Study of psychological health of students does not cease to be relevant. In a number of priority values of a person, psychological health is unconditionally assigned primary importance. Modern students are in the age of information technologies, multitasking, in social turbulence and uncertainty. These factors affect their subjectivity. The objective is to study the psychological well-being and attribute style of students in the context of a psychological health model. Scientific novelty of the study is that the theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of the attribute style and psychological well-being of the individual in the context of the psychological health model are analysed. The multicomponent model of psychological health of the personality is indicated with the integration of an attribute style into the cognitive-reflective component, and psychological well-being - into the emotional-regulatory component of the model. The article presents the results of the study of psychological well-being, attribute style, psychological health of students. The main conclusions include theoretical and methodological understanding of such concepts as psychological well-being, attribute style and psychological health of the individual. The study showed that, as a rule, an optimistic attribute identity style contributes to a high level of development of psychological health and psychological well-being.
In society there is a need for psychologically prosperous people who are able to find a positive meaning in the event that is happening, positively look at the lives of people around people and optimistically interpret their behaviour and behaviour of other people, positively look at solving problems. For the presence of the characteristics listed above, the attribute identity style is responsible (Skudnova, 2016).
For a psychological well-being, it is important to have an optimistic attribute style of thinking, that is, learning how to think correctly - thinking in a positive key (Morozyuk & Morozyuk, 2013).
The solution of the designated problem is possible only when the person in harmony itself, and safely feels like that it is now, that is, how personality lives in the present time, what it is. The task of achieving psychological well-being is not only a zone of responsibility of each particular person, but also a significant area of state policy, an important sphere of theory and practice of various sciences, the subject of interdisciplinary research, including psychological (Karapetyan, 2018).
The domestic education system is not fully aimed at an integrated approach to learning students, and mainly on the formation of competencies through education, which develop the psychological health of students to a lesser extent than the current conditions of reality of our life require.
Education is a powerful personality development factor. It should ensure the continuous development of a person in a professional and personal plan, we put a special accent on personality, that is, the subject, believing that it is it fills the professional, which will help him understand its potential opportunities, to form the ability to solve, both vital and professionally - Less situations ensuring improvement of the quality of his life and necessary for his psychological well-being.
Thus, the analysis of scientific sources made it possible to allocate the following contradictions:
- Between the awareness of the importance of solving the problem of the development of psychologically prosperous youth with the help of funds and insufficient workplace theoretical foundations of the effective practical permission of this problem on the basis of a holistic understanding of a developing psychologically healthy personality.
- Between the matter that the phenomenon of psychological health acquired the status of a person's life strategy in modern conditions and not enough specific semantic and structural content of the designated phenomenon.
- Between the objectively existing need of society in psychologically prosperous youth and the degree of study of the practical approaches of this in the educational space.
- In connection with which the problem is indicated in the disclosure of the semantic and structural content of the phenomenon of psychological health of the individual in modern conditions with the integration of attribute style and psychological well-being in the psychological health model.
As the main hypothesis in our study, the following is indicated:
- Psychological health of the personality can be considered from the point of view of the state of personality health development, and in terms of identity subjectivity, that is, its properties that support their psychological health, such as an attribute style, psychological well-being.
- Psychological health of the personality as a psychological phenomenon has a multi-component structure.
- An attribute identity style is integrated into a psychological health model as a cognitive-reflexive component, and the psychological well-being as an emotional-regulatory component.
analyze the theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of the attribute style and psychological well-being in the context of the psychological health model;
identify the identity health model; describe the components of the psychological health of the personality with the integration of attribute style and psychological well-being in it;
empirically explore the attribute style, psychological well-being and psychological health of students.
Attribute processes are currently investigated mainly in Western psychology and this imposes an appropriate imprint on our idea about this phenomenon, therefore, it is necessary to theoretical and methodological understanding of this concept. The discovers of the concept of attribution (from the English “attribution”) - Kelly, M. Seligman, F. Heidegger, etc. (Yusupov, 2005). To date, psychology is considered to be attributed by the cognitive process of explaining the behaviour of other people and their own actions. It is mainly expressed by the mental, cognitive process, by explaining the actions of other people and their own judgments, conclusions. According to M. Seligman, the solution to the problem, lies in the style of explanation, that is, in how people interpret their reason for their failures and trouble. When describing the individual features of the attribution style, the author uses the term attribute style (hereinafter referred to as the AS text), which belongs to it. He understands the scientist of the AS as a way through which a person interprets his/her behaviour and behaviour of other people (as cited in Akhryamkina & Chaus, 2012). AS is a cognitive personality characteristic, which explains the causes of events to a steady way, in which personality itself (Gordeeva, 2009) is involved. In the course of life, personality is formed a certain steady habit of explaining the causes of the event that happens when the identity faces certain events, it attributes to them the reasons in accordance with its current speakers (optimistic or pessimistic) (Yusupov, 2005). According to Seligman, it is from the style of an attribution, which person is in life: optimistic or pessimistic. It has been proven that the optimistic AS is the basis in the formation of a subjective feeling of happiness, and also plays an important role in the psychological health and welfare of personality (as cited in Gordeeva, 2009).
As Dalgatov (2006) noted in his scientific research, students with pessimistic AS are anxious, do not believe in themselves and in their abilities, with the failure they blame themselves, and not external factors. Thus, the personality, with a pessimistic AS, in case of failure, will show a low level of psychological health and psychological well-being (Davudova, 2018).
A pessimist tends to say: It is always wrong with me…
An optimist - today is just an unsuccessful day …
Personality with a higher level of optimism explains good events by constant reasons, and not temporary (Tsiring, 2016). Let us give a known example from the Bible: "All that is done is for the better." Personality that is positive and includes optimism in all spheres of life and the situation, "trying on the robes" of the Lord God. In the poem of Alexander Blok "Retribution", an example of a look at the life of an optimist is given: " Erase random traits - and you will see: the world is beautiful." Pessimists see this situation on the contrary, good luck will be random, and the world is constantly terrible. According to Gordeeva (2009), student age is the most optimal in the development of positive AS.
Let us have a closer look at the phenomenon of "psychological health", which is relatively new in the field of study of the inner world of the person. The problem of psychological health is one of the central in science and is being developed by a number of domestic researchers such as: V.M. Bekhterev, B.S. Bratus’, I. N. Gurvich, A. N. Leontyev, A. M. Stepanov, V. A. Ananyev, I. V. Dubrovina, V. P. Kaznacheeva (as cited in Seligman, 2016). Scientists indicate an approach to understanding and studying the problem of psychological health. This approach is made from the point of view of personality development:
- Horney (1937) claims that personality health lies in his/her self-realization.
- Jung (1987) believes that the health of the personality lies in its individualization.
- L.V. Yassman and O.Yu. Yassman refer psychological health to personality as a whole, closely connected "with the highest manifestations of the human spirit" (as cited in Dubrovina, 2019).
- Bratus’ (1994) allocates three levels of psychological health. Higher, or individually executive, which is implemented through activities; personally rational; psychophysiological level, which reflects the peculiarities of nerve processes.
- Adler (1997) believes that the health of the personality lies in his/her desire for improvement.
- According to Sh. Byulller, personality health lies in its path to self-determination (as cited in Dubrovina, 2018).
G. Olport, A. Maslow, K. Rogers noted that psychological health implies personal maturity. In the humanistic approach, the general basis, the psychological health rod is the desire of a person to become and remain himself, despite all the difficulties of life (as cited in Tsiring, 2016). Maslow (2008) characterized an absolute health of the psychologically healthy person as a happy man living in harmony with himself, who does not feel the inner contradiction, who can protect himself. According to Maslow (2008), individuals with absolute health are characterized by such features as the adoption of others, autonomy, sensitivity to the beautiful, sense of humour, creative potential.
Thus, psychological health is a prerequisite for the full functioning and development of the individual in the process of life. As we see, on the one hand, health is a condition for adequate fulfilment by the person of its age, social and cultural roles, and on the other hand, ensures a person with the possibility of continuous development throughout his life.
Psychological health is a prerequisite and more connected with the presence of certain subject, personal characteristics, allowing to adapt to society, to cope with loads and stress, perform their vital tasks. That is, health includes, besides spiritual, and personal psychological well-being.
Psychological health, according to Dubrovina (2018) is characterized by a high level of personal development, understanding of itself and others, the presence of ideas about the purpose and sense of life, the ability to manage themselves (personal self-regulation), the ability to properly refer to other people and to themselves, consciousness of responsibility for their destiny and their own development.
And the psychological well-being can be considered as an indicator of mental and psychological health. The concept of psychological well-being is included in the definition of health according to the World Health Organization (hereina WHO). In WHO, experts allocated the concept of "well-being" in order to reveal the term health. They characterize “health” through the absence of diseases or some physical deviations, as well as the state of full physical, mental and social well-being (Pavlova, 2012). So, we note that the concept of psychological well-being is included in the definition of psychological health (Minahmetova, 2016). According to Maslow (2008) psychological health fills the personality with a subjective feeling of well-being and in all his scientific research he says that such psychological health contains two components:
- self-actualization of the person. Personality finds a faithful idea of him/herself.
- personality's desire to humanist values. Personality has such qualities as empathy, optimism, altruism.
According to research of Ermolova psychological health is understood as a certain psychoecological balance, which is represented by the feeling of well-being, psychological stability and faith in own capabilities (as cited in Davudova, 2018).
When analysing the term "psychological well-being", its specificity is considered and compared with the concept of "psychological health", since the psychological well-being in its meaning and content is associated with the internal experiences of the personality about the attitude towards their lives.
According to T.B. Johnson the term "psychological well-being" is a "quality of life." He argues that the "quality of life" is a subjective satisfaction that has a person in physical, mental and social situations (as cited in Galetskaya, 2015, p. 66). J. Meran in his scientific studies, allocated four important components of the quality of life of the personality: physical, mental, social and spiritual quality of life (as cited in Gordeeva, 2009). A. N. Cherepanova (as cited in Pil, 2018), combining different approaches that determine the psychological health and well-being of personality, distinguishes the six components of the quality of personality life, which are manifested in different spheres of life:
- Society, on which the perception of reality depends.
- Level of culture.
- Motivation level.
- The level of psychological health.
- Level of physical health.
- Inner identity settings.
- Public mindsets.
The concept of A. N. Cherepanova explains what personality seeks to achieve a high level of psychological well-being (as cited in Pil, 2018).
In a study, we will be based on the definition of the psychological well-being of N. Bradbury, who introduced this concept in scientific resources in 1969. Psychological well-being is a balance between positive and negative effects of daily life, being accumulated and in the amount of showing affectively painted sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with life and the inner state of comfort (as cited in Akhryamkina & Chaus, 2012). In many foreign studies, psychological health is often correlated with the concept of psychological or subjective well-being, which, in turn, relates to the concepts of "quality of life", "happiness", "positive life satisfaction" (Puchkova, 2003). According to N. Bradbury, subjective well-being is the "balance of negative and positive effects." Psychological well-being - identically a subjective feeling of happiness, satisfaction with natural life (as cited in Akhryamkina & Chaus, 2012).
Consider a multidimensional model of psychological well-being, the authors of which are M. Yagoda and K. Riff (as cited in Lepeshinskiy, 2007).
This model includes six main components of psychological well-being:
- availability of life goal;
- positive relations with others;
- personal growth;
- environmental management;
- autonomy (Pavlova, 2012).
An analysis of scientific literature suggests that psychological health is considered as a model that includes a complex of components and there is no single structure of the psychological health components (Kulik, 2018).
Representatives of the humanistic paradigm in psychology A.H. Maslow, K.R. Rogers, V.E. Frankl were the first to try to determine the structure of psychological health. They included the following components in the psychological health structure:
- positive attitude towards him/herself;
- self-actualization of the individual;
- mental integration;
- personal autonomy;
- realistic perception of others;
- the ability to adequately affect other people.
Modern humanistic psychologists believe that psychological health is determined by the peculiarities of the balance, the harmony of human vitality and the originality of the living space. With such a position, psychological health provides the possibility of personal choice and autonomic development. Its components include:
- ability to make decisions;
- willingness to change and ability to allocate alternatives;
- to explore and use the own resources with benefit;
- responsibility for the choice.
According to Khukhlaeva (2010) psychological health is a complex of human mental properties that ensure harmony between the wishes of the individual and society. Khukhlaeva (2010) identifies the following components of psychological health: axiological, instrumental, urgent motivational, developing and socio-cultural components. V. A. Ananyev highlights the three main components of the psychological health of the personality - emotional, cognitive and behavioural (as cited in Dykhno et al., 2018). In accordance with the structure of the psyche of a person Khodakovskaya (2016) highlights 4 components of psychological health: emotional-volitional, cognitive and creative, reflexive-acmeological and socio-communicative (Sozontov, 2006). A.V. Kozlov believes that psychological health is a phenomenon consisting of a number of spheres, each of which has a different frequency of occurrence, that is, it takes a different part of common psychological health (as cited in Dykhno et al., 2018). Kozlov (2014) led each sphere of psychological health with communicative, emotional, volitional and intellectual qualities.
Thus, the analysis of psychological literature on the topic of psychological health and health as such, allowed us to submit our own model of psychological health of the individual, based on the ideas about the health model of Kozlov (2014) and Khukhlaeva (2010). In the psychological health model proposed by Kozlov (2014), vectors contact with their essential value with the structural components of our psychological health model.
In fact, in our opinion, the subjectivity of the personality is determined through the psychological health model and, on the contrary, personal qualities fill the components of the model.
Certain vectors in the psychological health model of A.V. Kozlov are described by the relevant personal qualities: communicative, emotional, intellectual and volitional (as cited in Dykhno et al., 2018).
The method of psychological health of the multicomponent is offered by us and the following components are included in it:
- cognitive reflexive;
- axiological (value-based);
- motivational and need-based.
The cognitive-reflexive component is meaningfully represented by the personality knowledge system about the health, healthy lifestyle, health care, and health culture, on the own abilities, opportunities; semantic life filled; desire for personal development, for new knowledge; understanding and adopting a healthy lifestyle; personality AS; The ability of the personality to comprehend, analyze and give an assessment to the own health care.
Axiological (value-based) component contains the ideas of the values of the identity the person itself and other people; The awareness of the personality of his/her individuality, the knowledge of him/herself, the absolute acceptance of the person itself. The adoption of all people around, the ability to see "good" in all people (Khukhlaeva, 2010).
The emotional-regulatory component is meaningfully represented by emotional personality intelligence; emotional painting of life; emotionally positive manifestation of feelings and relationships to his/her health; psychological well-being of the personality; the ability of the personality to the emotionally volitional self-regulation of the behaviour and control his/her own condition; the ability to make adequate solutions.
Social component is meaningfully represented by the social maturity of the person; degree of adaptation to society; stress resistance; social intelligence of personality; ability to cope with loads; the presence of multicultural social competence - the ability to understand people of different cultures and interact with them; formed social identity and social adaptability.
The motivational and need-based component is meaningfully presented by the presence of life goals and the experience of meaningfulness of the live; the ability to achieve the desired goals; ability to overcome difficulties on the way of accomplishment of goals; exercising a conscious choice in a healthy lifestyle; availability of need for acquisition, understanding, analysis, transformation and use of knowledge about the essence of health and healthy lifestyle; the presence of a need for self-development, that is, in self-implanting and personal growth, which means that a person becomes a subject of his/her livelihood, has an internal source of activity that acts by the engine of person’s development. Thus, the attribute identity style is integrated into the cognitive-reflective component of our psychological health model, and psychological well-being is in the emotional-regulatory component of the model.
Purpose of the Study
Studying the psychological well-being and attribute style of students in the context of psychological health model.
An experimental study of the research was the Siberian State University of Science and Technology named after M.F. Reshetnyev, Krasnoyarsk. The experiment was attended by 175 students – 2;3 courses aged 21-24 years. For the implementation of the set goal, various methods were used: theoretical analysis of the literature, an empirical study was carried out with the help of techniques - "Diagnostics of AS" (Rudina, 2002); "Diagnostics of an individual psychological health model" (Kozlov, 2014); "Diagnostics of psychological well-being (K. Riff, adapted by T. D. Shevelenkova, P. P. Fesenko) (Lepeshinskiy, 2007), quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results, psychodiagnostic frequency distribution method.
Primary quantitative data for subsequent analysis was collected using the tool to create Google's online tests and its further distribution on social networks. Google form included selected methods: the remote method and testing of students of the second and third courses of the university.
The obtained and processed results according to the "AS diagnostics" method are presented in Table 1, which displays the percentage of the development level of the AS among students.
The obtained results were distributed over levels (low, medium, high). Note that the low level corresponds to the pessimistic AS, and the high level is an optimistic AS.
Analysis of the results showed that 33% of students, from the overall sample, are characterized by the optimistic AS, which is characterized by the same constancy of the explanation of good events, students explain the success and success of constant factors, and their failure with a separate situation. In case of success, students with optimistic AS refer to their own and their merits. 22% of students, from a general sampling, are with pessimistic AS, such students tend to explain their failures and trouble with constant factors, and good luck they explain with random factors. In the situation of failure, students with pessimistic AS are looking for the cause of guilt in themselves, and if successful, they believe that this is a matter of chance. The remaining 45% of students, from the overall sampling, have intermediate values and do not relate to a certain group of expression of pessimism - optimism. Such students, depending on the situation, the causes of failures will consider temporary, and success - permanent. If the time of failures will cover a large gap, then they tend to think that the reasons for their failure are acquired by regularity. Such students have no constant confidence in luck. They do not focus on failures and can go to the risk if they do not lose anything or lose to a small extent. They relate to their difficulties seriously and make every effort to correct the situation. The situation of success is explained by internal and external reasons, as well as failure.
We can note that positive thinking prevails over negative among students, more than 1.2 times, which positively affects their psychological well-being, as well as psychological health. For students, optimism makes it possible to solve environmentally friendly difficult life tasks, thereby preserving psychological well-being and health. The results of the study indicate that the presence of an optimistic component in the structure of optimistic thinking, has a positive effect on training activities and on psychological health of students.
Results of the study of the psychological well-being of students according to the method of K. Riff (adaptation of T.D. Shevelenkova, P.P. Fesenko) are presented in Table 2, which displays the percentage of the expression level of psychological well-being in students.
The results obtained using the frequency distribution method, were grouped over levels (low, medium, high). The integrated indicator of psychological well-being - in 58 (33%) of students was revealed high level, in 79 (45%) students of the average level and 38 (22%) students with a low level of psychological well-being. For students with a high level of severity of psychological well-being, the following is characteristic: they are able to self-regulate their behaviour, from the positive side to assess the behaviour of others and themselves based on personal standards, independent and able to withstand social pressure, implement their potential and carry out their own development, have a goal in life and feeling of directions, are optimistic about themselves, they have a positive self-esteem, do not live in the past, but perceive it as a positive experience. For students with an average level of severity of psychological well-being, averaged manifestation of the above qualities is characterized, and for students with a low severity of psychological well-being, respectively, the formation of the above qualities is quite low, which allows us to talk about the presence of psychological disadvantage.
Results of the study of the individual model of psychological health of students according to the method of A.V. Kozlov, presented in Table 3, which displays the percentage of the expression level of psychological health in students.
The results obtained using the psychodiagnostic frequency distribution method, were grouped along levels (low, medium, high). Note that the low level corresponds to the psychological illness, while the high level corresponds to psychological health. All spheres of psychological health according to average values, and this is 45% of the total sample, it is 79 students, are on average severity. In 58 students, which is 33% of the overall sample of the study, a high level of health, such students should be: in harmony with themselves, physically healthy, to put goals and achieve them, to implement their own potential, intellectually develop and improve, be creative, interested in new information, analyze it, be socially active and brave in decision-making. In the family to have positive, harmonious relationships and optimistically interact with the surrounding people, be able to control their surroundings.
For 38 students, which is 22% of the total sample of the study, a low level of health is peculiar, that is, a psychological unhealthy can be stated, such students feel psychologically unfavourable, have a low level of communications and are not able to make decisions on their own. These students do not have to dream since they have insufficiently developed imagination, therefore, they are not able to set goals, are not interested in new information, passive and not impressionable, intellectually and creatively are not well developed. In the family, such students do not usually have harmonious relationship, try not to interact with the surrounding people.
Analysing the indicators of each student for all three methods using a psychodiagnostics frequency distribution method, and related to the rest, the obtained results were distributed over levels (low, medium, high). The percentage ratio of indicators of the severity of psychological well-being, psychological health, and AS of the students are presented in Table 4.
Analysing the data presented in table 04, we can note that the number of students on levels coincides. 58 (33%) of students with a high level of AS, a similar number of students with a high level of psychological health and well-being. 38 (22%) of students with low AS levels, a similar number of students with a low level of psychological health and well-being. This analogy presented in table 04 makes it possible to assume that, as a rule, the optimistic AS contributes to a high level of development of psychological health and psychological well-being.
The scientific novelty of the study is that the theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of the attribute style and psychological well-being of the individual in the context of the psychological health model are analysed. Theoretical and methodological understanding of such concepts is carried out as: psychological well-being, AS and psychological health of the personality.
The model of psychological health of the person with its multicomponent structure is indicated, as well as the integration of the personality AS in the cognitive-reflexive component, and psychological well-being - into the emotional-regulatory component of the model.
The study showed that, as a rule, the optimistic AS personality contributes to a high level of development of psychological health and psychological well-being.
Optimistic, prosperous and as a result, a psychologically healthy person will be cheerful, confident in his/her own opportunities and abilities, will be able to competently distribute the time, develop, spread positive thoughts all around themselves. One of the important tasks of a psychologically healthy person is the ability to optimistic, positively think and maintain inner well-being.
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25 September 2021
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Klimova, I. V., Burkova, E. A., & Dykhno, Y. A. (2021). Psychological Health Of Youth As A Personality Trend In Conditions Of Uncertainty. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, & A. S. Budagov (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society (ICEST-II 2021), vol 116. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1091-1102). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.09.02.121