The problem of young people with developmental disabilities and their support by organizational and pedagogical institutions in the course of their professional training is considered within the framework of inclusive higher education. In the course of the study, special attention was paid to a continuous, but at the same time systemic and going through certain stages process, which made it possible to substantiate not only personal, but also social factors that determine the training of a young specialist. Students with disabilities require special treatment, which requires a special approach on the part of higher professional education institutions, which consists in assisting in career orientation, adapting to the educational process itself and further employment. The article deals with up-to-date forms and methods of organizational and pedagogical support, considers their specificity, which includes development of new educational programs that take into account mental and physical abilities of students. Participation of students in creative and professional competitions, in social and scientific events is also encouraged. The continuity of educational organizations work and, especially, their interaction with regional departments of labor and employment, as well as with organizations in charge of culture and sports, construction cites and infrastructure facilities, has a positive impact. The above mentioned factors influence the choice of a student with disabilities and allow realization of life plans with regards to actual life circumstances.
Organizational and pedagogical problems of inclusive higher education for disabled people at the initial stage of its development in our country were mainly associated with the creation of a complex of special conditions for teaching disabled people at a university, as well as conditions for the socialization of disabled people through higher education (Goryainova & Yarskaya-Smirnova, 2020; Romanov & Yarskaya-Smirnova, 2014). Currently scientific problems have moved to a new dimension of qualitative subjective characteristics. So, in her work Alekhina (2016) examines institutional issues of implementing an individual approach in inclusive education. Zeer and Symaniuk (2014) considered the necessity of building up continuous individual educational trajectories for training people with disabilities in the context of professional development psychology. To date, such significant aspects of inclusion as the organization of support of the studies of students with disabilities, issues of socio-psychological adaptation of students with disabilities in the educational environment of a university, adaptation of the educational process itself have been studied and implemented in universities in sufficient detail (Kantor, 2019), significant developments have been made in terms of the use of e-learning and distance technologies for disabled people (Bairamov, 2019; Romanenkova, 2017; Stanevskij, 2020).However, today, when inclusive education is already quite accessible, it is not just a full-fledged mastery of all planned competencies in the educational programs that comes to the fore for young disabled students, but their natural and timely inclusion in the process of professional development. At the present stage, with the intensity of changes in life and professional circumstances of people, with a competitive sphere of employment, the earlier and better the support for the professional development of a young disabled person is organized, the promotion of the progressive development of his value and motivational sphere, the faster he will achieve a significant state of professional, business qualities and opportunities for productive and creative work performance. The continuous process of individualized organizational and pedagogical assistance to young people with disabilities at all stages of inclusive higher education, from their admission to study and up to employment and the acquisition of primary work skills, provides the basis for a positive life and professional path of a disabled person. Methods of effective solution of issues of organizational and pedagogical assistance to the professional development of young disabled people on the basis of cooperation between the university and other universities, executive authorities, educational institutions, scientific, public and other organizations in the region attract the attention of a significant number of educational researchers (Alekhina, 2016; Denisova & Lekhanova, 2017; Margolis et al., 2017). This work, in turn, develops this topical direction of research, studying the systemic, continuous, step-by-step nature of the process, due to both personal factors of influence and social regulators.
- Since inclusive higher education for young people with disabilities is the most effective social tool for their professional development as well as an up-shift, the implementation of organizational and pedagogical assistance to this process presupposes a scientific substantiation of this activity, which must be given proper and serious attention in a university that cares about the quality and competitiveness of its graduates. The goal of this study is to substantiate the systemic organizational and pedagogical assistance to young people with disabilities in inclusive education in the process of professional development by defining the goal, subjects, contents, stages and organizational and pedagogical foundations of the activity carried out in the interaction of universities with relevant regional state structures, other bodies and educational organizations. At the same time, the problem should be considered both from the individual-personal position and characteristics of the student, and from the point of view of the social situation, based on the fact that the process of systemic organizational and pedagogical assistance covers all stages of inclusive education of young people with disabilities at the university, starting with career guidance when choosing a direction of study through actual training, preparation for employment to direct assistance to the very process of employment, which would correspond not only to the professional potential of a young disabled person who received a higher education, but also to the regional characteristics of the labor sphere.
Domestic science considers professional development as an integral part of a person's mental development, which is determined by natural (biological), social factors, individual mental properties of a person, as well as random events, and is accompanied by overcoming external and internal psychological barriers. The object of professional development is a personality, whose biological characteristics have a special impact on his development. In fact, professional development is a process of changing and accumulating significant personal and social qualities of a person during the transition from one level of activity to another, higher one, and it is characterized by individual originality. The driving force of professional development, of course, is the personality itself, the progressive nature of changes in its motivational sphere, the internal growth of universal and professional values, the ability to plan actions, mobilize oneself and objectively evaluate one's activities. Professional development is fully correlated with self-actualization and the realization of personal potential. At the same time, scientific research emphasizes that as social development and advancement move on, social factors, among which leading activities and socially organized system play a key role, begin to exert an increasing influence on professional development.
Purpose of the Study
This work develops the problem of organizational and pedagogical assistance to the continuous professional development of young people with disabilities in the process of inclusive education at a university, using the accepted approach to this process as continuous throughout a person's life and gradually developing one. So, in Russian psychology it is claimed that the social situation of development and the level of development of the leading professional activity as the basis for identifying the stages of the professional formation of a personality and distinguishes such stages of professional development as option, professional training, professional adaptation, primary and secondary professionalization, professional skills.
Our research on young people with disabilities enrolled in higher education covers the first three stages and partly the stage of primary professionalization. Speaking particularly of continuous professional development of a young disabled person within inclusive higher education, the process should be analyzed and improved with effectiveness both from the individual-personal position and characteristics of the student, and from the point of view of the social situation of development, that is, taking into account both personal, and social regulators.
Moreover, we should note that the latter factor, until recently, did not receive due attention in research. Priority studies so far were connected mainly with that part of professional development that is associated with career guidance in preparation for entering school, that is, with psychological and pedagogical assistance aimed at adequacy, awareness and independence in choosing the direction of training a young disabled person, as well as with the process of professionalization during study. These issues have been separately sufficiently well studied in numerous works on the inclusion of professional education. In this work, they are also considered, but with regards to comprehensive two-sided approach based on a significant “interference” of factors of the social situation.
According to the prevailing opinion of specialists and practical experience of universities, the influence of the social situation on the professional development of young people with disabilities in inclusive education should be assessed and taken into account by the degree of development in the region of the system of inclusive education as a whole (Martynova, 2020). The current characteristic of the regional system of inclusive education is not only the actual state of the level of inclusion at all levels of education (primary, general, special education, professional educational organizations, higher professional, additional education, the system of retraining and advanced training of personnel), but their continuity and well-established interaction with regional departments of labor and employment, social relations, culture and sports, construction and infrastructure. The organization of such comprehensive interaction contributes to the choice of a feasible individual educational path and the implementation of a life plan of young citizens with disabilities with regards to the influencing factors and circumstances.
The social situation that ensures the success of the professional development of young disabled people who have received higher education and have successfully found a job includes a wide range of regional social factors that affect the professionalization of young disabled people. This is the demographic situation in the region, the state of the employment sector and the system of employment, the quota of jobs for disabled people who respectively received higher education, as well as wages in accordance with the law. When organizing pedagogical assistance to the continuous professional development of young people with disabilities, one should also take into account the economic profile of the region, the availability of the architectural, construction, transport and production environment, the state and needs of labor reserves, and the unemployment rate in the region.
Therefore, the main factors of organizational and pedagogical assistance to the continuous professional development of young people with disabilities in inclusive education today are not only the actual level of development of inclusion in the process of educational and professional activities in an educational organization, but also the level of establishing systemic interaction of relevant social subjects of organizational and pedagogical assistance to the professional development of students with disabilities and disabled graduates of inclusive higher education institutions (Alekhina, 2017; Antropov & Kantor, 2018).
The methodology for studying and analyzing this problem was based on the principles of state policy in the field of professional training and employment of young people with disabilities, in particular, set forth in the “Model program for supporting young people with disabilities in obtaining professional education and assistance in subsequent employment” (Order of the Ministry of Labor of Russia & the Ministry of Education of Russia & the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, 2018), study and analysis well-known scientific psychological and pedagogical papers and practical research in the field of inclusive education, based on a combination of theoretical and many years of practical experience of Chelyabinsk State University in inclusive education of disabled people, studying the practices and materials of other Russian universities, analyzing indicators of state and regional information systems, their combination, analysis, comparison and generalization. Practical developments are based on the results of the activities of Chelyabinsk State University and other universities, instructive, regulatory and reporting documents (Bairamov & Gerasimov, 2019; Goryunova et al., 2017).
Let us consider the process of professional development of young disabled people stage by stage. Option is the first stage of professional development, at which the meaning and contents of organizational and pedagogical assistance is career guidance of applicants with disabilities. In the program of guidance with applicants when choosing a direction of their training, in addition to the main issues of career guidance (psychological characteristics of a personality and its abilities, their influence on choosing a career, professional suitability and unsuitability, etc.), it is necessary to include such issues as personal and social regulators of choosing a profession (Aismontas et al., 2017). The peculiarities of today are that career guidance itself is acquiring a bilateral character. On the one hand, traditionally, the essence of career guidance is that its goal is to form an adequate career choice by a young person, taking into account his professional preferences, as well as his conscious understanding of the psychophysiological characteristics of his personality and their influence on the choice of a profession, his individual characteristics and capabilities, peculiarities of work, the presence of indications and contraindications to the choice of a profession (Martynova & Romanovich, 2017).This is the most important and initial component of the process of promoting professional development which requires increased attention to the personality of a young disabled person and the planning of his individual educational trajectory on the part of qualified university specialists: teachers of subjects, educational psychologists, teachers of special education, social workers, technical support specialists, as well as accounting for information contained in educational, medical and social documents.
On the other hand, a future graduate with a disability should have a profession that is in demand in society (region) at this point in time and in a fairly foreseeable future, and be competitive in this profession in terms of the quality of training. Therefore, propaedeutic activity in terms of career guidance should take into account social realities so that graduates with disabilities do not leave educational organization having received the training they want in their chosen profession, but which is not in demand at the labor market. In this regard, at the stage of option, such types of activities as preliminary familiarization of optants with employment opportunities and career advancement in a particular area of training are included in the career guidance system for young disabled people. To this end, universities should, in cooperation with information and employment services, organize a regular information service in terms of reviewing the labor market for people with disabilities, analyzing vacancies in demand, including vacancies for places on quota specifically for people with disabilities, the availability of conditions for jobs, creating special jobs, self-employment opportunities, or their own business. In career guidance with applicants, when choosing a field of study, it is recommended to practice meetings and consultations with representatives of the employment service, employers, representatives of enterprises of various forms of ownership, graduates of previous years.
The next stage of professional development is professional training itself. As already noted, inclusive education is implemented in special conditions of an accessible universal educational environment: socio-cultural, psychological and pedagogical, informationally technological, architectural (Aismontas & Odincova, 2018). From organizational and pedagogical assistance aspect in this period it is necessary to create comfortable learning conditions that allow students with any type and level of health disabilities to master knowledge and acquire the needed competencies on an equal basis with other students. In the context of our research, a serious innovative organizational and pedagogical direction of the educational organization's activities is the inclusion of new promising training programs in the educational process of the university, those reflecting actual directions of development of society (region) and responding to the need for specialists in high demand: modernization of the profiles of existing educational training programs, agreed with employers, as well as updating the content of existing educational programs by including special adaptation modules for socializing, profiling purposes (Martynova & Romanovich, 2017).
In the course of training, during the transition from course to course, the process of professional development becomes more and more individual and personal in nature. “The continuous process of counseling and communication with students with disabilities or those who experience various difficulties in the process of higher education, correction of professional orientation, the development of social experience and social adaptation, citizenship, the ability to work and communicate in a team, adequately treating their peculiarities” becomes important (Zeer & Symaniuk, 2014). In all educational programs the proportion of study time for practical training, workshops, individual work and counseling is increasing, and extensive e-learning opportunities are used as well. The necessary components of professional development are research work of students with disabilities, the implementation of case projects, the development of additional educational programs in the direction of future professional activities, participation in creative competitions, public scientific and social events (Romanenkova, 2018; Sorokin, 2020). Mandatory practical experience is included in educational program, especially at enterprises and workplaces of future employment, allowing students to combine theoretical training with practical and understand the nature of their future profession. Currently in all regions of the country, competitions of professional skills, organized in various areas of professional activity, have been conducted on a wide scale. The whole process of preparation and participation of students with disabilities in them is an extremely important component of professional development, for it is: a test of strength, a deeper understanding of the contents and nature of the activity, labor collectivism, comparing one's ideas about future activities with reality, experiencing first professional successes and achievements, adjusting the choice.
In senior years and, especially, in the final year of studies, the main issue of professional development of students with disabilities is their preparation for employment. On the part of the teachers and specialists of the university, increased attention regarding the achievement of a high level of development of necessary universal and professional competencies by students, the preparation of the final qualification work and its defense is required. During this period of study, the professional preparedness of students with disabilities to work in the chosen profession is supported both by specific methods of educational work (special adaptation disciplines for preparing for employment, trainings, educational and production games, the development of scientific case projects, etc.), and individual work on clarifying employment plans, the possibility of their implementation, counseling of a young disabled person on specific individual and social circumstances that may affect his plans.
Currently, universities face yet another practically new task of professional activity in relation to graduates and, first of all, graduates with disabilities (although it should be noted that in certain periods of social development, universities were successfully engaged in this) – this is the need at the final stage of training to carry out activities for the primary professional adaptation and professionalization, to organize individual support of young disabled graduates in preparation for employment at a specific workplace. The main goal is to organize support for the process of adaptation of a graduate to a new professional environment (Romanenkova, 2018). This process, like any social process, and even more so the adaptation process, has a two-sided character: familiarization and initial entry of a disabled person into a new professional environment (on the one hand) and preparation of favorable and accessible conditions for this (on the part of the employer). Each case here is individual and requires the attention of both support specialists and teachers of graduating departments from the university, and administrative support measures from the employer in order to set up a special workplace, organize mentoring, establish working conditions and interpersonal relations with the staff.
This level, the corresponding quality and efficiency of the work of universities is achievable only via interdepartmental interaction with the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, exercising state administration in the field of education, labor and employment, social protection of the population, culture, information and communications, etc., local authorities, self-government bodies, as well as socially oriented non-profit organizations. And first of all, this is interaction with labor and employment authorities – providing information about available vacancies for people with disabilities, about the possibilities of support from these services, the conditions of future work (availability, organization of jobs, working hours, availability of benefits, mentoring assistance, material living conditions, etc.); assistance in organizing internships, competitions of professional skills, organizing joint meetings with graduates on practical issues of their future employment; regular job fairs, consultations for the universities themselves, graduates and their parents on the measures of assistance provided; organization of “hot lines”, social advertising.
Thus, the systemic nature of the organizational and pedagogical assistance to the continuous professional development of young people with disabilities is ensured by a single goal and general regulations for the interaction of all links of the system in the region (Order of the Ministry of Labor of Russia & the Ministry of Education of Russia & the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, 2018). The goal of such a unified social system is to ensure a full and adequate professional development of young disabled people, corresponding to both the characteristics and needs of young disabled people themselves, and peculiarities and needs of the community. Thus, society is moving towards a further stage of social improvement in relation to young people with disabilities: from providing conditions for inclusive education in universities to the prospect of their actual employment at industries after graduation. It is a multi-component system, which is quite consistent with the complexity of modern social issues. Various activities described above and individual activities are implemented in together to varying degrees depending on the need of the component included in the overall structure at any particular moment
Systemic organizational and pedagogical assistance to the continuous professional development of a young disabled person in inclusive education is considered as a coordinated poly-subjective process of continuous individualized psychological, pedagogical and social assistance to a young disabled person, aimed at adequate career guidance, successful completion of studies and preparation for employment, including employment itself, corresponding to the received professional potential of higher education.
It is shown that in the present conditions of society and the labor market development, not only personal factors but also social regulators affect the professional development of a young disabled person, which requires actualization of universities’ activities, aimed at organizational and pedagogical assistance to the professional development of young disabled people.
The article considers the content and methods of organizational and pedagogical assistance to a young disabled person at the stages of inclusive education: when choosing a profession, in the process of inclusive education, in preparing for employment and acquiring primary labor skills.
It is shown that this social task under current conditions cannot be successfully solved without systemic interagency work. The systemic nature of organizational and pedagogical assistance is ensured by the unity of goal and the involvement of the actual subjects of the system in the activities concerning general rules for the interaction of all the participants in the system in the region.
Systemic organizational and pedagogical assistance to the continuous professional development of a young disabled person in inclusive education, considered as individualized pedagogical and social support of a young disabled person at all stages of professional development in inclusive studies at a university (when choosing a profession, in the process of study, in preparation for employment and the acquisition of primary labor skills) creates conditions for effective professional development and, ultimately, successful employment and further professional career that corresponds to his professional potential achieved through higher education.
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25 June 2021
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Personality, norm, pathology, behavior, uncertanity, COVID-19
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Martynova, Y., & Zubenko, Y. (2021). Systemic Support Of The Disabled People Professional Formation Within Inclusive Higher Education. In M. Ovchinnikov, I. Trushina, E. Zabelina, & S. Kurnosova (Eds.), Personality in Norm and in Pathology, vol 112. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 167-176). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.06.04.20