In recent years, plenty of attention has been paid to emotional intelligence as the ability to understand the meaning of emotions and use this knowledge to find out the causes of problems and solve these problems. The main components of emotional intelligence are found in the classification of professionally important qualities of teachers: emotional restraint, emotional balance, empathy, communication, and managerial abilities, including the ability to manage their own emotions in the process of communication. The inability to understand one's own emotions and the emotions of other people, to correctly assess the reactions of others, as well as the inability to regulate one's own emotions in moment of making decisions, lead to many life failures. Thus, teachers, since they are constantly in interaction with their students, need to develop this skill as one of the most important in preparing for leadership. This study is aimed at studying the emotional intelligence of modern teachers, we also looked at the effect of the level of emotional intelligence on their self-esteem. The study involved 100 teachers aged 24 to 50 years. The following methods were used: the questionnaire of emotional intelligence by D. V. Lyusin, the method for self-assessment Dembo-Rubinstein. The results of this study confirmed the hypothesis that there is a link between emotional intelligence and the self-esteem of schoolteachers.
Emotional intelligence is a skill that allows you to recognize, understand, and manage your own and others' emotions. Emotional intelligence was first discussed in 1990 by scientists such as Mayer and Salovey in their article. They proposed a formal definition of emotional intelligence as a set of skills related to accurately assessing one's own and others' emotions, as well as expressing one's emotions, using emotions, and effectively regulating one's own and others' emotions. Accordingly, it has been suggested that emotional intelligence consists of the following three categories of adaptive abilities: evaluating and expressing emotions; regulation of emotions; the use of emotions in thinking and acting (Mayer et al., 2016).
D. Goleman's concept of emotional intelligence was based on the early ideas of P. Salovey and J. Meyer, with a number of additions. The significance of D. Goleman's research was that the author proved the existence of a connection between emotional intelligence and social success, thus substantiating the “value” of the construct “emotional intelligence” (as cited in Mayer et al., 2001).
R. Bar-On defines emotional intelligence as a set of non-cognitive abilities that enable a person to successfully cope with various life situations. He identified 5 components of emotional intelligence: self-knowledge (awareness of one's emotions, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-actualization, independence), interpersonal communication skills (empathy, interpersonal relationships, social responsibility), adaptability (problem solving, connection with reality, flexibility), management of stressful situations (resistance to stress, control over impulsivity), prevailing mood (happiness, optimism) (as cited in Lyusin, 2004).
Summarizing these definitions, it can be noted that individuals with a high level of development of emotional intelligence have a pronounced ability to understand their own emotions and the emotions of other people, as well as to control the emotional sphere, which leads to higher adaptability and efficiency in teaching.
The relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher performance is relevant today in the context of teacher training for leadership. Since emotional intelligence plays a key role in those professions that require a huge amount of social contact. One of these areas is education. Since the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability of people to recognize their own emotions during interpersonal interaction, which is a key point in the educational process (Asrar-ul-Haq et al., 2017; Campo et al., 2015; Madalinska-Michalak, 2015).
There were various studies that confirmed the fact of the influence of emotional intelligence of teachers on their work (Dolev & Leshem, 2016, 2017; Gilar-Corbi et al., 2018; Kassim et al., 2016; Omid et al., 2016; Zurita-Ortega et al., 2018).
The problem of emotional intelligence is one of the most important psychological and pedagogical problems in the work of a modern teacher. Emotional tension accompanies many activities. The psychological stress received by the teacher leads to the development of the "emotional burnout" syndrome. Professional duty obliges the teacher to make informed decisions, overcome irritability, restrain discontent and anger. Repetitive unfavorable emotional states lead to the consolidation of negative personal qualities of the teacher, such as pessimism, irritability, anxiety. This, in turn, negatively affects the effectiveness of his activities and relationships with students. In the future, this can lead to general dissatisfaction of the teacher with his profession (Recruitment and retention of teachers, 2017).
Emotional intelligence has been found to increase with age. It can also be developed with the help of various targeted trainings, psychological seminars in the development of the emotional intelligence of teachers (Dolev & Leshem, 2017; Turi et al., 2017).
The authors argue that teachers can practice emotional intelligence skills during training exercises. The positive impact of the training can be seen during their work at school. And an important aspect of such trainings is the interaction between the participants.
Next, consider the next concept as self-assessment. Self-esteem forms a special evaluative attitude towards oneself: a concrete, emotional-logical attitude. "Self-esteem at each specific stage of personality development ... reflects the level of development of an emotional-value attitude towards oneself" stated by Chesnokova (as cited in Arendachuk, 2017, p.111).
Self-esteem appears as a result of the development of self-attitude and the work of self-knowledge, as the unity of a person's knowledge of himself and his attitude to himself, as a certain type or level of development of self-attitude. Mentileeva makes an assumption about the hierarchical-dynamic structure of self-attitude, which makes the following conclusion: self-attitude is not the actual mental content of a person. In self-esteem, other people are the evaluative basis of any judgment. In the emotional-value relation, the evaluative mechanism in the form of an operation of social comparison and comparison with the norm is replaced by a reflection of preference relationships within the "I-I" system and has no external evaluative grounds (accordingly, it depends less on successes and failures) (as cited in Maslova, 2007).
Thus, all of the above studies show the importance of developing the Emotional Intelligence skill for teachers in preparing them for leadership. People with a high level of development of emotional intelligence, with high self-esteem have pronounced abilities to understand their own emotions and the emotions of other people, they can manage their emotional sphere, which determines their higher adaptability and efficiency in communication, they more easily achieve their goals in interaction with others. Communication problems can be the result of insufficient development of the basic substructures of emotional intelligence (understanding and control of one's own and other people's emotions) and underestimated (or overestimated) self-esteem. Inadequate self-esteem leads to misunderstanding of oneself, which results in wrong self-regulation. This fact often leads to a loss of social competence and difficulty in interpersonal contacts. But emotional intelligence is at the core of emotional self-regulation, so emotion management is a skill that can be learned and developed.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to study the level of emotional intelligence of teachers in educational institutions and see if there will be a relationship between the level of emotional intelligence and self-esteem of teachers.
For the study, the following methods were used:
1. Questionnaire of emotional intelligence "EmIn" (Lyusin, 2004). There are two scales in this technique. MEI scale (interpersonal EI).
Low level: there is no clear understanding of other people's emotions based on external manifestations of emotions. There is no particular sensitivity to the inner states of other people. It is not possible to evoke certain emotions in other people.
Intermediate: The person is reasonably good at understanding other people's emotions. Can understand a person; also reduce the intensity of unwanted emotions.
High level: easily identifies the emotional state by non-verbal manifestations. It can cause certain emotional states in people. Has a tendency to manipulate.
IEI scale (intrapersonal EI).
Low level: It is difficult for a person to understand their emotions. Can't identify them. It is difficult to evoke positive emotions and keep negative ones.
Intermediate level: if a person understands his emotional state, then it is difficult to calculate their origin. Can exercise control over emotions. Poor control of external manifestations of emotions.
High level: a person understands his emotions well, understands the reason for their occurrence and can verbally describe them. Able to exercise both internal and external control of their emotions.
2. The Dembo-Rubinstein self-assessment technique includes 6 self-assessment subscales (SD): self-assessment of intelligence, self-assessment of happiness, self-assessment of understanding oneself and one's emotions, self-assessment of the ability to manage one's emotions, self-assessment of understanding the emotional state of another person and self-assessment of the ability to manage the emotional state of another person.
The study involved 100 teachers of educational institutions, aged from 24 to 50 years. The entire study was carried out in Kazakhstan, in the city of Almaty on the basis of 5 schools. The sample was completely random.
According to the results of the methodology on EmIN by Lyusin, the following indicators of the level of development of general emotional intelligence were revealed in teachers:
Low level of EmIN (0 - 78) - 33.3%
Average level of EMI (79 - 91) - 40.7%
High level of EmIn (93 - 104) - 18.5%
Very high level (105 and above) - 7.5%
Based on the data obtained, we can conclude that the majority (40.7%) of teachers aged 24-50 have an average level of development of general emotional intelligence, about one third (33.3%) - a low level of development of general emotional intelligence. intelligence, and only 7.5% of teachers have very high indicators of general emotional intelligence.
Then, using the Dembo-Rubinstein self-assessment technique, all subjects were divided into 3 groups - with a weak, medium and high level of self-esteem in all 6 of its indicators (Table 01).
As shown in Table 01, teachers are characterized by a high level of self-esteem of happiness, understanding of their emotions, control of their emotions and understanding of the emotions of other people, and an average level of self-esteem of managing other people's emotions. Self-esteem of intelligence among the subjects is somewhat underestimated (37%).
In processing the results of the data we obtained, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used in the statistical processing program SPSS16.
1. High self-esteem of intelligence positively correlates with the subscale of controlling other people's emotions at a significance level of 0.05, i.e. the higher the teacher assesses his intellectual abilities, the higher his ability to manage the emotional state of other people. This subscale is included in the scale of interpersonal intelligence, which also positively correlates with high self-esteem of intelligence. It can be said that the higher the self-esteem of intelligence, the higher the interpersonal intelligence.
2. High self-esteem of happiness positively correlates with the subscale of managing one's emotions at a significance level of 0.05, i.e. the higher the self-esteem of happiness, the higher its ability to manage its emotional state. In addition, high self-esteem for happiness is positively correlated with the emotion control scale, which suggests that the higher the teacher evaluates himself as a happy person, the better he is at managing emotions, both his own and those of others.
3. High self-esteem of the ability to understand one's emotions positively correlates with the subscale of understanding one's inner emotional state, as well as with intrapersonal emotional intelligence and emotional intelligence of managing emotions, i.e. the higher a person evaluates their ability to understand their emotions, the higher their emotional intelligence in understanding their emotions and in managing their own and others' emotions. Thus, those who believe they understand their emotions do understand them. Those who feel that they do not understand their emotions really do not understand and do not know how to manage emotions, either their own or those of others.
4. The average self-esteem of the ability to control the emotional state of another person positively correlates with the subscale of managing the emotional state of another person and negatively with the subscale of control of expression (the ability to control the external manifestations of one's emotions). This suggests that the higher a person evaluates his ability to understand the emotions of other people, the higher his ability to understand the emotions of other people, but this does not guarantee control over the external manifestation of his emotions.
An analysis of the results of a study conducted among teachers of general education institutions showed that the prevailing level of development of general emotional intelligence is average (40.7%). They value their experiences of happiness, their ability to understand and manage their emotions, and understand the emotions of others. They tend to underestimate their intellectual abilities and average their ability to manage the emotional state of other people.
The study found that:
- Understanding yourself and your emotions is critical both for understanding the emotions of other people and for managing emotions - both yours and those of others;
- Those who do not understand their own and others' emotions cannot control them;
- "Smart" are good at managing the emotions of other people;
- "Happy" manage themselves well;
- Those who believe that they poorly understand their emotions often experience communicative difficulties associated with understanding other people's emotions;
- Teachers who rate their intellectual abilities poorly also experience communication difficulties in understanding other people's emotions. Such communication problems are found in those who rate their ability to control the emotions of others low;
- Those who believe that they are poorly managing their emotions do have communication problems in managing their emotions.
As a result of mathematical processing of the obtained results using correlation analysis, the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence was empirically confirmed, namely: between self-esteem of intelligence and control of other people's emotions at a confidence level of 0.05%, self-esteem of happiness and control of one's emotions at a level of 0.05% , self-esteem of understanding of their emotions and understanding of their emotions and control of their own and others' emotions at the level of 0.05%, average self-esteem and control of other people's emotions and control of external expression at the highest level of 0.01%.
Thus, we can conclude that people with a high level of development of emotional intelligence and high self-esteem have pronounced abilities to understand their own emotions and the emotions of other people, they can control their emotional sphere, which determines their higher adaptability and efficiency in communication, and they more easily achieve their goals. In interaction with others. Communication problems can be the result of insufficient development of the basic substructures of emotional intelligence (understanding and control of one's own and other people's emotions) and underestimated (or overestimated) self-esteem. Inadequate self-esteem leads to misunderstanding of oneself, which results in wrong self-regulation. This fact often leads to a loss of social competence and difficulty in interpersonal contacts. But emotional intelligence is at the core of emotional self-regulation, so emotion management is a skill that can be learned and developed.
Self-assessment of oneself and one's abilities plays an important role in the formation and development of emotional intelligence. Self-confidence and self-confidence mobilizes all environmental and personal resources of a person and helps to cope with the existing difficulties. If a person rates his ability to understand and manage his own and / or other people's emotions low, then he really has communication problems in these areas. Those who do not understand their own and others' emotions cannot control them. Understanding yourself and your emotions is critical both for understanding other people's emotions and for managing emotions, both yours and others. Also, the more a person in situations of life difficulties tries to separate from the situation and reduce its significance, the less his ability to understand the emotions and feelings of other people. A low assessment of their abilities to manage their emotions in cases of difficulty leads to the search for social support in the form of informational, effective and emotional help. Those who have high abilities to understand and manage their own and others' emotions in situations of difficulty are not inclined to avoid problems, on the contrary, they take responsibility for solving these problems. Teachers with high self-esteem of intelligence in some cases take responsibility for solving the problem, and in some cases they simply shy away from such responsibility.
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15 July 2021
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Li, A., Aidossova, Z., Tazhina, G., & Tatyyeva, Z. (2021). Emotional Intelligence And Self-Assessment Of School Teachers. In A. G. Shirin, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, E. Y. Ignateva, & N. A. Shaydorova (Eds.), Education in a Changing World: Global Challenges and National Priorities, vol 114. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 86-93). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.07.02.11