Media literacy development is crucial for socialization and personal development in current circumstances. Media literacy allows to safely use media space, to critically question the incoming media information, not to get exposed to fraud or disinformation. The use of digital technologies in the inclusive education gives the opportunity to enlarge the media use for educational purposes as well as for creating the environment for schoolchildren to produce their own media products. The Internet communication skills help people to be more viable in the labour market. It is important to develop media literacy since the school days. The Federal Law of the Russian Federation on education states the notion of integrated (inclusive) education which allows the children with special needs acquire proper education. By the time young people graduate from school they are to have certain skills, possess required knowledge and capabilities to live self-sufficient lives in the future. The inclusive education should contribute to acquiring these skills including media literacy. The author gives the definition of the notion “media literacy” for a modern school child, shows the importance of media literacy for the student’s personality irrespective of their health condition and states the difficulties a teacher is about to face when working with children with special needs (teaching media literacy). The model of media literacy training for the school children in the context of inclusive education digitalization is presented in the article.
Considering worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, the process of digitalization is being intensified. Being the most sensitive to all the changing trends of the society, the system of education was no exception,
The use of video conference software, on-line platforms, virtual labs, social networks and email for educational purposes during the pandemic has been implemented all over Russia in all the schools. Messengers have become the part of educational process; teachers have started to use them rather often. Multimedia presentations, educational video content have substituted the instruction by means of showing objects. There are hardly any schoolchildren that have not become active Internet and media content users, and children with special needs are no exception.
The tasks which require quality searching for the information in the Internet are used more and more often. Schoolchildren are now facing the privacy issues as well as the issue of the relationship between a person and society in the Internet media sphere.
To work effectively in this area people need media literacy; some of their personal attributes are to be changed as well.
Children with special needs turned out to be the most vulnerable in this process. As a part of inclusive education, they are being taught together with children without special needs.
The issue of teaching children with special needs and their media literacy in the context of inclusive education digitalization remains crucial for the personality development.
There are several important theoretical and practical issues connected with the process of teaching media literacy as the factor of personality development in the context of inclusive education digitalization.
Scholars offer different definitions for the term “media literacy”. E. V. Oleshko (2020) describes different approaches towards the media literacy of new education. N. I. Gendina (2005) defines media literacy as the result of media education or media studies. She underlines the dependence of media literacy level on the time person spend on the media examination. T. N.Galinskaya, D. R. Ilikaeva (2018) define media literacy as a component of intercultural competence. G. V.Vanykina, T. O. Sundukova (2019) consider digital literacy as an integration of media and information literacy.
The scientists single out certain skills a literate media user should possess. A. V. Fyodorov (2000) states that the skills of media space analysis and synthesis can be treated as such for they promote understanding and media product creation. P. Winterhoff-Spurk (2007) thinks that these skills should include the ability to use the modern digital technologies for social interaction and critical questioning of the information acquired, the skills of reasonable information technology use, the abilities to use hardware and software and know the programming fundamentals. According to S.J. Baran (2002) a media literate user should be able to perceive, understand and filter the information from media space as well as possess skills which allow the argumentation and differentiation of their own emotional reaction when perceiving information; skills of media content critical analysis. Kurilova A. L. (2019) notes that media education is aimed at developing the ability to analyze and interpret information.
The work on certain skills and capabilities training involves the personal development. O. P. Kutkina views media literacy as media space knowledge and the ability to use this knowledge in practice, besides, she also includes personal qualities into this notion, such as cognitive activity, communication, critical thinking, high reflexivity (Voronova & Kravets, 2019).
Yu.S. Inyakin (2000) connects the training of media literacy with the building of capacity to be active in media sphere, to evaluate and interpret media text and social and cultural context in it.
K. Jin (2020) points out the importance of internet communication for modern schoolchildren, their activity in the media space, identifies the risks and the ways of successful work in Internet media space such as time limitation, informing about possible danger and the development of the ability to evaluate and interpret the media text and its social and cultural context.
The analysis of the scientific papers has shown that the researches performed so far are neither systematic nor full-scale. The issue of building the students’ media literacy (including the children with special needs) in the context of inclusive education has not been studied properly. Thus the research in this area has huge potential besides being interesting. While recognizing the importance of media literacy in the process of personality development in the context of society digitalization, the issue of creating the conditions which allow to form media literacy among children with special needs while introducing digital technologies in the inclusive education remains to be studied thoroughly.
What is the media literacy of a modern school student?
What is the importance of media literacy for the student’s personality irrespective of their health condition?
What difficulties a teacher is about to face when working with children with special needs (teaching media literacy)?
What are the mechanisms and conditions allowing the development of media literacy among the children with special needs in modern inclusive education?
Purpose of the Study
The answers to the questions stated above are supposed to achieve the objective and provide assistance in teaching media literacy in the context of the inclusive education digitalization.
The following methods have been used in the course of the research: theoretical analysis of scientific works and teaching experience, synthesis, comparison, generalization, pedagogical modelling.
The analysis of scientific papers and pedagogical experience, synthesis, comparison and generalization allowed to reach the goals of the research. The method of pedagogical modelling allowed to create the model representing the peculiar features, inner mechanisms and the condition of media literacy training of a school child in the context of the inclusive education digitalization.
Media literacy of a modern schoolchild.
For the purpose of this study the media literacy of a schoolchild is understood as the whole set of ideas regarding the rules of behaviour and communication, risks and dangers of media space, skills and capabilities necessary for work in the media sphere in order to solve educational tasks and to communicate with the society.
The training of media literacy is closely related to the personal abilities development, these abilities allow to use media texts, evaluate them and create new ones (Worsnop C., 1999).
While learning the media literacy the schoolchild should possess the skills to use hardware and software necessary for work in the media sphere.
The importance of media literacy for the student’s personality irrespective of their health condition.
The training of media literacy gives the motivation for the personal development for shaping the knowledge and work experience in media space. The formation of media literacy among school children is the specially organized process in inclusive education. This process allows to establish the personal intellectual and moral qualities which are important for effective social interaction in the media sphere.
When teaching the media literacy, the teacher must develop critical thinking, communicative skills, cognitive activity, creative thinking as well as ideas of values and senses regarding the media using activity.
On the other hand, the improvement of personal cultural level, development of critical thinking and communicative skills and study of computer technologies - all these processes lay the foundation for media literacy as a part of inclusive education.
When interacting in the media space the schoolchild often creates a media product reflecting their personality (Voronova & Kravets, 2019). Drucker (2020) notes that the creation of positive social media content affects the formation of value orientations of modern adolescents. The media space influences the youth consciousness (Goryaeva & Mezentseva, 2020).
It is worth noting that the personality is the subject having their own independent position in historic and cultural space. While communicating inside the media space of the Internet, the students are to preserve their individual subjective attitude. The system of values establishes the personal stability, clearness and consistency of the behaviour, continuity of mutual relations with other people. The developed system of values is a sign of mature personality. School children's personality is still in the process of development. That is why it is extremely important to begin work focused on media literacy development at primary school.
Difficulties a teacher is about to face when working with children with special needs (teaching media literacy).
Children with special needs require additional attention.
Any media product contains certain information. Website publications, videos, musical videos, movies - all these are media products and they contain information. The information the user gets needs to be perceived and treated. People with special needs have their own psychophysical perception features which influence the perception of the information received. For example, children with intellectual disabilities perceive less objects. Their chromatic sensitivity is lowered, thought process (analysis and synthesis) is slower, selectiveness are in disorder. The visually impaired students indicate weaker apperception, comprehension and generalization of images than the norm. Their selective exposure and light sensitivity are in disorder and their field of vision is narrowed. The speed and legitimacy of visual perception of optically challenged students depends on their vision acuity (Lubovsky et al., 2016). Hearing-impaired students need more time to receive and interpret the new information than those who can hear. Schoolchildren with autistic spectrum disorder have difficulties on all the levels of perception. They also have issues with active interpretation of information, impressions, emotions, with fragmentation of world perception as the logical consequence.
The existence of “knowledge gaps” for the “media literacy” notion among school children with special needs has been established (Voronova & Kravets, 2018). School children have difficulties with technical and communicative aspects, lack knowledge about risks and dangers of on-line communication, it is hard for them to create a media product (Voronova & Kravets, 2019).
Certain psychophysical features of children with special needs are sure to influence the selection of media information. Such children often become victims to fraud, cheat, or lotteries. They are more vulnerable to risks and dangers in the media sphere than children with no special needs. Teachers face many difficulties when working with the children with special needs:
- these children need more time to understand some notions which are new for them;
- every child has their own work speed thus group activities might be an issue;
- these schoolchildren have rapid fatiguability, somatic state might often influence the educational capabilities.
Basing on the difficulties mentioned above and bearing in mind the peculiarities of the psychophysical development, we are to state that media literacy teaching should be performed on constant and regular basis. Besides, it should comply with the “no harm” principle and meet the following criteria:
- compliance with health and sanitary standards;
- materials for building media literacy should be presented at a slow pace, should be as detailed as possible, should be presented in small portions and be repeated several times so that the school children remember everything;
- media literacy should be formed with visibility necessary for the school children to comprehend the material.
Teacher must pay close attention to these peculiarities in the process of media literacy teaching.
The model of media literacy training for the schoolchildren in the context of inclusive education digitalization.
Throughout the research we have developed a model which reflects peculiarities, mechanisms and conditions of media literacy training of school children in the context of inclusive education digitalization (Figure 1). It includes the following modules: objective, theoretical-methodological, content, technological and module of result and diagnostics.
The introduction of this model in Russian school supposes the parental involvement into the educational process (as subjects). The model includes information support for the teachers. The vice-principal of the educational organization is to manage the support. The media literacy questionnaires may serve as a test tool. The analysis of the activity products can indicate the skill levels of school children. Media products created by the students serve as the output products, e.g. video clips, presentations, etc. The model requires the maximization of digital technologies contribution and it can be used in both full-time and part-time education.
The use of this model for media literacy training among school children in the context of inclusive education will allow to solve different present day issues, in particular, it will allow to safely use the media space in everyday life. Media literacy development is important for all the ages. It contributes to full social interaction and personality development. The training of media literacy at school has great potential as school children, educational organization staff and parents act as both subjects and objects in this process.
Media literacy training is possible both at the lessons and outside school hours.
If successfully implemented, the model is supposed:
- to develop critical thinking, information selection skills (for the information coming from media sphere) among children with special needs;
- to develop communicative skills among the children with special needs via Internet use;
- to train media literacy among school children with special needs and to teach them the ideas concerning the role media literacy plays nowadays;
- to decrease the risks of internet addiction disorder among school children with special needs.
The model has been created with the “no harm” principle in mind (the process of education should not harm the children without special needs) and can be used in the context of inclusive education.
The research might be found interesting for those working in the inclusive education and can serve as basis for the media literacy training activities.
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25 June 2021
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Personality, norm, pathology, behavior, uncertanity, COVID-19
Cite this article as:
Voronova, A. (2021). Student’a Media Literacy Training as a Factor of Personality Development in The Inclusive Education. In M. Ovchinnikov, I. Trushina, E. Zabelina, & S. Kurnosova (Eds.), Personality in Norm and in Pathology, vol 112. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 153-160). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.06.04.18