This article is devoted to the topical issues of studying the implementation and results of digitalization of public administration, which is the most important component of the modern concept of the socio-economic development of the state. The authors revealed that at present, in order to increase the efficiency of digital public administration, it is required to implement a huge set of tasks of a technical, informational, economic and social nature. The article formulates that for the Russian Federation, a comprehensive study of the development of digital public administration is especially important, since the ongoing reforms concerning the activities of the civil service are constantly adjusting the current system of interaction between government bodies, business and society. The main attention in the article is paid to the scale of the activities of public authorities in the implementation of national projects aimed at digitalizing the management system in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The article summarizes data on the development and implementation of digital control elements in a specific constituent entity of the Russian Federation, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra. The authors concluded that the new system pays great attention to the feedback mechanism and maximizing the usefulness of the activities of public authorities for citizens, as well as the focus on simplifying organizational structures and saving resources, where the state is assigned the role of organizer of interaction between citizens and organizations on the basis of a single digital platform.
In recent years, the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, implementing national projects on the ground, have faced many diverse tasks that require immediate solutions to achieve the goals set for them by the Government of the Russian Federation. The most difficult thing in the implementation of digital transformation projects was to achieve a balance between its three main participants: the state, society and business. The analysis of publications allows us to note that studies on the system of interaction between the state, society and business that have developed over decades are not comprehensive, although in the context of digital transformation, the system requires new, more flexible and adaptive approaches to its study. The speed of implementation and development of new technologies in public administration and business is not uniform, both by industry and territorially, by regions, therefore, the positive experience of successful practices in implementing projects in the field of digitalization of public administration in individual constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in the context of modern political and economic crisis, requires their careful study, analysis and assessment of the achieved indicators, in order to adopt the experience and increase the efficiency of the implementation of digitalization of public administration throughout the country.
In accordance with the above, the authors of this study are trying to solve the following problems, these are:
- eliminate the insufficient knowledge of the positive experience in the implementation of national projects in the field of public administration in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation;
- to formulate recommendations to improve the efficiency of the implementation of digitalization of public administration by public authorities for all constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and to minimize risks, relying on the indicators of the results achieved under the project in a single constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
The role of digitalization of public administration in the interaction of government authorities, business and citizens
Most researchers studying the implementation of digital public administration have concluded that an important condition is the development of a unified structured database of the state, business and society, which would ensure their harmony and the possibility of creating a unified environment for managing this data. Kaufman et al. (2021) believes that in order to ensure the possibility of effective governance, the system must meet the needs of public authorities, businesses and citizens. Dobrolyubova (2020) argues that a change based on digitalization, the content of public administration, inevitably leads to an improvement in the quality of public administration. At the same time, both individual management procedures and stages of the management cycle, as well as state functions in general, can change. Mirolyubova et al. (2020) writes that in the coming years the Russian Federation will have to finally form a state service in a platform form, with integration between state and municipal information systems, as well as with business services. Such integration will lead to increased efficiency on both sides: the state will be able to provide solutions based on open interfaces, including software solutions for working with data for business, and the business community will be able to provide a huge amount of data and solutions for government processes in the public sector, which can also be used. Realizing that a significant number of state information systems are controlled by private operators, it is very important that the mode of connection of third-party applications to these systems, the regulation of the data subject's access to their own data in these information systems, would not lead to the birth of artificial digital monopolies, because the data should serve society - insofar as the state requires citizens to provide them to state systems. Responsibility for compliance with these conditions rests not only with the federal executive bodies of state power, but also with the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
Implementation of national projects in the field of public administration in the constituent entity of the Russian Federation
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra, in recent years has become one of the leading regions in which tasks are effectively solved and the goals of digitalization of public administration, outlined in the national projects of the Russian Federation, are being achieved.
In 2015, the Government of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra determined the conditions and procedure for managing project activities implemented by the executive bodies of state power of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra, including with the participation of local self-government bodies of municipalities of the Autonomous Area, their structural divisions, territorial bodies of federal executive bodies, subordinate and other organizations and persons, using funds from the budget of the Autonomous Area and (or) federal, as well as other funds provided for by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
In 2015, the Department of Project Management of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra was created in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra, which is the executive body of state power of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra, which carries out the functions of implementing a unified state policy and regulatory legal regulation in the field of project management, executive bodies of state power of the Autonomous Area. By the Decree of the Government of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Ugra of December 25, 2015 N 515-p, the Project Committee was approved, which is the highest coordination and control body in the management of project activities of the executive bodies of state power in the Autonomous Area, which makes key management decisions in terms of planning and control of project activities, performing the functions of project portfolio management. Thus, in the Area, long before the start of the implementation of national projects, an administrative, managerial and legal framework was formed, ready for new goals and objectives of the socio-economic development of the region. The introduction of project management, professional training of state and municipal employees to work with projects, had a positive impact on the results of their activities in subsequent years. The average percentage of achievement of indicators for all target models in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra in 2020 and at the end of the 1st quarter of 2021 was 99 percent, while the average achievement in the Russian Federation is 94 percent.
The development and assimilation of digital technologies in the Area is also associated with the possibility of achieving the key goals of the socio-economic development of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Ugra. The project portfolio “Digital Economy of Ugra” includes 6 projects: “Centralization of information systems infrastructure”, “Information infrastructure”; “Human Resources for the Digital Economy”; "Information Security"; "Digital Public Administration"; "Digital Technologies". Terms of project implementation: 2019-2024. For their implementation, the prompt introduction of regional components of the digitalization of public administration into the existing digital ecosystem of the Russian Federation is of fundamental importance. In the district, on the one hand, a lot of practical work is underway to develop and master primary (basic) digital technologies in public administration. On the other hand, an agenda is being developed for the development and assimilation in public administration of certain newest, so-called breakthrough digital technologies. The regional project "Digital Public Administration" aims to introduce digital technologies and platform solutions in the areas of public administration and the provision of public services in the interests of the population and business of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra.
The main issues in the study of the digital transformation of public administration in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and in particular, the implementation of the regional project "Digital public administration" of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra are:
- providing citizens and organizations with access to priority government services and services in digital form;
- participation in the creation of a national data management system;
- development of e-government infrastructure and prevention of related risks.
Purpose of the Study
It is assumed that the answers to the above questions will help to increase the efficiency of the implementation of digitalization of public administration by the state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as to improve the quality of interaction between the state, business and society in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
The authors used universal methods of scientific research, as well as methods of comparative and statistical analysis.
Analysis of the implementation of the regional project "Digital Public Administration" on the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra
Public administration as a system is able to adapt the institutions of state power and, above all, executive power, to the rapidly changing needs of business and society in the process of structural reforms. The regional project "Digital Public Administration" aims to introduce digital technologies and platform solutions in the areas of public administration and provision of public services in the interests of the population and business of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra.
Based on open sources of information, it can be argued that the main regulatory document on the basis of which the Ministry of Digital Development of Communications and Mass Media of Russia and the Department of Information Technologies of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra are developing digitalization in the Area is the Agreement on the implementation of the regional project “Digital Public Administration (Khanty- Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra) "on the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area - Yugra dated 17.07.2019 No. 071-2019D6001-80. This agreement makes it possible to analyze in dynamics the sequence and characteristics of work on digitalization of the district, as well as to assess the quality of public administration focused on results. And if in 2019 most of the work was focused on the operability of the digital platform, an increase in the number of the function of submitting applications for the provision of regional services, converted into electronic form at the EPGU / RPGU (unified platform of public services / regional platform of public services); the operability of the function of making an appointment with the department, implemented at the RPGU / EPGU for services, including when developing a new form for a service, according to which the appointment mechanism is implemented; popularization of state (municipal) services provided at EPGU, incl. placement of thematic publications on the pages of the "State Services of Ugra" communities in the social networks VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, Facebook; conducting interactive events (contests, quizzes, quests, sweepstakes) on the indicated community pages, then in 2020 the main part of the work was aimed at improving the quality of services provided at EPGU / RPGU.
In accordance with the signed agreement, the following events were held in 2019 and 2020:
- in the Autonomous Area, more than 165 regional and municipal services are available for residents (at the end of 2019, citizens of the Autonomous Area submitted more than 8,000,000 applications in electronic form, at the end of 2020, citizens of the Autonomous Area submitted more than 7,278,644 applications in electronic form);
- within the framework of popularizing the provision of state and municipal services in electronic form, an artificial neural network is used, which is aimed at answering the questions that citizens have when receiving services and services provided by the authorities;
- in 2020 the regional mobile application "State services of Ugra" was implemented in the district;
- the reception, routing and processing of messages submitted using the electronic form of the EPGU, posted on a single portal, the official websites of the authorities and local self-government bodies of the Autonomous Area, as well as discussions of projects (at the end of 2020, 1147 messages were received, 183 polls were conducted);
- in order to improve the quality of the provision of state and municipal services to ensure the provision of state and municipal services using multifunctional centers in 2020, the number of applications processed in the AIS MFC Ugra amounted to 1,056,814 applications (in 2013, about 20 thousand applications were processed, for 2014 - 103,402 applications, for 2015 - 369,124 applications, for 2016 - 645,406 applications, for 2017 - 884,193 applications, for 2018 - 750,134 applications, for 2019 - 1,301,433 applications);
- in the Autonomous Area, the State Information System for Personnel Management of the Autonomous Area was created, the regulation on which was approved by the Decree of the Government of the Autonomous Area dated 08.02.2019 No. 25-p;
- in order to ensure the safety of personal data, an information protection system of the Regional System was created, the Certificate of Compliance No. 2 / K of the state information system for personnel management of the Autonomous Area was obtained with the information security requirements of April 19, 2019 (at the end of 2020, more than 3594 personal files of state civil servants were entered);
- in the Autonomous Area, more than 32 thousand citizens were registered in the state authorities of the Autonomous Area, their subordinate organizations and local governments in the 4th quarter of 2020, of which more than 3 thousand accounts of the Unified Identification and Authentication System were registered by the MFC;
- the number of residents of the Autonomous Area who registered on the portal of public services at the end of 2019 amounted to more than 1.39 million people, and at the end of 2020, it was more than 1.66 million people. According to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation, in terms of the share of citizens using the mechanism for obtaining services in electronic form, the Autonomous Area ranks 7th among the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and 1st place in the Ural Federal District.
- 23717 citizens in 2019 and 25884 citizens in 2020 applied to the MFC of the Autonomous Area for registration (confirmation of registration) in the unified identification and authentication system.
- through the channels of the system of interdepartmental electronic interaction of the Autonomous Area, employees of the IOGV, local self-government bodies, and multifunctional centers of the Area in 2019 transmitted more than 90 million requests, and since the beginning of 2020, more than 128 million requests for information (documents, certificates, technical requests) have been sent , which saved the applicants from the need to personally bring documents (certificates) to the authority when receiving services;
- ensured the use of an automated information system for the implementation of state control (supervision) in the Autonomous Area (hereinafter - AIS KND) for 14 IOGV carrying out control and supervisory activities;
- within the framework of the event "Ensuring the use of the platform of legally significant electronic document management and its services in the state authorities of the Autonomous Area, their subordinate organizations and local governments" at the end of 2020, the EDMS is used in their activities by: 33 government bodies (100%); 290 government agencies (100%); 22 municipalities (city and district districts) (100%); 54 municipalities (rural and urban settlements) (65%); 670 municipal institutions (61%).
Digital transformation as a mechanism for implementing public administration based on results
Based on the figures presented, it can be concluded that the district has made significant quantitative progress in the digital transformation of public administration. An important feature of the implementation of the regional project for the digitalization of public administration in the district is the focus on improving the effectiveness of public administration, i.e. not only the quantity, but also the quality of public services provided, its efficiency, which means reducing the costs of the state, business and / or citizens associated with the implementation of certain state functions. Dobrolyubova (2020) notes that the quality of public administration is increasingly seen as an important, if not the main factor of economic growth and improving the quality of life of the population. At the same time, different researchers consider the concept of “quality of public administration”, often from opposite angles, and empirical studies to identify the relationship between indicators of the quality of public administration and socio-economic development do not always indicate a significant correlation between these phenomena. Nevertheless, at present, most researchers, for example, Yuzhakov (2016), studying the experience of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, agree that improving the quality of public administration and the introduction of innovative forms and methods of interaction between the state, business and society will certainly contribute to the development of the territory and quality and standard of living of the population.
The digital transformation carried out in the district is designed to qualitatively change the content of public administration, including its individual procedures, stages of the management cycle, government functions, their composition and types. At the same time, a qualitative change, or digital transformation, implies that some functions performed manually by civil servants today will be performed automatically. Most public services are already provided in electronic form without personal interaction with authorities, and in the coming years, all stages of the management cycle will be provided with relevant and reliable information necessary for making management decisions focused on the final socially significant results, and these decisions themselves will be modeled and be adopted using modern, including disruptive, digital technologies.
And if today, traditionally, digital transformation is considered primarily as an increase in the availability and quality of public services, then in the future breakthrough digital technologies will transform the implementation of all types of government functions and functions for their implementation: rule-making, control and supervisory activities and revenue administration. Sergeeva et al. (2020), describes that the unprecedented expansion of the ability to work with a wide variety of data in real time (or close to it) allows state and municipal authorities of the district to plan the results of their activities in a completely new way, to monitor and evaluate their achievement, and also the involvement of their staff. In this sense, digital transformation will become a mechanism for implementing public administration by results. This important role of digital technologies is not yet explicitly taken into account in the project documents "Digital Public Administration". At the same time, increasing the validity of decisions based on data on the initial and achieved results of public administration can lead to no less significant effects than the organization of the provision of public services based on platform solutions.
In order to ensure the use of digital transformation as a mechanism for implementing public administration based on results during the implementation of the Digital Public Administration project in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, it is advisable to ensure the implementation of measures aimed at:
- the transition from the responsibility of departments for the preparation and submission of reports on the results achieved to their responsibility for the placement of data on the results achieved, generated, mainly automatically, on a single platform and making decisions based on these data;
- expanding the use of data for the formation of official statistics, administration of income, audit of the performance of budget expenditures and the implementation of other state functions;
- expansion of methods for assessing the effectiveness of government agencies: the transition from the assessment "done - not done" to the use of analytics, selective controlled trials, and other analytical methods based on artificial intelligence technologies.
Glushchenko et al. (2019) warn that with the overall beneficial impact of digitalization on the implementation of governance in addressing socio-economic problems, it is necessary to focus on the challenges that digitalization brings with it. The most important of them are the threat of hyperactive concentration of the digital market, the growing digital inequality, the threat of information security, as well as the weakening of the regulatory capacity of the state. Maltsev and Maltseva (2020) note that digitalization is a controversial process, which can at the same time be of help in achieving the socio-economic development of territories, and unwittingly hinder their implementation. In order for digitalization to work for development, a purposeful and coordinated policy of government, national structures, business and society is important.
It should be noted that currently there are a number of legal, economic, technological, organizational and infrastructural restrictions on the digitalization of public administration, which are, to some extent, necessary to reduce the risks from the introduction of digital technologies, which include:
- loss of control in critical areas of public administration;
- unauthorized use of personal data;
- the possibility of human rights violations during automated management decision-making;
- organizational risks, including the resistance of the authorities to the transition from departmental informatization to platform (supra-departmental) solutions (risk of loss of controllability, fear of openness of their data).
Of course, today there are significant infrastructural, technological and legal constraints for the digital transformation of public administration. To use breakthrough digital technologies in public administration, it will be necessary to change the current legislation, develop new regulatory legal acts, readiness for them and their adoption by the business community and citizens of the state. Therefore, before the massive introduction of platform solutions in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to conduct separate experiments, as well as to eliminate infrastructural, legal, organizational and social restrictions.
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25 September 2021
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Economics, social trends, sustainability, modern society, behavioural sciences, education
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Baksheev, S. L., Zelentsova, S. Y., Kaufman, N. Y., Litovchenko, A. S., & Khadasevich, N. R. (2021). Digital Transformation Of Public Administration In The Subjects Of The Russian Federation. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, & A. S. Budagov (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society (ICEST-II 2021), vol 116. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 621-629). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.09.02.69