owners of built-up and non build-up areas and public.

It is defined main controversies between conceptions – sustainable development and territory’s complex development.

It is considered some directions of resolution these controversies.

It is generalized experience of foreign countries in the renovation of residential fund.


Expansion and qualitative improvement of the housing fund is the most important socio-economic task in providing the population with modern housing.

The carried out terminological analysis is of great practical importance, since the use of different terms when carrying out the same actual work complicate the planning, comparison and economic analysis of their implementation. The authors give a definition of the term "renovation" based on the economic meaning of expanded reproduction, that is, the inclusion of an innovative component in the content of ongoing activities.

A critical analysis of the ongoing renovation shows that often its actual implementation takes place in the form of the demolition of a dilapidated and still habitable fund and the development of the vacated territory with multi-story quarters, which in no way can be considered renovation.

Moreover, the adopted Federal Law No. 494-FL (2020) creates objective preconditions for the violation of property rights on land and housing, increases the risks of doing business by owners of territories, gives significant privileges in obtaining land rent for the use of highly liquid urban areas to large developers.

It is fundamentally important to take into account the experience of renovation of other countries, especially the Baltic republics, where in housing there is a large share of five-story buildings of the Soviet development of the sixties, and where instead of mass demolition of whole blocks, are used various forms of renovation that are aimed at effective forms of their implementation and maximum accounting of interests of residents.


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25 September 2021

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Vlasov, V. B., Mischenko, V. Y., Gorbaneva, E. P., & Yemelianov, D. I. (2021). Problems Of Implementing Of The Housing Renovation Program In Russian Federation. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, & A. S. Budagov (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society (ICEST-II 2021), vol 116. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 811-817). European Publisher.