Socio-Technological Principles Of Municipal Project Management


When describing any technology, such components are taken into account as: a set of operations, a necessary sequence of operations and certain methods of their implementation. Technological means made (manufactured) in the most economical and simple (effective) way. The essence of social technology, its characteristics, forms of expression and variety can be expressed in the following provisions. First, social technology is an activity category. It represents a certain activity, more precisely, a certain way of carrying out the activity of an individual, social group, social organization. Social technology answers the question of how to act rationally and efficiently in order to achieve social goals with minimum socially necessary costs. Secondly, social technology is a process of activity that includes several stages (stages). Certain actions (operations) can be such stages. Thirdly, social technology, as a process, is not a chaotic set of actions, but their certain sequence, moreover, a progressive sequence, when each action follows from the previous one and becomes the basis (prerequisite) for the next. Fourthly, social technology is a special type of management activity focused on achieving a specific goal and ensuring a sequence of steps in its achievement. Fifth, social technology includes the variety of internal and external relations of the social system, unlocking and using their potential. Successful management of municipal projects requires respect for the principles of problem orientation, unity of interests, standardization, bimodal management, complicity, professional and civic initiative, cumulative responsibility, motivation, career development, gradualism.

Keywords: Municipal project, management, social technology, principle, standard, social problem


Technology is usually defined as a set of methods for obtaining and processing raw materials, stuff or products. The concept of technology is also associated with a description of production processes, instructions for their implementation, technological rules, maps, graphs, etc. If there is no particular disagreement regarding the concept of “technology”, then in the understanding of social technology, the opinions of researchers differ. Analysis of different opinions about the essence of social technologies, - emphasizes Ivanov (1996), - shows that it is disclosed as a way of defining and using the hidden opportunities of a social system in strict compliance with social norms and the goals of its development.

The same position is accentuated by Patrushev (2008), who argues that

the socio-technological approach requires accommodation of the living variety of internal and external connections of social phenomena, large variety and naturalness of their changes, as well as focus on development of a person as a personality, on creating the opportunity to realize his own potential for each person, to deploy life forces. (p. 98)

The inclusion of a certain technology in the social process can be called the technologization of this process. Ivanov V.N. highlights several signs of technologization: delimitation, division of the process into phases, operations, stages; coordination and phasing of actions that are aimed at achieving predicted results; unambiguity of operations and procedures (Ivanov, 1996).

Problem Statement

A complete and detailed picture of social technologization involves the allocation and consideration of six aspects of social technologization (Danakin, 2013).

is associated with the setting of management goals, the formulation of corresponding tasks and measures to resolve them. The goal is the desired and achieved result of the activity; tasks, on the one hand, concretize the goal, on the other hand, set a series of activities. Measures, unlike goals and objectives, are characterized by "materiality", i.e. clear space-time frames, use of certain resources, etc. as well as discreteness, since the periods of their implementation cross with periods of inactivity.

includes a systematic analysis of the functions of the social process - real and potential, explicit and implicit, etc., their direction and relationship. System-functional analysis becomes the basis for decision - making focused on realizing the potential of some functions, restraining others and blocking others, as well as designing various functional compositions, including functional synergy.

is associated with the concept of self-regulation of social systems (processes), which involves: a) the presence of immanent sources of their functioning and development; b) the action of objective - dynamic and structural - patterns, on the basis of which appropriate requirements for purposeful activity can be formulated in the form of certain principles, rules, restrictions and prohibitions.

accents: firstly, the division of activity into a set of actions (operations) necessary and sufficient for its consistent implementation; secondly, the structural-functional and cause-and-effect integration of these actions (operations) into certain procedures with initial, intermediate and final stages.

includes a variety of means and methods (algorithms) for the implementation of activities, which are either in vertical (sequentially used), or in horizontal (alternatively used) spatial contexts.

expressing a certain organizational form of manifestation of all previous aspects, which gives them interconnectedness.

Research Questions

These aspects of social technologization, their combination gives a holistic view of its potential, conditions and prospects for practical implementation.

Turning directly to the social technologization of municipal project management, should be noted the normative and technological aspect for further analysis. At the same time, in normative aspect accents the most representative and meaningful “component” - the socio-technological principles of municipal project management.

This involves, i.e. initial and basic requirements for the disclosure and use of the social potential of project participants.

Purpose of the Study

is to determine the socio-technological principles of municipal project management, involving: a) their separation and identification, b) systematization, i.e. their presentation as elements of the social and normative system, c) description.

Research Methods

In preparing the article, a complex of general scientific, theoretical and empirical research methods was used. In addition to general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, methods of logical-semantic, problem and system analysis are used. Logical-semantic analysis is used to determine key concepts that express the specificity of the subject field of research.

In the article are used methods of sociological survey, in particular, methods of questionnaire and expert surveys. It would be appropriate to provide the data of sociological surveys carried out with our participation. These data refer to the motivation of municipal employees and popular participation in the assessment of municipal projects. According to the interviewed government employees (27.8%) and experts (26.3%), citizens who apply for job in local government bodies are most motivated by being beneficial to society and the state; 22.3% of municipal employees believe that citizens are guided by considerations of guaranteeing a permanent job and a stable position. It must be noted that 23.7% of experts also announced that citizens who apply for job in local government bodies are guided by the desire to take a prestigious place in society. Municipal employees and experts were also interviewed to determine what factors most affect the efficiency of municipal employees.

The experts were also asked to assess the extent to which the practice of civilian expertise is developed in the Belgorod region. The survey found that this practice is considered fully developed by only 7.0%, not sufficiently developed - by 47.9% and fully developed - by 18.3% of the respondents. The insufficiently disclosed potential of civilian expertise is evidenced by the intensity of the expert participation in the analysis of regional draft laws (25.4%), draft decisions of state and municipal authorities (29.6%), projects of regional and municipal programs (31.0%), personnel decisions (25.3%). At the same time, 76.0% of the respondents would like to participate in the civilian expertise procedure.


Theoretical and empirical analysis leads to the following conclusions regarding the system and content of socio-technological principles of municipal project management.

1. One of the principles of social technologization of project management can be the principle of problem orientation (Smirnov, 2016). In relation to the management of municipal projects, such difficulties can be called problems, for overcoming which everyday ways of activity and behavior are not enough. Non-standard solutions are needed, including the search and use of new resources and optimal methods of action. Task has a certain difficulty, but it can be overcome through the mobilization of available resources and the rational application of traditional methods.

2. Successful management of municipal projects is possible only if unity is achieved in the objectives and actions of the project participants. Achieving such unity is important for the success of any joint activity, particularly- for project activity, as it includes actions of individual participants, their strict coordination (spatial, temporal and functional). The principle of the unity of interests of project participants is manifested, in particular, in the integration of indicators of individual and institutional efficiency, thanks to which it is possible to eliminate or at least reduce the gap in indicators and methods for assessing individual and institutional efficiency, to ensure direct inclusion of the individual result (contribution) of the employee in the collective (institutional) result (Zakharov, 2016).

3. Municipal project management - the management of joint project activities of municipal workers includes accepted rules and regulations. Experience has shown that such norms and rules, are not always defined, and if they are defined, then they are not brought to the immediate offenders (Ivanycheva & Ivanychev, 2013). According to researchers, in the modern practice of managing the social development of territories, design technologies are not used actively enough, since there are no standards in the management of social projects (Verba & Ivanov, 2015). The decisive launch of the software-project system requires the immediate formulation of national standards for the management of social programs and projects

National project management standards promote (Kalinin, 2017; Osipov, 2016; Pekhova, 2011):

  • holistic view of the principles and rules of project management, final goals and objectives, project structure;
  • the legal fixation of managerial tasks and the distribution of participants in activities according to their areas of responsibility at different stages of the project;
  • determination of the accepted methods of management and implementation of projects, which guarantee the creative interaction of the participants in the activity;
  • the introduction of a methodological framework for training employees participating in project activities.

4. One of the key issues in the development of project activities in the authorities of municipal management, which has not yet received a satisfactory solution, is the challenge of integrating the functional (daily, operational) activities of municipal workers and their project (non-standard, creative, etc.) activities. Surveys show that these types of activities in many cases conflict, disturbed by another and sometimes mutually exclude each other (Mitrofanova & Zhukov, 2012; Zakharov, 2016). focuses on solving this important and urgent problem, according to which two levels (models) of management are highlighted: 1) project management and 2) management of current functional processes. Both of these levels (models) are integrated into activities of the same governing body or its subdivision. At the same time, in some divisions, design "components" can prevail, in others - process (functional) ones. While, the structural divisions of the governance body can be divided into design and functional (Zakharova, 2013).

5. Municipal project management is a highly socially significant activity, involving the interests of the local population and its various categories. In this regard, the observance of is important, orienting towards taking public opinion into account. By the way, for the first time this principle was formulated in relation to the socio-cultural design of the living environment (Sanoff, 2015). Its meaning: before the start of work on facility design, it should be made a set of work with the population, such as surveys, identifying the problems and wishes of residents, their opinion about the planned facility, its significance for the development of the living environment, holding PR campaigns, etc.

6. Project activities and municipal project management cause a new type of responsibility in the organization and governance body, called cumulative responsibility. M.P. Folett introduced the term "cumulative liability" (as cited in Worker, 2001). The meaning of this responsibility is to coordinate the work of employees of all divisions. Functions cannot exist separately from each other; therefore, the management is responsible for integrating activities with personnel and for transferring functional responsibilities (Abramov, 2005). “To be responsible for yourself and for that guy” - this is the main meaning of

7. In a view of the fact that participation in project activities is of a voluntary nature and that the very fact of participation imposes additional responsibility on initiators and performers, one should request to the motivation for this type of activity. involving the targeted use of a set of motivational factors, including material incentives for project participants, their status motivation, extensive use of competitive factors, as well as non-material incentives. Motivation is effective in the event that it is turned to the real needs of municipal employees and a set of factors that determine their quality of life, including the quality of working life (Smirnov, 2016).

The principle of motivation extends not only to municipal workers involved in project activities, but also to average citizen who come up with initiative projects or participate in the examination of proposed projects. The unused capacity of citizens' project activities, the need and possibility of using this potential is evidenced by the results of a sociological survey among Belgorod residents and an expert survey (Grazhdanskaja jekspertiza…, 2011).

8. focuses on the creation and implementation of opportunities for professional, career development of participants in project activities. An example of the successful use of this principle is the experience of assessing and encouraging participants in project activities of the Belgorod Region. The nature of this experience is the attributing ranks in the field of project management. A system has been introduced that includes four ranks for project specialists and three ranks for project managers. To date, 802 state and municipal employees of the Belgorod region have been attributed ranks in the field of project activities.

9. in relation to the municipal project management means, firstly, the establishment of necessary and sufficient connections for project management, and secondly, ensuring the cycling nature and the effectiveness of the design process. This principle also provides for a) differentiation of projects according to the degree of their similarity; b) a differentiated hierarchy of statuses and roles in the structure of project management; c) a differentiated assessment of the individual contributions of project participants; d) differentiated material and social-status motivation of the project participants (Savchenko, 2018).

10. The meaning of can be expressed by the formula "hurry up slowly." Project management is an innovative, creative management model that does not replace, but complements the existing management system, gives it a different focus. It takes a certain time to "painlessly" combine the design and functional management models, summarize their advantages, not disadvantages (Verba & Ivanov, 2015).


Thus, successful municipal project management claims observance of the principles of problem orientation, unity of interests, standardization, bimodal management, complicity, professional and civic initiative, cumulative responsibility, motivation, career development, gradualism. At the same time, problem-oriented signs require preliminary identification of problems that are regulated through the development and implementation of projects. The principle of unity of interests involve integrating efforts of participants in joint activities, the principle of standardization is the creation of a normative framework for project activities, the principle of bimodal management is the integration of functional and project activities, the principle of complicity is active and constructive participation of the local population in project activities. Social technologization of municipal project management is based on the professional and civil initiative of municipal employees, as well as the socially active part of the population. At the same time, it is important to respect for the principle of gradualism in associating the local population in project activities.


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Bozhenov, S. A., Danakin, N. S., & Konev, I. V. (2021). Socio-Technological Principles Of Municipal Project Management. In N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), Amurcon 2020: International Scientific Conference, vol 111. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 181-187). European Publisher.