The problem of the development of arbitrariness in motor and game activities of preschoolers is of particular relevance, since 25% of children, according to the latest research of the Russian Academy of Education, have a decrease in energy, the desire to actively act. Teachers are faced with an important task of developing the strong-willed qualities of preschoolers, since it is at this age stage that the transition from impulsive behavior to regulated behavior is determined. The aim of the research is to study and evaluate the manifestation of volition in motor activity of 5-7-year-old children. Methods of theoretical analysis, generalization, observation, diagnostic technique "Study of the ability to restrain one's immediate impulses", methods of mathematical statistics were used. The study involved 625 children of senior preschool age attending preschool educational organizations of the Belgorod region. The results of the theoretical analysis testify to the positive influence of motional-playing activity on the development of will and volition in preschoolers, the formation of a responsible attitude, awareness of task fulfillment, the ability to organize their actions in accordance with the set goal, to show independence in achieving the result. The analysis of the results of empirical studies showed problems in manifestations of arbitrariness in motor and game activities. Namely, the inability of preschoolers to follow game rules, control their emotional manifestations, lack of purposefulness, initiative, activity in motor and game activities. Meanwhile, the level of volition in motor-play activity in girls is significantly higher than in boys.
Keywords: Preschooler, will, arbitrariness, activity, outdoor games, motor-game activity
In its development, volitional regulation has several peaks. One of these rises is found in older preschool age, which indicates its sensitivity to the development of volition and the formation of volitional regulation.
It is at this age stage that the transition from impulsive behavior to behavior mediated, regulated by rules, purpose, etc. occurs. In modern studies (Peyre et al., 2019; Sopa & Pomohaci, 2015; Tafuri et al., 2019), voluntary behavior is distinguished as one of the neoplasms of senior preschool age.
One of the target guidelines of modern preschool education, presented in the Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool Education, is the formation of the child's ability to manifest volitional efforts in various activities, the ability to cope with "momentary urges", to achieve the set goal.
The problem of the formation of will and arbitrariness in the preschool period of childhood is relevant, because thanks to the will and arbitrariness of a preschooler, such qualities as purposefulness, perseverance, and the ability to obey rules are developed. The manifestation of strong-willed behavior is an indicator of the formation of the child's subjective position in different types of children's activities. Children's behavior manifests stubbornness, laziness, intemperance, lack of initiative, etc. This is confirmed by the results of research (Kuznetsova, 2019; Likh, 2000).
Modern children have a low level of development of arbitrariness and emotional-volitional regulation. In the studies of Feldstein (2013), it is noted that by the end of preschool age, 25% of children have "emotional discomfort", a decrease in energy, and an unwillingness to actively act. The status of play activity that is significant in the mental development of the child's personality narrows, which leads to the underdevelopment of the motivational and needful sphere of the preschool child, will and arbitrariness.
All of the above determines the relevance of the study of the manifestation of arbitrariness problem of the preschoolers in motor and game activities.
At the same time, under the motor-play activity of a child, we mean a set of motor acts aimed at achieving the goal of the game, characterized by the accurate performance of tasks associated with mandatory rules for all players. The use of games with rules allows, to a certain extent, to solve the problem of the development of arbitrariness in older preschoolers.
Sopa and Pomohaci (2015) proved the importance of team games and socialization of children through sports. They also proved that outdoor games contribute to the development and social integration of the child into modern society, as through various game situations and sports competitions, the child can gain confidence, determination, and try new forms of cooperation.
We consider strong-willed behavior in the senior preschool age as a responsible attitude to activity, awareness in performing tasks offered by adults, the ability to correct mistakes, organize their actions in accordance with the set goal, independence in achieving results, etc. There is a combination of two components of volitional actions - motivational and operational among the features of the development of volitional behavior in different types of children's activities in preschool age, that is, a combination of motives and the ability to achieve a goal (Elkonin, 2010; Lubens et al., 2008; Smirnova, 2015; Zaporozhets, 1986).
At the stage of completion of the preschool period of childhood, among the possible achievements of the child indicated in the Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool Education, the ability to manifest volitional efforts, the ability to observe generally accepted norms and rules of behavior in activities, in relationships with others was noted.
The teachers of preschool educational organizations are faced with the professional task of choosing means, methods, creating the necessary conditions that allow them to positively influence the development of volitional qualities of each child. Pedagogical science is faced with the task of their scientific substantiation.
Purpose of the Study
In connection with the importance of the problem of the development of volitional qualities in preschool age, we set a goal: to study and evaluate the manifestation of arbitrariness in the motor activity of 5-7-year-old children.
Methods of theoretical analysis, generalization, observation, diagnostic technique "Study of the ability to restrain one's immediate impulses" (Uruntaeva & Afonkina, 1995), methods of mathematical statistics: Mann-Whitney U-test were used.
The study involved 625 children of senior preschool age (312 girls and 313 boys) attending 13 preschool educational organizations in Belgorod and the Belgorod region.
Many scientists have studied the volitional qualities of an individual, such as endurance, responsibility, courage, organization, persistence, discipline, and other qualities (Selivanov, 1986; Zaporozhets, 1986, etc.).
Many definitions of volitional and voluntary human behavior contain the concept of "consciousness" ("awareness"). In modern studies of the concept of "will", you can find a connection with a number of psychological concepts - thinking, emotions, abilities, motivation, etc. According to Selivanov (1986), will is a conscious regulation of a person's own behavior.
In the research of Zaporozhets (1986), it is emphasized that actions become arbitrary when a person performs them consciously, i.e., he is guided by a certain goal in his actions.
In his works, Rubinshtein (2002) identified such a strong-willed quality as initiative, which is a distinctive feature of active people who create something new, actively manifest themselves outside, in a new environment, in a new team.
Vygotsky (1984) noted that various strong-willed qualities can manifest themselves in certain personal traits: self-control, the ability to restrain one's feelings and emotions, the ability to control oneself, to force one to do something (or, conversely, to restrain one from committing rash actions), etc.
Among the criteria for the manifestation of will, scientists (Puni, 1977; Selivanov, 1986; Shcherbakov, 1990, etc.) highlight the need to overcome certain obstacles, and the mechanism contributing to its manifestation is volitional effort. In other studies, a number of mechanisms have been identified that affect volitional manifestations, for example, a change in the meaning of actions (Ivannikov, 1985); setting (Uznadze, 1966), making a certain decision (Levin, 2001), control and self-control (Nikiforov, 2020), etc.
Among the features of the development of volitional behavior in different types of children's activities in preschool age, there is a combination of two components of volitional actions - motivational and operational, that is, a combination of motives and the ability to achieve the goal. Strong-willed behavior in older preschool age is manifested in a responsible attitude to activities, awareness of the tasks proposed by adults, the ability to correct mistakes, organize their actions in accordance with the goal, independence in achieving results, etc.
In the works of many authors (Bauman et al., 2012; Biddle et al., 2011; Finogenova & Reshetov, 2015; Kondakov et al., 2020; Lesgaft, 1952; Voloshina et al., 2020, etc.), it is noted that outdoor games meet the necessary requirements for the development of a versatile personality of a preschool child. As N. Voloshina and Galimskaya (2017) emphasizes, outdoor games allow the child to maximize their creative activity, eliminate the lack of movement, get positive emotions and experiences.
Let us turn to the analysis of the results of observations of the play activity of preschoolers and the diagnostic methodology "Studying the ability to restrain their immediate impulses" in order to assess the ability of 5-7-year-old children to fulfill game rules in motor activity and consciously achieve their goals and activity, the degree of independence of the ability to control their emotions (Figure 1).
The optimal level of ability of 5-7 years old children to fulfill game rules in motor activity was observed in 8.97% (28) girls and 4.15% (13) boys. At the same time, the results for girls are 4.82% higher than those for boys. In the process of playing activities, children showed interest, the desire to observe the rules of the game, the ability to control their emotional manifestations, independence, initiative, curiosity. In the process of observations, the manifestation of a conscious desire to achieve a goal was noted in performing such game tasks as "Scratch a tennis ball", "Throw a shuttlecock into the basket", " Roll the ball around the hoop».
The admissible level of ability of 5-7 years old children to fulfill game rules in motor activity was noted in 47.76% (149) girls and 41.85% (131) boys. The skill level of girls is better developed than boys by 5.91%. Preschoolers in this group, basically, restrained their emotional manifestations in the process of interaction with peers, did not always show purposefulness, initiative, which was reflected in the result of the game, the occurrence of conflict situations destroyed the general play space of interaction. Game tasks were not always performed efficiently and effectively.
The analysis of the obtained results indicates the predominance of an insufficient level of formation of skills in children aged 5-7 years to perform game rules in motor activity. Insufficient level of ability of children aged 5-7 years to perform game rules in motor activity was noted in 43.27% (135) of girls and 54% (169) of boys. At the same time, girls’ results are 10.73% lower than boys’. The results obtained allow us to conclude that girls of 5-7 years of age have a better ability to follow the game rules in motor activity, compared to boys of the same age. In preschool children, there was a manifestation of indifference to play activities. They often refused to participate in the game. During the game activity, there was an inability to control their volitional and emotional manifestations, they were often irritable. They constantly needed support from adults.
Statistical calculations were carried out according to the Mann-Whitney U-test in two groups of preschoolers, selected by random sampling from three preschool institutions (60 girls and 60 boys). The ranking was carried out according to the result of assessing the ability of children 5-7 years old to fulfill game rules in motor activity, it was calculated using the following formula:
N1 is the number of subjects in the first sample,
N2 is the number of subjects in the second sample,
Tx is the largest of the rank sums,
Nx is the number of subjects in the group with the largest sum of ranks.
The results obtained indicate that the differences between the groups of boys and girls in the ability to fulfill game rules in motor activity are significant (p <0.01).
The foregoing allows us to conclude that the problem of the formation of volitional qualities remains relevant today. The preschool period of childhood is sensitive in the formation of the personality in general and the formation of volitional qualities, in particular. Their manifestation is one of the indicators of the formation of the child's subjective position.
Assessment of the manifestation of volition in motor-play activity indicates the presence of problems in 43.27% of girls and 54% of boys in the manifestation of volition in motor-play activity. Namely: inability to follow the game rules, to control their emotional manifestations, lack of purposefulness, initiative, activity in motor-game activity. At the same time, the level of volition in motor-play activity in girls is significantly higher than in boys.
In our opinion, in the practice of preschool education, the possibilities of motor-play activity are insufficiently realized.
In the process of motor-play activity, preschoolers master the sense of play, remember the rules, analyze their own actions and those of their comrades, learn to act in accordance with the chosen role, creatively use motor skills. For the successful realization of these possibilities, new pedagogical approaches to the organization of motor-play activity are required.
The article was supported by the grant of the Russian State Scientific Fund No. 20-013-00752 «Technology of socialization of preschool children in motor and game activities».
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21 June 2021
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Seryh, L. V., Kondakov, V. L., Voloshina, L. N., & Galimskaya, O. G. (2021). Manifestation Of Arbitrariness In The Motor Activity Of 5-7-Year-Old Children. In & N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), Amurcon 2020: International Scientific Conference, vol 111. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 463-469). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.06.03.62