Потому…Что, Оттого…Что, Тем Более…Что In Practice Of Teaching Russian As Foreign Language
This article examines constructive characteristics, grammatical features, semantic properties and stylistic features of non-elementary distant formationsandin the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language. In order to understand how foreign students learn auxiliary complexes-distant,- distant and-distant, textbooks for foreign students of the basic (A2), the first certification (B1), the second certification (B2) and the third certification (C1) levels were analyzed. Among different textbooks we focused on complex sentences sections: complex sentences with causal conjunctions in general, and sentences with-distant,-distant and-distant in particular. We were primarily interested whether such sentences are considered when teaching Russian as a foreign language, as well as grammatical status of the auxiliary units linking predicative units.The study allows us to get an idea of the number and frequency of references to language units that have become the subject of our research. There is no mention of these units in the textbooks of the basic level (A1) for foreign students. The main sources considering theoretical foundations of a complex sentence with subordinate clauses are found in advanced level textbooks (first (B1), second (B2), and third (C1)). Non-elementary distant formations, auxiliary complexes,, in textbooks for foreign students of different certification levels are not considered. Therefore, there is a problem of understanding and assimilation of these units in the process of learning Russian as a foreign language.
The study of syntax by foreign students is based on familiarity with the basic characteristics of a simple and complex sentence. Accordingly, the study of syntax in programs for foreign citizens includes theoretical knowledge that is taught to Russian schoolchildren and students, but with notes and additions. Chinese students study this section at the basic, first, second, and third stages of mastering the Russian language. The theory and practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language have a normative and methodological support that regulates how foreign students learn the Russian language: educational standard in, the Russian language program, etc.
The Russian state system of testing foreign citizens in the Russian language has been in place since 1995. The purpose of creating this system is to promote the integration of Russian education into the world educational space.
The state educational standard for Russian as a foreign language distinguishes the following levels of language proficiency: elementary; basic; threshold, or 1st certification level; threshold advanced, or 2nd certification level; post-threshold (professional), or 3rd certification level; perfect, 4th certification level; in a number of publications, we are also talking about the 5th certification level or the level of a native speaker.
The syntax of the Russian language is studied by foreigners in different ways in accordance with the requirements of the educational standard. Each certification language level is characterized by a certain lexical minimum, appropriate use of language material in various communication situations. However, even at advanced levels, not enough attention is paid to such a complex issue as the study of complex sentences with causal conjunctions in general, and sentences with constructionsin particular;
The object of our consideration was complex sentences with causal conjunctions. The subject of the study was sentences with auxiliary complexesis in the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the work is to analyze the representation of constructive characteristics, grammatical features, semantic properties and stylistic features of the use of non-elementary distant formationsandin textbooks for foreign students of the basic level (A2), the first certification level (B1), the second certification level (B2) and the third certification level (C1).
To achieve this goal, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis were used.
A conjunction is a class of auxiliary units that serve to formalize syntactic relations and help to express syntactic relations between components of syntactic structures. Despite the fact that much focus has been placed on this group of words in the last 20–30 years, scientists have not come to an unambiguous understanding of this term. In general, we can talk about two interpretations of the term “conjunction.” Conventionally, they are called broad and special ones. In the broadest sense of the term, the class of conjunctions includes words of any part of speech that can function in the function of a conjunction. With a special interpretation, only grammatical conjunctions are recognized as conjunctions, all other units are considered as a vast and motley class of conjunction analogues. We stand in solidarity with scientists who advocate a special understanding of the conjunction.
When describing the structure of conjunctions, as well as when defining the boundaries of the conjunction as a grammatical class of words, the problem of qualification is caused by non-elementary formations with the conjunction function. Their non-integrity forces scientists to abandon their traditional term “compound” and use other terms, such as phraseology-conjunction, conjunction functive, equivalent of the word of the conjunction type, and the like.
Even more problems are caused by those non-element formations with the conjunction function, whose components are located distantly. Note that distant non-element formations with the conjunction function are very diverse. We consider only three units of this type:. Having considered the constructive properties and other features of the functioning of these units, we come to the conclusion that their grammatical status cannot be determined through the concept of “conjunction” and through the correlation “correlate – conjunction.”
We believe that auxiliary units can be assigned to a class of specific units called an auxiliary complex of the conjunction type on par with – distant and– contact, in relation to which the term “auxiliary complex” itself was proposed. Under the auxiliary complex we understand a unique auxiliary unit, which, unlike other auxiliary units that are non-elementary in nature, but represent a unity, retains the original partial status of its components.
Many scientists note the importance and complexity for foreigners of studying syntax in general and conjunction constructions in particular (Liu, 2017; Pilyugina & Sheremetyevo, 2019; Tabunkov, 2017; Wang, 2017).
To determine whether foreign students are studying the units of interest, ten basic level textbooks and twenty advanced level Russian as foreign language textbooks (first, second and third certification levels) were reviewed.
In these manuals, we were interested in those sections that deal with complex sentences with causal conjunctions in general, and sentences with с in particular.
By looking at the basic level tutorials, we aimed at finding out whether complex sentences with subordinate causes are considered at this stage of training. After analyzing the basic level textbooks, we came to the conclusion that not all textbooks deal with complex sentences with causal conjunctions. Usually, a brief idea of a complex sentence is given, and sentences with some causal conjunctions are considered, such as
We would like to mention the Practical guide on the syntax of the Russian language for foreign students [Prakticheskoe posobie po sintaksisy russkogo yazyka dlya studentov-inostrantsev] edited by I. A. Shumov. P. Slesareva (Slesareva, 1997), which gives a more detailed description of sentences with causal conjunctions and in particular This manual notes that in the Russian language the most common are causal conjunctions and it focuses on the fact that the constructions with are widely used in fiction, and constructions with in colloquial speech. Author of the section N. T. Shvedova characterizes the position of causal conjunctions in a sentence, for example, she notes that the conjunction cannot be placed at the beginning of a sentence. She also says that (and this is especially important for our work) if it is necessary to emphasize the cause, complex conjunctions with the conjunction can be divided with the first part of the conjunction going to the main sentence, and the second one is in the subordinate clause. Unfortunately, the author does not give any examples confirming these theoretical propositions.
Thus, the basic level manuals we have reviewed either do not provide information about auxiliary units or give a minimal description of sentences with these units, while distant ones are not mentioned at all.
Advanced level textbooks, in our opinion, are the main sources that reveal the theoretical foundations of a complex sentence with subordinate causes. All advanced level textbooks briefly describe sentences with causal conjunctions, including those with auxiliary units of interest to us; in some manuals this description is quite detailed.
For example, some textbooks (Egorova, 2015; Glazunova, 2015; Moshinskaya, 2001; Wagner, 1999) provide an overall explanation of the theory of complex sentences with causal conjunctions. Such sentences are considered together with complex sentences with a consecutive clause within the general section Sentences with clauses of reason and consecutive clauses, since cause and effect are two interrelated categories. The manual Russian as a foreign language: The syntax of a simple and complex sentence (Moshinskaya, 2001) regards sentences with causal clauses from the point of view of semantics and stylistic use. Thus, the authors note that the subordinate parts of sentences with conjunctions indicate the reason for what is said in the main sentence.
In the above-mentioned manuals and some others (Khimik, 2013; Kupriyanova, 2015) there are examples of the use of sentences with causal conjunctions. However, only sentences with conjunctions and are characterized from a stylistic point of view, while constructions with units of interest are left without a stylistic characteristic.
The textbook by Zdorikova (2008) discusses in detail the structure of sentences with causal conjunctions. It is noted that complex sentences with clauses can have a flexible and inflexible structure. The author notes that the conjunction is used in sentences of inflexible structure and is stylistically neutral, since during transformations it freely replaces any causal conjunctions and is used in all styles of speech.
Thus, in the considered manuals, from all the units of interest to us the authors consider only — undivided. The authors make attempts to consider sentences with this conjunction from different points of view.
The subordinate conjunctions andand are discussed in detail in the textbook Sintaks sovremennogo ruskogo yazyka: prakticheskoe posobie dlya inostrannykh uchaschikhsya [Syntax of the modern Russian Language: a practical guide for foreign students] (Velichko, 2005). This manual notes that andand convey causal reasoning. The author of the section S. Yu. Semenova draws attention to the semantics of the conjunction and emphasizes that it is used in sentences where the cause results in an involuntary or forced action, the physical or mental state of the subject, as well as the state of the environment.
In this tutorial, the focus is not on the undifferentiated version of these auxiliary units, but on the divided contact one. The author of the section draws attention to the fact that when dividing a compound conjunction, the significance of the reason is emphasized with the help of intonation and is divided by a comma. However, the author gives examples of the division of a compound conjunction only in the presence of amplifying and negative particles in sentences as well as modal words. Sentences where the conjunction is divided in the absence of amplifying and negative particles or modal words are not considered.
In addition, the author considers the auxiliary complex with its components located remotely. The author focuses on the presence of an amplifying particle in such sentences, which makes sentences expressive. This is the only manual on the Russian language as a foreign language, which mentions constructions with — undivided. It reports that expresses a non-intrinsic causal meaning: it indicates a side, additional argument that is used to justify what is said in the main part.
As a result of the study, we came to the following conclusions:
1. In the basic level textbooks on the syntax of the Russian language as a foreign language, an overview of complex sentences with subordinate causes is given, sentences with conjunctions andare considered.
2. Advanced level textbooks on the syntax of the Russian language as a foreign language describe in detail the constructions with and Only the manual edited by A. V. Velichko mentioned the conjunction The authors pay attention to the semantics of conjunctions, the stylistic use of constructions with causal conjunctions. In one manual, there are references to a divided contact
3. Divided distant complexes are not presented in the educational literature on Russian as a foreign language.
Information about complex sentences with causal conjunctions at different levels of learning, of course, should be given in different ways. At the initial stage, the teacher presents students with complex sentences with the conjunction, answering the question At the middle stage, it is necessary to systematically present complex sentences of cause and effect with simple and compound conjunctions. In general, we agree with this, but we would like to add that at the level of Test of Russian as a Foreign Language-II and higher, foreign students should have an idea not only about sentences with non-divided but also about sentences with divided contact and distant
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