The socio-economic development of the leading countries leads not only to the struggle of superpowers for spheres of influence, the intensity of the development of new technologies, but also causes the emergence of the most severe social risks and threats that requires special mobilization of forces from human beings. The COVID-19 pandemic that has swept the planet has forced people to talk about health problems again, but the real situation in the field of maintaining health of Russian population suggests that achieving of the set goals is not a matter of the near future. It is proved that the health of the nation is the most important indicator of the state of development of the economic, social and cultural spheres of the country, as well as its strategic potential, the condition of social stability and well-being. It has been established that the most powerful resource in improving the health of the nation, increasing the life expectancy of the population can be the recovery of widespread spa treatment system. It is argued that the maintaining of public health should be based on the consolidation of all interrelated areas of the state policy, among which the spa treatment is the most important one. The article presents the results of the analysis of physical and health-improving activities, which was carried out from January 2011 to January 2020 on the basis of the Sochinsky health resort of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: Health, heath resort sphere, physical and recreation activities
Analysis of statistical data shows that the disease incidence of the population, despite the measures taken by the government, is steadily growing. 95% of the adult population suffer from chronic diseases, 85% of schoolchildren have diseases and developmental disorders. As a result of disappointing tendencies, namely continuing aging, a high level of disablement and disease incidence, the population’s need for health resort rehabilitation programmes is increasing. According to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 60% of the adult population and 40% of children need health resort rehabilitation, but in fact the population’s needs for this type of services are met only by 5.9%. The reasons for this are predominantly socio-economic. The state, having transferred health resorts to the market sector, made them inaccessible for people; the collapsing infrastructure of a significant part of health resorts also cannot provide all services. Meanwhile, the statistics of more than one decade convincingly proves that spa treatment reduces the number of disease exacerbations of adults and young patients by 2-6 times, persistent and temporary disability is reduced by 2-3 times, the duration of active life and the working period of citizens increases.
The once successfully functioning health resort system shows a persistent tendency to destruction, and the state’s indifference to the ongoing processes leads to the loss of a powerful lever in solving the problems of improving the population’s health. Meanwhile, in the countries of Western Europe, the United States, where human health is the matter of special concern of the state, a high-level factor that achieves the maximum result, namely wellness is considered to be a health resort activity (Monteson & Singer, 2004; Mueller & Kaufmann, 2001) as a special branch of the economy that offers the consumer a wide range of services for a healthy lifestyle (Tabbachi, 2008).
There is a happy exception, such as the health resort of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, where military personnel, soldiers of Special Forces units who performed their civil duty in hotspots, as well as their families undergo treatment and rehabilitation (Antipieva, 2009; Gavrishchuk, 2012; Nesterova, 2006; Trishkin et al., 2016).
At the moment, the military health system has a significant number of regulatory documents governing various aspects of the organization of health resort treatment of military personnel; these documents help to control the organization of medical rehabilitation of military personnel of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Grebenyuk et al., 2005; Merzlikin et al., 2016a; Ponomarenko et al., 2015). Special attention is paid to the medical and psychological rehabilitation of military personnel (Belevitin et al., 2009). And yet the regulatory framework governing the organization of sanatorium treatment and recreational activities of health resorts has not been sufficiently developed at the federal level (Merzlikin et al., 2016b), in particular, no attention has been paid to such an important component of rehabilitation and recovery measures as physical culture and health activities, which greatly enhances the effect of medical procedures (Nikitina, 2014).
The subject of the research is physical culture and health-improving activity on the basis of the Sochinsky health resort.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the research is to study the experience of physical culture and health-improving activities of the Sochinsky health resort of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
- to study the number of people visited the gymnasiums of the health resort in the period from 2016 to 2019;
- to study the infrastructure of the Sochinsky health resort used for physical education and sports;
- to study the experience of attracting vacationers to physical culture and sports;
- to analyse the effectiveness of conducting morning therapeutic exercises in an unconventional form in the Sochinsky health resort.
To achieve the goal and solve the research problems, a set of complementary research methods was used such as methods of theoretical analysis (comparative, retrospective); diagnostic methods (questioning, interviewing, methods of studying and generalizing the experience of the Sochinsky health resort of the Ministry of Health of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation on attracting vacationers to various forms of work when conducting classes in the Department of physical therapy.
From January 2011 to January 2020, the research was conducted aimed at studying the effectiveness of the author’s programme in physical therapy.
In order to study the attitude of vacationers of the Sochinsky health resort of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation to therapeutic physical culture, a survey was conducted, in which 1,040 people took part, among them there were women and men from 36 to 65 years old, 140 people were from 25 to 35 years old.
The Sochinsky (formerly Voroshilovsky) health resort of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation has been functioning since May 1, 1934. Rich traditions of physical therapy were working out during its building, when the first sports grounds were being created. The management of the health resort always treated health-improving physical culture with respect. If an officer did not do morning exercises, he had to leave the resort. Until now, the gym wall bars and the old gymnastic set, which were used by prominent public figures, such as Marshals K. E. Voroshilov, G. K. Zhukov, I. S. Konev, D. T. Yazov and others, are carefully preserved in the department of physical therapy. Employees of the resort cherish this gymnastic set and believe that this sports equipment has a ‘sacral and magical effect that improves the health of vacationers.’
Health and wellness services are aimed at maintaining the health of vacationers. The potential of socio-economic and preventive effectiveness of resort rehabilitation is quite high.
The analysis of the number of vacationers who did therapeutic physical exercises in gyms, in the period from 2016 to 2019, showed an increase in the number of involved people from year to year. So, for example, there were 1,226 of such people (13.7% of all vacationers) in 2019, 1,098 people (13.7% of all vacationers) in 2018, 1,046 people (13% of all vacationers) in 2017.
37.3% of people treated in the sanatorium in 2016 were engaged in various forms of physical therapy, there were 47.3% in 2017 and 44.2% in 2018, respectively.
Groups were made up in accordance with the motor mode, nosological forms of the disease and the age of vacationers, i.e., a cardiological group, a group with diseases of the musculoskeletal system, a gynecological group and a group with posture disorders. Daily morning exercises and individual classes were held. There were 3,760 people (43.2%) in 2019, 3,378 people (38.8%) in 2018, 4,052 people (37%) in 2017.
Creating conditions for the development of physical culture is an important task of the Sochinsky health resort. Particular attention is paid to outside activities of vacationers. Health activities in the sanatorium include physical therapy, both therapeutic gymnastics (individual, collective, with and without sports equipment, in water) and short-range tourism, swimming, dancing, aerobics, sports games.
The experience of participating in sports and mass events on the territory of the sanatorium allows people to maintain and improve their health, increase their vitality, improve their mood, show sociability, and increase the number of their acquaintances. In this regard, the organization of modern forms of work with vacationers becomes relevant.
Since 2011, the department of physical therapy has been adapting the author’s programme, which includes morning remedial gymnastics in an unconventional form.
The purpose and objectives of the programme are to maintain and improve the health of vacationers, relieve stress factors that affect the psychophysical state of a person, reduce neuropsychiatric and psychophysical fatigue.
The main functions that the programme provides are adaptive (transition from everyday life to leisure), compensatory (liberation of a person from mental and physical fatigue), stabilizing (formation of positive emotions), health-improving (restoration of psychophysical capabilities of a person).
In his work, a physical education instructor relies on a number of principles, namely accessibility, individuality, biological expediency.
An integrated approach implies an intellectual and motor component. Physical therapy classes are intended to be used both for doing physical exercises, playing sports games, and for providing people with knowledge, aimed at expanding the horizons of vacationers in the field of physical culture and sports. For this purpose, additional lectures are held on a healthy lifestyle, on the role of motor activity in the life of an adult.
Classes are held daily and include general developmental exercises for different muscle groups. The load is adjusted individually depending on the character of the disease. Different types of exercises are used, i.e., pair exercises (a man and a woman) and exercises in a circle, when the people take each other by their hands. The information about the technique of self-massage, psycho-training is given.
For people of mature age, exercises are chosen to increase the mobility of their joints and spine, breathing exercises, exercises for relaxation, relieving tension from various muscle groups.
The peculiarity of the form and composition of the lesson is the alternation of exercises in a circle, in pairs and individually. All vacationers especially love the carousel exercise, men and women do exercises standing opposite each other at different ends of the hall, then change places. Further, the exercises are performed in pairs. In pairs, they move around in a circle and perform exercises in motion. The duration of one lesson is up to 45 minutes. The time varies depending on the age and health of a person. Classes are conducted by a physician in physical therapy. The emphasis is on exercise safety and injury prevention.
The program is designed for people of different ages.
The program is based on an integrated approach using the physical culture and cognitive component. The combination of various means of physical culture is directed towards solving the problems of a person’s health in a complex.
The program is designed in such a way that vacationers of different ages can study at the same time. An additional element of the programme is a musical accompaniment made up of domestic melodies familiar and close to different generations of participants in the rehabilitation programme. The analysis of special literature and practical experience has shown that the physiological effect of music is based on the connection of rhythmic sound vibrations with the sensation of movement. This connection contributes to the involuntary occurrence of auditory-motor coordination of the movements performed to the music. The human body is able to assimilate rhythms imposed from the outside, adjusting to the rhythm of a familiar song and music. Classes according to the proposed game are sped up or slowed down in accordance with the musical harmony.
Work experience and continuous observations of vacationers showed that those who completed a full course of health-improving gymnastics (21 days) felt an improvement in mood (90%), cognitive and physical activity increased by 38%, blood pressure normalized (89%), 15% vacationers noted a slight weight loss. After classes, 100% of the respondents noted removal of emotional and muscle tension, a strong desire to continue doing physical exercises after the end of the treatment. A questionnaire survey of vacationers in the Sochinsky health resort has showed that getting a new experience, the ability to integrate cognitive and physical activity, significantly affects the functional and mental state of a person. The conducted functional studies and psychological tests confirm the effectiveness of the physical rehabilitation programme carried out in the sanatorium. Exercising in a circle and in pairs increases communication skills, helps to overcome complexes, unites people, relieves tension, trains attention, improves mood. Vacationers believe that this is an effective method of solving social and everyday problems, one of the methods of relaxation, which has a particularly positive effect in the treatment of increased irritability, anxiety, and fatigue.
The experience of conducting therapeutic gymnastics in an unconventional form, using domestic melodies, has shown that this work is able to harmonize the personality of vacationers, inspire them to lead an active healthy lifestyle, and get joy from movements. Active movements in combination with the procedures offered by the sanatorium form positive emotions and have a beneficial effect on human health.
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21 June 2021
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Vorotilkina, I. M., Nevelichko, L. G., Bogachenko, N. G., & Kariyev, A. D. (2021). Social Significance Of Physical Culture And Health-Improving Programmes In Heath Resort Sphere. In & N. G. Bogachenko (Ed.), Amurcon 2020: International Scientific Conference, vol 111. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 149-154). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.06.03.20